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A  COmi  ON  THE  MARCH   ' 

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-     FLORA  ANN    LEE'  - 




Copyright,  1949,  by 
The  University  of  North  Carolina  Press 

Manufactured  in  the  United  States  of  America 

VAN   REES   press    •    NEW   YORK 



The  year  1949  is  the  looth  anniversary  of  Forsyth  County 
and  of  its  county  seat,  Winston.  It  marks  the  completion  of 
a  century  of  achievement  in  our  community. 

These  past  100  years  have  seen  the  birth  of  Forsyth  County 
and  the  joining  of  the  quaint  old  town  of  Salem  in  191 3  with 
the  newer  industrial  city  of  Winston.  During  this  span  of 
years  our  smaller  towns  have  also  flourished,  and  rural  Forsyth 
County  has  assumed  a  position  of  leadership  in  the  State. 

Dr.  Adelaide  Fries  and  her  able  associates  in  the  writing  of 
this  book  not  only  have  given  us  an  accurate  history  of  our 
County  but  also  have  captured  magnificently  the  energy  of 
its  founders,  the  surge  of  its  new  blood,  and  the  cooperative 
spirit  of  its  people. 

James  A.  Gray,  Jr.,  Chairman 
Forsyth  County  Centennial  Committee 


Foreword,  by  James  A.  Gray,  Jr., 

Chairman  Forsyth  County  Centennial 

Committee  v 

I.  A  Fifth-Generation  County  3 

By  Adelaide  L.  Fries 

II.  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth  ^7 

By  Adelaide  L.  Fries 

III.  Around  Salem  Square  29 

By  Adelaide  L.  Fries 

IV.  Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston  59 

By  Mary  C.  Wiley 

V.  Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  121 

By  Douglas  L.  Rights 

VI.  Rural  Forsyth  H3 

By  Harvey  Dinkins 

VII.  A  Center  of  Industry  i  ^9 

By  Chas.  N.  Siewers 

VIII.  Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  i99 

By  Flora  Ann  Lee 

The  Contributors  ^^9 

Index  231 



IMPROBABLE  as  it  sounds,  it  is  a  fact  that  the  pioneers 
in  this  immediate  section  of  North  CaroHna  selected 
their  land  in  Anson  County,  settled  in  Rowan  County, 
and  went  through  the  Revolutionary  War  in  Surry 
County;  their  descendants  were  in  Stokes  County  during  the 
War  of  1 8 1 2  and  the  Mexican  War,  and  volunteered  for  Con- 
federate service  from  Forsyth  County— and  yet  the  location 
never  changed! 

The  explanation  is  that  the  area  which  is  now  Forsyth  was 
always  in  the  piece  that  was  cut  off  when  a  large  county  was 
divided;  always  it  saw  the  other  part  of  the  county  keep  the 
name  and  the  record  books;  always  it  was  in  the  new  county, 
with  a  new  county  seat,  and  a  new  set  of  county  records. 

Behind  this  development  there  was  a  story  a  century  and  a 
quarter  long.  It  began  in  the  days  when  the  kings  of  England 
knew  that  a  large  part  of  America  had  been  claimed  for  them, 
but  knew  practically  nothing  about  it— and  cared  less.  So  in 
1629  King  Charles  I  gave  to  his  attorney  general,  Sir  Robert 
Heath,  a  large  part  of  English  America,  on  the  condition  that 
he  take  steps  to  colonize  it. 

This  was  not  done,  and  so  the  Heath  title  was  declared 
void.  Then,  in  1663,  Charles  II  gave  "Carolina"  to  eight  Eng- 
lish lords.  Two  years  later  he  enlarged  his  gift,  and  they  be- 
came possessed  of  the  land  from  Virginia  to  a  point  half  way 
down  the  Florida  peninsula,  and  from  the  Atlantic  Ocean  "as 
far  west  as  the  continent  doth  extend  itself,"  and  neither  the 
king  nor  the  new  owners  knew  how  far  that  was  or  where  it 

Gradually  settlers  drifted  into  the  eastern  part  along  the 
Atlantic  seaboard,  and  a  colonial  government  was  set  up.  But 
there  was  little  profit  and  much  annoyance  for  the  eight  Lords 
Proprietors,  as  they  were  called,  and  in  1728  the  heirs  or 
assignees  of  seven  of  the  original  eight  Proprietors  sold  their 
interests  to  the  Crown  and  ceased  to  think  of  Carolina. 

John,  Lord  Carteret,  Earl  Granville,  son  of  the  eighth 

4  Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Proprietor,  decided  not  to  sell,  and  his  one-eighth  part  was  laid 
off  for  him  adjoining  Virginia.  The  southern  hne  was  placed 
at  35°  34'  north  latitude;  the  eastern  boundary  was  the  Atlantic 
Ocean;  the  western  was  still  that  unknown  limit  of  the  con- 
tinent. Granville  set  up  a  land  office  in  Edenton,  which  sold 
land  to  settlers  who  wished  to  come  into  his  territory;  the 
colonial  government  issued  land  grants  in  the  name  of  the  king 
for  land  outside  the  Granville  holdings. 

As  the  years  passed,  settlements  spread  inland  from  the 
Atlantic  coast,  and  counties  were  organized  and  secured  repre- 
sentation in  the  colonial  Assembly.  Then  other  settlers  drifted 
down  from  Virginia  and  Pennsylvania  to  find  new  homes  in 
piedmont  Carolina.  By  1749  these  settlers  had  become  suffi- 
ciently numerous  to  want  a  county  of  their  own,  and  Anson 
County  was  erected,  cut  from  the  eastern  counties  by  a  line 
running  approximately  north  and  south  from  Virginia  to 
South  Carolina,  following  the  watershed  about  half  way  be- 
tween the  Haw  River  and  the  Yadkin  River.  It  included  both 
the  Granville  and  the  Crown  lands.  The  deeds  and  grants  made 
by  the  two  land  offices  are  the  only  remaining  evidences  of 
real  estate  transactions  of  the  first  four  years  of  Anson  County, 
for  the  Anson  courthouse  burned,  and  all  the  early  records 
there  were  lost. 

Earl  Granville  never  came  to  America,  but  continued  to  five 
in  England.  There  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  various  leaders 
of  the  Moravian  Church,  and  he  suggested  that  they  buy  land 
in  his  section  of  North  Carolina  and  establish  a  settlement 
there.  At  that  time  Carolina  was  an  EngHsh  colony,  and  the 
Church  of  England  was  the  state  church  of  North  Carohna; 
so  Granville's  suggestion  to  the  Moravians  may  have  been 
influenced  by  the  fact  that  in  1749  the  English  ParHament 
made  a  very  thorough  investigation  of  the  Moravian  Church, 
its  history,  its  doctrine,  and  its  episcopate,  and  passed  an  act 
giving  it  full  standing  in  the  English  colonies,  where,  as  in 
England,  the  Dissenters  (all  other  Protestant  denominations) 

A  Fifth-Generation  County  5 

labored  under  civil  and  ecclesiastical  handicaps.  Granville 
offered  the  land  on  the  usual  terms,  namely,  a  cash  payment 
and  an  annual  quitrent  forever,  but  waived  the  usual  allot- 
ment of  land  according  to  "head  rights"  and  told  the  Moravians 
to  select  what  they  wanted,  and  the  number  of  acres  they 
wanted,  regardless  of  the  number  of  settlers  sent  at  any  given 

In  the  later  summer  of  1752,  in  accordance  with  instruc- 
tions received  from  the  leaders  of  the  Moravian  Church  in 
England,  Bishop  August  Gottlieb  Spangenberg  and  five  com- 
panions set  out  on  horseback  from  Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania, 
commissioned  to  find  a  suitable  tract  for  the  proposed  settle- 
ment. They  rode  along  the  coast  of  Maryland  and  Virginia, 
crossed  the  bay  to  North  Carolina,  stopped  at  Edenton  to 
interview  Sir  Francis  Corbin,  Earl  Granville's  agent,  and  set 
out  toward  the  west,  accompanied  by  William  Churton,  the 
Granville  surveyor.  The  journey  was  a  long  and  adventurous 
one.  Spangenberg's  diary  gives  many  details.  They  ate  corn 
on  the  cob  with  the  Tuscarora  Indians;  were  delayed  by 
severe  attacks  of  fever  caught  in  Edenton;  found  no  suitable 
land  along  the  Trading  Path;  suffered  in  a  snow-storm  in  the 
Blue  Ridge  mountains;  lost  their  way;  followed  their  compass 
back  to  civilization;  and  at  last  were  directed  by  a  lone  settler 
to  the  land  in  "the  three  forks  of  Muddy  Creek,"  a  tributary 
of  the  Yadkin  River.  There  they  selected  a  tract  of  nearly  one 
hundred  thousand  acres,  which  was  surveyed  as  a  whole  and 
also  as  divided  into  nineteen  separate  tracts,  the  latter  at  the 
suggestion  of  Churton,  who  thought  it  might  simplify  matters 
if  trouble  arose  over  payment  of  the  quitrents. 

Spangenberg  suggested  the  name  Der  Wachau  for  this 
tract,  because  he  thought  that  its  hills  and  valleys  resembled 
the  terrain  in  an  estate  of  that  name  in  south  Austria,  an  estate 
which  belonged  to  the  family  of  the  Count  Nicholas  Lewis 
von  Zinzendorf,  who  did  so  much  for  the  Moravian  Church 
of  the  eighteenth  century.  This  German  name  was  used  for 

6  Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

many  years  whenever  the  Moravian  settlers  wrote  in  the  Ger- 
man language;  but  they  preferred  the  Latin  form  of  the  name, 
Wachovia,  when  they  wrote  in  English.  Naturally,  it  is  the 
Latin-English  form  of  the  name  which  has  endured. 

Traced  on  a  modern  map  of  Forsyth  County  this  Wachovia 
Tract  would  extend  from  Rural  Hall  to  a  few  feet  north  of 
Friedberg  Moravian  church;  the  east  line  would  touch  Wal- 
kertown;  on  the  west  it  would  be  a  series  of  angles  west  of 
Muddy  Creek.  The  surveyor's  rules  of  1752  permitted  only 
straight  north-south,  east-west  lines  and  right  angles. 

Spangenberg  went  to  England  to  report  on  his  journey,  and 
while  he  was  gone  Anson  County  was  divided  by  an  east-west 
line,  the  south  line  of  the  Granville  land.  The  Crown  land  to 
the  south  retained  the  name;  the  north  part  became  Rowan 
County,  with  Salisbury  as  the  county  seat.  The  Granville  (or 
Rowan  County)  line  remains  on  the  map  of  North  Carolina 
in  the  south  line  of  Randolph,  Davidson,  Rowan,  and  Iredell 
counties.  The  east  line  was  made  to  run  due  north  to  the  Vir- 
ginia line,  instead  of  following  the  watershed.  The  west  line 
was  still  the  unknown  boundary  of  the  continent. 

It  was  into  Rowan  County,  therefore,  that  the  Moravian 
settlers  came  in  November,  1753.  The  Wachovia  Tract  had 
been  duly  purchased  from  Earl  Granville,  and  the  original 
deeds  were  kept  in  England;  but  official  copies,  on  parchment, 
certified  by  the  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  with  his  great  seal 
attached,  were  brought  to  America,  and  were  recorded  in 

The  purchase  of  so  large  a  tract,  and  the  initial  expenses  of 
settlement,  would  have  laid  an  impossible  burden  on  the 
Moravian  Church,  already  staggering  under  the  expense  of  its 
rapidly  expanding  continental  work  and  its  scattered  mission 
fields.  It  was  financed,  therefore,  through  an  especially  or- 
ganized land  company,  which  worked  very  successfully. 
Shareholders  bore  all  the  early  expenses,  and  each  received 
two  thousand  acres  of  the  Tract,  certain  areas  being  reserved 

A  Fifth-Generation  County  7 

for  the  proposed  congregations.  Of  these  shareholders  only 
one,  Traugott  Bagge,  came  to  Wachovia  in  person;  his  land 
lay  at  the  northeast  corner  of  the  Tract,  in  what  is  now  Salem 
Chapel  township.  The  shares  of  some  of  the  shareholders  were 
sold  for  them  through  the  years;  others  presented  their  shares 
to  the  Moravian  Church,  which  sold  the  land  as  seemed  wise, 
for  the  benefit  of  that  church. 

The  Moravian  settlers  who  reached  Wachovia  on  Novem- 
ber 17,  1753,  found  an  abandoned  log  hut,  and  gladly  used  it 
as  a  temporary  shelter.  Finding  good  land  there  they  remained, 
and  there  they  passed  through  the  experiences  of  the  war  with 
the  Cherokee  Indians,  a  sequel  to  the  French  and  Indian  War 
of  the  northern  colonies.  During  those  trying  years  a  number 
of  men,  women,  and  children  came  to  their  stockade  from  the 
scattered  farms  outside  of  Wachovia;  and  at  the  suggestion  of 
some  of  them  the  village  of  Bethania  was  begun  in  1759,  ^^  a 
distance  of  three  miles  from  the  parent  village  of  Bethabara, 
which  had  grown  up  around  the  first  little  log  hut. 

The  Moravian  settlement  was  the  result  of  a  definite  plan, 
but  the  neighboring  farmers  had  followed  the  more  usual 
custom  of  the  frontier  and  had  taken  their  lands  along  the 
larger  streams,  the  Town  Fork  of  Dan  River,  the  Yadkin 
River,  and  the  smaller  streams  south  of  the  Wachovia  Tract. 
Best  known  among  the  men  in  the  latter  group  was  Adam 
Spach,  who  had  made  the  acquaintance  of  the  Moravians  in 
Maryland,  and  who  took  up  land  as  close  as  he  could  get  to 
the  Wachovia  Tract  in  order  to  be  near  them  in  North 

Gradually  the  settlers  in  Rowan  County  increased,  and 
those  who  lived  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county  found  it 
very  inconvenient  to  be  so  far  from  Salisbury,  the  county 
town.  They  therefore  petitioned  the  Assembly  to  divide  the 

The  Moravians  by  this  time  had  founded  a  third  village, 
Salem,  in  the  center  of  their  Tract,  and  they  asked  that  their 

8  Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

convenience  might  be  considered  and  that  the  new  Hne  should 
be  run  so  as  not  to  divide  their  land.  Disregarding  this  request, 
the  Assembly  ordered  the  new  line  run  at  a  point  which  was 
supposed  to  cut  Rowan  County  in  half,  though  it  also  divided 
the  Wachovia  Tract.  The  act  was  passed  in  177 1,  but  when 
the  line  was  surveyed  it  appeared  that  it  ran  between  Bethab- 
ara  and  Salem,  leaving  the  latter  in  Rowan  County,  while 
only  a  few  small  villages  and  the  scattered  farms  fell  into  the 
new  county  of  Surry.  Amazed  consternation  filled  the  minds 
of  the  Surry  County  citizens,  who  did  not  see  how  it  would 
be  possible  to  cover  the  expenses  of  the  new  county  without 
the  Salem  taxes,  and  for  two  years  there  was  much  anxious 

During  this  period  two  other  Moravian  centers  were  estab- 
lished, both  in  the  Rowan  section  of  the  Wachovia  Tract. 
One  group  came  from  what  was  then  known  as  the  Broadbay 
Plantation  in  Massachusetts  (now  Waldoboro,  Maine,)  and 
they  settled  at  what  is  now  called  Friedland.  The  other,  an 
English-speaking  group  from  Maryland,  settled  in  what  is 
now  the  Hope  neighborhood  in  the  southwest  part  of  the 

In  1773  these  two  smaller  settlements  and  the  town  of 
Salem  became  part  of  Surry  County.  The  leaders  of  Salem 
agreed  to  join  in  the  movement  to  place  the  county  line  six 
miles  south  of  the  line  of  177 1,  on  condition  that  the  Wacho- 
via Tract  as  a  whole  should  be  in  Surry  County.  This  accounts 
for  the  three  offsets  in  the  present  south  line  of  Forsyth 
County;  a  straight  east-west  line  would  have  been  an  exten- 
sion of  the  south  Hne  of  Lewisville  township. 

The  county  seat  of  Rowan  remained  at  Salisbury,  but  for 
Surry  a  new  place  was  selected,  which  was  named  Richmond. 
It  was  quite  near  the  present  village  of  Donnaha,  in  the  north- 
west corner  of  Forsyth  County,  and  this  was  the  county  seat 
during  the  Revolutionary  War. 

The  story  of  Richmond  was  dramatic,  but  short,  for  in 

A  Fifth-Generation  County  9 

1789  Surry  County  was  divided  by  a  north-south  line,  and 
new  courthouse  sites  were  selected,  Rockford  in  Surry 
County,  and  Germanton  in  Stokes  County.  The  Surry  County 
courthouse  records  were  moved  from  old  Richmond  to  Rock- 
ford;  Stokes  County  set  up  new  records  on  her  own  account. 
The  area  now  called  Forsyth  was  mostly  in  the  new  county 
of  Stokes,  but  straight  lines  were  still  the  custom,  and  the  new 
line  crossed  and  recrossed  the  Yadkin  in  an  annoying  fashion. 
As  a  result  Stokes  had  a  long  narrow  strip  west  of  the  river 
on  the  Surry  side;  Surry  had  a  C-shaped  tract  east  of  the  river 
on  the  Stokes  side;  and  Stokes  had  a  small  triangle  south  of 
the  river  in  the  part  of  Rowan  which  became  Davie  County. 
In  each  case  these  detached  pieces  could  be  reached  only  by 
boat,  for  there  were  no  bridges. 

In  December,  1796,  the  Assembly  changed  the  line  between 
Surry  and  Stokes,  giving  to  Surry  the  long  narrow  strip  lying 
on  the  west  side  of  the  Yadkin,  the  river  becoming  the  bound- 
ary there.  The  Act  of  Assembly  calls  it  the  land  "south  of 
the  Yadkin,"  but  old  deeds  show  that  for  many  years  every- 
thing on  the  right-hand  bank  of  the  Yadkin  River,  looking 
down  stream,  was  called  "south"  of  the  Yadkin,  regardless  of 
the  actual  direction. 

For  fifty  years  the  county  of  Stokes  remained  practically 
unchanged.  The  War  of  18 12  and  the  Mexican  War  made 
but  slight  demand  upon  the  people,  though  the  former  called 
the  attention  of  the  nation  to  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth.  The 
population  increased  slowly,  but  it  did  increase,  and  finally  the 
Assembly  of  1848- 1849  was  petitioned  to  divide  it. 

The  act  dividing  Stokes  County  bears  date  of  ratification, 
January  16,  1849.  The  Act  is  printed  in  full  in  the  Laws  of 
the  State  of  North  Carolina  passed  by  the  General  Assembly 
at  the  Session  of  1848-4P,  published  in  Raleigh  in  1849  by 
Thomas  J.  Lemay,  Printer— Star  Ofiice. 

The  act  provided  for  a  line  "beginning  at  the  South  West 
corner  of  Rockingham  county,  and  running  thence  West  to 

lo  Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

the  Surry  county  line."  It  was  further  enacted:  "That  all  that 
part  of  the  said  county  lying  North  of  said  line,  shall  be 
erected  into  a  distinct  county  by  the  name  of  Stokes  county; 
and  all  that  part  lying  South  of  the  said  line  shall  be  erected 
into  another  distinct  county  by  the  name  of  Forsyth  county, 
in  honor  of  the  memory  of  Col.  Benjamin  Forsyth,  a  native  of 
Stokes  county,  who  fell  on  the  Northern  frontier,  in  the  late 
war  with  England." 

A  supplemental  act,  passed  at  the  same  session  of  the  As- 
sembly, appointed  Caleb  Jones,  Frederick  Minung  (Meinung), 
and  John  Banner  to  run  the  dividing  line,  named  county  com- 
missioners for  each  county,  and  provided  the  necessary  ma- 
chinery for  setting  up  the  two  county  governments. 

The  commissioners  for  Forsyth  County  were  Zadock  Staf- 
ford, John  Stafford,  Henry  A.  Lemly,  Leonard  Conrad,  and 
Francis  Fries.  These  commissioners  selected  Francis  Fries  as 

It  so  happened  that  Salem  lay  almost  in  the  center  of  the 
new  county  of  Forsyth,  and  Salem  Congregation  owned  about 
three  thousand  acres  of  the  Wachovia  Tract,  includinor  and 
surrounding  the  town.  The  act  of  the  legislature  ordained 
that  not  less  than  thirty  acres  should  be  secured  for  the  county 
seat;  so  the  commissioners  applied  to  the  Salem  church  boards 
for  that  amount  of  the  Salem  land. 

Opinion  in  the  Salem  Congregation  divided  sharply  as  to 
this  sale.  The  conservatives  feared  the  disturbances  that  would 
be  caused  by  the  sometimes  unruly  crowds  that  gathered  on 
court  days,  and  particularly  objected  to  the  idea  of  a  whipping 
post,  whipping  being  still  the  legal  punishment  for  many 
illegal  acts.  On  the  other  hand,  the  progressives  feared  that  to 
place  the  county  seat  some  four  miles  away  would  kill  Salem 
economically,  for  a  new  town  would  grow  up  around  the 

The  progressives  won,  and  an  agreement  was  reached 
whereby  Salem  Congregation  agreed  to  sell  the  new  county 

A  Fifth-Generation  County  ii 

thirty-one  acres,  north  of  a  stipulated  line.  Before  the  sale  was 
concluded,  the  amount  of  land  was  increased  to  fifty-one  and 
a  quarter  acres,  the  price  per  acre  to  be  five  dollars,  the  cur- 
rent price  for  unimproved  land.  The  deed  to  this  courthouse 
tract  was  dated  May  12,  1849,  and  title  was  transferred  from 
Charles  F.  Kluge,  the  proprietor  (trustee)  acting  for  the  Con- 
gregation, to  Francis  Fries,  chairman  of  the  board  of  county 
commissioners,  and  his  successors  in  office. 

It  had  been  agreed  between  the  parties  that  the  streets  of  the 
new  town  should  be  continuations  of  the  Salem  streets,  and 
that  the  courthouse  should  be  erected  at  the  highest  point  on 
the  Main  Street,  but  only  two  conditions  were  written  into 
the  deed.  By  one,  provision  was  made  for  the  school  commit- 
tee of  the  district  to  have  the  lot  on  which  a  small  free-school 
house  stood.  By  the  other  condition,  Thomas  J.  Wilson  was  to 
have  a  deed  for  his  lot  as  soon  as  he  finished  paying  for  it. 

Until  the  new  courthouse  could  be  built  the  Salem  church 
boards  allowed  the  courts  to  use  the  Concert  Hall  in  Salem, 
the  county  paying  a  reasonable  rent  for  it.  It  was  expressly 
understood  that  no  whippings  should  take  place  in  Salem,  and 
that  if  any  was  ordered  by  the  court  it  should  be  done  some- 
where outside  the  town.  The  sheriff  *'let  out  to  the  lowest 
bidder  the  furnishing  of  sawdust,  candles,  etc.,  for  the  Court 
at  the  Town  Hall  in  Salem,"  at  so  much  per  court. 

On  March  19,  1849,  sixteen  ''Gentlemen  Justices,  appointed 
and  commissioned  by  the  Governor  of  the  State,"  met  in  the 
Concert  Hall,  and  elected  for  the  ensuing  year: 

Sheriff— William  Flynt; 

Clerk  of  the  Court— Andrew  J.  Stafford; 

County  Attorney— Thomas  J.  Wilson; 

Register  of  Deeds— F.  C.  Meinung; 

County  Trustee— George  Linville; 

Coronor— John  H.  White; 

Standard  Keeper— Abraham  Steiner. 

12  Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

All  of  the  justices  were  entitled  to  sit  in  the  Court  of  Pleas 
and  Quarter  Sessions,  but  they  were  permitted  to  elect  a 
chairman  and  several  members  to  serve  for  all.  On  March  20, 
therefore,  the  justices  elected  as  the  special  court:  Francis 
Fries,  chairman,  Philip  Barrow,  Andrew  M.  Gamble,  John 
Reich,  and  Jesse  A.  Waugh.  The  finance  committee  elected 
consisted  of  C.  L.  Banner,  Israel  G.  Lash,  and  Francis  Fries. 

In  December,  F.  C.  Meinung,  C.  L.  Banner,  and  Michael 
Hauser  were  appointed  to  select  a  site  for  a  "Poor  House"; 
and  in  May,  1850,  about  ninety  acres  were  bought,  three  and 
a  half  miles  northeast  of  the  courthouse  tract,  on  the  road  to 

In  earlier  days  the  counties  were  divided  into  "Captains 
Districts,"  partly  for  militia  organization  and  partly  for  tax 
districts.  In  1869  the  legislature  changed  the  system,  and  under 
the  new  law  Forsyth  County  was  divided  into  townships, 
receiving  names  which  are  still  in  use.  Perhaps  the  only  name 
which  would  puzzle  one  who  studies  the  map  is  Broadbay, 
which  is  a  reminder  of  the  generally  forgotten  fact  that  the 
first  settlers  there  came  from  the  Broadbay  Plantation  in  New 

No  attention  was  paid  to  the  inconvenient  western  bound- 
ary of  Forsyth  County  for  a  number  of  years,  but  in  1889 
the  legislature  transferred  from  Davidson  to  Forsyth  County 
the  land  lying  between  Lewisville  and  South  Fork  townships 
and  the  Yadkin  River,  and  this  became  Clemmonsville  town- 
ship. This  transfer  obliterated  a  number  of  the  angles  which 
the  act  of  1773  made  in  the  south  line  of  Surry  County,  in- 
herited by  Stokes  County,  and  then  by  Forsyth  County. 

One  more  angle  was  wiped  out  by  the  act  of  the  legislature 
of  192 1  when  a  wedge-shaped  piece  of  Davidson  County  was 
added  to  the  south  side  of  Abbotts  Creek  township  in  Forsyth 

Seventy  acres  of  "forgotten"  land  belonging  to  Forsyth 
County  lay  south  of  the  Yadkin  River  in  Davie  County,  and 

A  Fifth-Generation  County  13 

in  1925  the  legislature  transferred  this  small  triangle  from 
Forsyth  to  the  county  in  which  it  belonged,  geographically 

This  left  the  C-shaped  segment,  popularly  called  Little 
Yadkin,  cut  from  Yadkin  County  by  the  river.  (The  southern 
part  of  Surry  County  had  become  Yadkin  County.)  In  191 1 
the  legislature  transferred  from  Yadkin  to  Forsyth  a  small 
triangle  at  the  north  end  of  the  segment,  in  order  to  enable 
both  counties  to  participate  in  the  building  of  a  bridge  across 
the  river.  In  1926  the  commissioners  of  Forsyth  County 
agreed  to  buy  from  Yadkin  County  the  land  known  as  Little 
Yadkin.  The  legislature  of  1927  altered  the  county  line  in 
accord  with  this  agreement  and  authorized  the  Forsyth  com- 
missioners to  pay  Yadkin  commissioners  the  stipulated  sum 
of  seventy  thousand  dollars. 

After  one  hundred  and  thirty-eight  years  the  river  had 
ceased  to  run  back  and  forth  across  the  county  line,  and  the 
Yadkin  had  become  the  boundary  of  Forsyth  County  on  the 
west  and  southwest. 



VERY  little  is  known  of  the  early  life  of  Benjamin 
Forsyth,  for  whom  Forsyth  County  was  named. 
Family  tradition  says  that  he  was  the  son  of  James 
and  Elizabeth  Forsyth.  The  date  and  place  of  his 
birth  are  not  known,  but  he  seems  to  have  been  born  in  the 
early  1760's,  and  probably  in  Virginia.  The  Forsyth  name,  in 
various  spellings,  appears  in  Virginia  from  time  to  time,  begin- 
ning as  early  as  1 649,  in  which  year  a  John  Forsith  was  one 
of  a  group  of  forty  persons  transported  to  Virginia  by 
Edmund  Scarborough,  Jr.,  patentee  for  two  thousand  acres 
of  land  in  Northampton  County. 

There  is  evidence  that  Benjamin  Forsyth's  father  died  when 
the  boy  was  still  young,  and  that  his  mother  then  married  a 
man  by  the  name  of  Whitworth  and  had  at  least  one  son, 
Edward,  and  probably  other  children. 

That  Benjamin  received  some  education  is  certain,  for  his 
signature  to  a  deed  dated  in  1801  is  much  better  written  than 
many  of  the  signatures  of  that  day. 

Circumstantial  evidence  suggests  that  Benjamin  Forsyth 
Hved  in  St.  Martin's  Parish,  Hanover  County,  Virginia,  before 
coming  to  North  Carolina.  Only  two  deed  books  in  Hanover 
County  escaped  destruction  during  the  Civil  War,  but  in  one 
of  them  there  are  deeds  showing  that  between  1786  and  1788 
a  Benjamin  Forsyth  sold  one  tract  of  land,  bought  and  sold 
another  tract,  and  bought  a  larger  tract  of  960  acres,  which 
he  still  owned  when  his  name  disappeared  with  the  end  of  the 

The  Benjamin  Forsyth  who  lived  in  Stokes  County,  North 
Carolina,  from  1794  to  the  day  on  which  he  left  for  the  front 
in  the  War  of  18 12,  must  have  come  with  money  in  his 
pocket,  for  he  first  appears  in  the  taking  of  a  deed  for  a  tract 
bid  in  for  him  at  sheriff's  sale;  and  this  purchase  was  followed 
in  the  same  month  of  December,  1794,  by  the  purchase  of 
another  tract  for  which  he  paid  £260. 

For  the  next  seventeen  years  Benjamin  Forsyth  bought  and 


1 8  Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

sold  land  industriously.  The  Stokes  County  deed  books  show 
thirty-four  purchases.  Of  these,  three  were  at  sheriff's  sales, 
nineteen  wxre  grants  from  the  state  of  North  Carolina,  and 
twelve  were  for  tracts  bought  from  individuals.  There  are 


forty  of  his  sales  recorded,  which  makes  a  total  of  seventy- 
four  transactions  listed.  This  is  most  unusual,  for  in  those  days 
many  men  did  not  trouble  to  probate  and  record  their  deeds, 
since  sales  and  purchases  were  legal,  and  valid  indefinitely, 
without  registration.  Possession  of  the  deed  itself  held  the  title. 

The  rapidity  of  this  turn-over  in  his  early  years  in  North 
Carolina  indicates  that  Forsyth  carried  on  a  land  brokerage 
business.  Sometimes  he  listed  only  a  few  acres  for  taxation; 
in  1802  he  listed  8,000  acres.  In  18 10  he  listed  3,000  acres  and 
7  black  polls,  his  own  white  poll,  and  a  lot  in  Germanton, 
which  he  had  owned  for  some  years.  In  1 8 1 1  his  taxes  were 
"not  given  in,"  and  then  his  name  disappears  from  the  tax 
books.  Perhaps  he  sold  most  or  all  of  his  slaves  and  real  estate 
before  leaving  for  the  war. 

In  1797  Benjamin  Forsyth  married  Bethemia  Ladd,  daugh- 
ter of  Constantine  Ladd.  His  marriage  bond  is  dated  October 
4,  and  Christian  Lash  signed  as  bondsman.  Christian  Lash  w^as 
a  resident  of  Bethania,  but  in  that  year  of  1797  he  owned  a  lot 
in  Germanton,  and  as  he  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  he  and 
Forsyth  had  doubtless  met  at  court.  The  tax  books  show  a 
number  of  men  listing  lots  in  Germanton  who  never  lived 
there,  and  the  indications  are  that  there  was  a  considerable 
amount  of  speculation  in  real  estate  about  that  time  and  for 
the  next  decade. 

Benjamin  Forsyth  and  his  wife  had  six  children:  Elizabeth 
Bostic,  born  in  1798;  Sally  Almond,  born  1800;  Effie  Jones, 
born  1803;  Bethemia  Harding,  born  1805;  James  N.,  born 
1808;  and  Mary  L.,  born  181 1. 

In  1807  and  1808  Benjamin  Forsyth  served  in  the  Assembly 
of  North  Carolina  as  a  representative  from  Stokes  County. 

During  Forsyth's  earlier  years  in  North  Carolina  the  tax 

Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth  19 

districts  were  also  the  militia  districts  and  took  their  names 
from  the  captains  commanding.  His  first  militia  service  in  this 
state,  therefore,  was  in  Captain  Banner's  district,  which  in 
1797  became  Captain  Blackburn's  district.  All  men  from  six- 
teen to  fifty  years  of  age  were  required  to  enroll  in  a  militia 
company  and  to  attend  muster  and  drill. 

Forsyth's  first  commission  as  an  officer  was  dated  April  24, 
1800,  when  he  became  a  second  lieutenant  in  the  Sixth  In- 
fantry and  served  in  the  army  for  two  months.  On  July  i, 

1808,  he  was  commissioned  a  captain  and  assigned  to  the  Rifle 
Regiment.  The  diary  of  Salem,  North  Carolina,  April  29, 

1809,  says:  "Captain  Forsyth  came  from  Germanton  with 
a  recently  enlisted  volunteer  company  of  riflemen,  and  will 
soon  go  to  New  Bern  and  from  there  to  New  Orleans.  The 
captain  wished  to  give  his  company  the  pleasure  of  seeing 
our  town,  and  at  the  same  time  show  us  their  new  uniforms 
and  military  drill.  They  marched  into  town  in  military  order, 
with  trumpet  and  fife,  and  paraded  and  drilled  in  the  Square 
in  front  of  the  boarding  school." 

He  was  still  a  captain  when  the  War  of  18 12  broke  out. 
His  service  in  that  war  was  all  on  the  northern  border  of  the 
state  of  New  York,  where  he  at  once  established  a  reputation 
for  personal  bravery  and  for  ability  as  an  officer.  As  a  first 
exploit,  in  September,  18 12,  he  led  a  party  which  went  down 
the  St.  Lawrence  River  in  boats,  landed  on  the  Canadian  side, 
destroyed  a  British  storehouse,  and  returned  with  many  cap- 
tured mihtary  supplies.  He  lost  only  one  man  killed  and 
another  slightly  wounded;  the  British,  ten  to  twenty  times 
as  many. 

On  January  20,  18 13,  Captain  Forsyth  was  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  major,  and  continued  his  career  with  dash,  vigor,  and 
enterprise.  In  February  of  that  year  he  gathered  a  force  of 
regulars  and  volunteers  and  went  up  the  St.  Lawrence  to 
Morristown.  At  three  o'clock  in  the  morning  they  crossed  the 
river  to  Elizabeth  town,  surprised  the  guard,  and  took  fifty- 

20         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

two  prisoners,  including  five  officers.  They  captured  120 
muskets  and  other  supphes  and  returned  to  the  post  at 
Ogdensburg,  New  York,  without  the  loss  of  a  single  man.  A 
little  later  he  was  driven  from  Ogdensburg  by  a  British  force 
twice  as  large  as  his,  but  it  was  reported  that  the  British  suf- 
fered severely  in  their  attack  and  probably  lost  three  times  the 
number  of  the  Americans  who  fell. 

In  May,  18 13,  Major  Forsyth  was  present  at  the  capture 
by  American  forces  of  Fort  George  in  Canada,  and  added 
greatly  to  his  reputation  as  a  soldier  in  the  battle  fought  there. 

On  April  15,  18 14,  he  was  commissioned  a  lieutenant 
colonel  for  his  "distinguished  services";  but  these  services 
were  not  to  continue  long,  for  he  was  killed  in  a  skirmish  near 
Odeltown,  on  the  Canadian  frontier,  June  23,  18 14.  The 
American  general  had  sent  a  small  American  party  to  attack 
a  much  larger  force  of  British,  with  orders  to  attract  the  atten- 
tion of  the  British  and  then  retire  and  so  lead  them  into  an 
ambush.  Colonel  Forsyth  was  in  command  of  one  part  of  the 
ambuscade,  and  when  the  enemy  appeared  he  brought  his 
troops  out  of  hiding  and  gave  battle.  The  British  fired  twice 
and  retreated,  but  at  the  first  fire  Colonel  Forsyth  fell,  shot 
through  the  breast.  He  exclaimed,  "Boys,  rush  on!"  and  died 
a  few  minutes  later.  Next  day  he  was  buried  at  Champlain 
with  the  honors  of  war. 

The  news  of  his  death  reached  North  CaroHna  in  due  time, 
and  at  the  September,  18 14,  session  of  the  Stokes  County 
Court  of  Pleas  and  Quarter  Sessions  his  widow  was  appointed 
administratrix  of  his  estate.  Although  Forsyth's  marriage  bond 
named  the  woman  he  married  as  Bethemia  Ladd  and  the  will 
of  Constantine  Ladd  left  bequests  to  his  daughter  Bethemia, 
who  had  married  Benjamin  Forsyth,  her  name  appears  in  this 
court  appointment  as  Elizabeth  B.  Forsyth,  and  she  signed 
the  inventory  of  Forsyth's  estate  "Elizabeth  B.  H.  Forsyth" 
when  she  presented  it  to  the  court  in  March,  181 5.  Family 
history  says  that  her  full  maiden  name  was  Oizabeth  Bethemia 

Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth  21 

Hardin  Ladd,  and  evidently  she  preferred  to  use  the  first 
name  instead  of  the  second. 

The  amount  of  personal  property  Hsted  in  the  Forsyth 
inventory  was  not  large,  but  it  included  $302  in  cash,  which 
was  enough  to  support  a  family  for  two  years  with  the  scale 
of  prices  then  prevailing.  Also  listed  were  fifteen  "disperate" 
notes,  which  would  have  been  worth  over  six  hundred  dollars 
had  they  been  good. 

With  the  filing  of  this  inventory  the  Forsyth  name  disap- 
peared from  the  Court  records.  No  guardians  were  appointed 
for  the  children.  No  settlement  of  the  estate  was  made.  For 
some  years  Benjamin  Forsyth  had  a  small  running  account 
with  the  Moravian  Church  in  Salem.  This  was  kept  in  excel- 
lent condition  while  he  was  in  the  state;  then  part  of  it  was 
charged  off  and  the  rest  was  gradually  liquidated,  with  the 
help  of  the  Salem  storekeeper. 

The  explanation  of  the  disappearance  of  the  Forsyth  name 
appears  to  be  that  in  the  summer  of  1 8 1 5  Mrs.  Forsyth  and  her 
children  moved  to  Tennessee.  At  that  time  many  people  were 
moving  westward,  and  probably  she  went  to  Colonel  Forsyth's 
half  brother,  Edward  Whitworth,  or  perhaps  to  the  Colonel's 
mother,  for  the  Bedford  County,  Tennessee,  United  States 
Census  of  1820  lists  Edward  Whitworth,  aged  "26  to  45," 
John  Whitworth,  of  the  same  age  group,  and  an  Elizabeth 
Whitworth,  "over  45,"  who  may  well  have  been  their  mother 
and  the  mother  of  Benjamin  Forsyth.  Listed  with  Elizabeth 
Whitworth  is  another  woman,  aged  "26  to  45,"  who  may 
have  been  her  daughter.  There  is  on  file  a  letter  from  Edward 
Whitworth,  dated  December,  18 19,  which  says  definitely 
that  he  was  a  half  brother  of  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth.  A 
certificate  issued  by  a  Methodist  minister  serving  in  Ten- 
nessee shows  that  in  October,  18 15,  Mrs.  Forsyth  and  Sally 
Forsyth  joined  a  Methodist  "class"  at  Mt.  Zion  in  the  Guilford 

Four  years  later  Mrs.  Forsyth  remarried.  A  letter  dated 

22         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Harpeth,  West  Tennessee,  November  30,  18 19,  says  that  in 
the  end  of  January  of  that  year  she,  "the  widow  of  Benjamin 
Forsyth,"  had  married  W^illiam  Cowin,  and  that  her  son, 
James  N.  Forsyth,  was  a  bright  boy,  but  delicate.  He  was 
Uving  w^ith  them. 

If  iMrs.  Forsyth  had  remained  in  North  CaroHna  she  would 
certainly  have  known  at  once  of  the  action  of  the  Assembly 
of  18 1 7,  as  told  below,  instead  of  learning  of  it  only  through 
a  Tennessee  newspaper,  the  Nashville  Clarion,  two  years  later. 

Representing  Stokes  County  in  the  Assembly  of  1 8 1 7  were 
Joseph  Winston,  son  of  Major  Joseph  Winston  of  Revolu- 
tionary fame,  and  John  H.  Hauser,  Esq.,  of  Bethania,  both  of 
whom  must  have  known  Benjamin  Forsyth  personally.  Three 
years  earlier,  December,  18 14,  the  Assembly  of  North  Caro- 
lina had  honored  Captain  Johnston  Blakeley,  of  Wilmington, 
North  Carolina,  and  of  the  United  States  Navy,  by  resolving 
to  present  to  him  a  "superb  sword"  when  he  returned  from 
service.  He  did  not  return;  so  in  place  of  a  sword  the  Assembly 
granted  to  his  infant  daughter  a  silver  tea  service  and  appro- 
priated a  sum  annually  for  her  education.  Doubtless  the  Stokes 
County  representatives  thought  that  the  state  should  pay 
similar  honor  to  a  gallant  Army  man,  especially  as  he  had 
entered  the  service  from  their  own  county. 

The  county  name,  however,  does  not  appear  in  the  action 
taken.  The  resolution  to  honor  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth  was 
introduced  by  Mr.  Elijah  Callaway,  of  Ashe  County.  As 
entered  on  the  Journal  of  the  House  of  Representatives  on 
December  18,  18 17,  it  reads: 

''Resolved:  That  the  public  services  rendered  by  the  late 
Colonel  Benjamin  Forsythe  in  the  late  war  with  the  King  of 
Great  Britain  are  well  appreciated  by  the  General  Assembly 
of  this  state."  Additional  resolutions  appointed  a  committee 
to  "ascertain  what  are  the  pecuniary  circumstances  of  the 
widow  and  family  of  the  said  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsythe," 
and  to  bring  in  a  suitable  report.  The  committee  consisted  of 

Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth  23 

Callaway,  Hauser,  Winston,  and  S.  King,  the  latter  of  Iredell 
County.  The  Senate  concurred  and  added  to  the  committee 
Joseph  Reddick,  senator  from  Gates  County,  and  Senator 
Atkinson  from  Person  County. 

Four  days  later,  that  is,  on  December  22,  Mr.  Callaway 
reported  that  the  "committee  had  ascertained"  that  Mrs. 
Forsyth's  "circumstances  are  not  affluent,  yet  there  has  been 
no  representation  made  to  your  committee  that  they  are  of  a 
description  which  requires  the  pecuniary  aid  of  this  legisla- 
ture." The  committee  had  further  '^ascertained  that  the  family 
of  Mrs.  Forsyth  consists  of  an  infant  son  about  eight  years  of 
age,  and  four  daughters."  Recommendation  was  made  to  the 
legislature  that  "they  appropriate  [blank]  to  defray  the  ex- 
penses of  educating  the  infant  son  of  Colonel  Benjiamin 
Forsyth,  who  fell  fighting  in  the  service  of  the  United  States, 
near  Odeltown  in  Canada,  on  the  23d  day  of  June  in  the  year 
1 8 14."  It  was  also  recommended  "That  the  governor  of  this 
state  be  requested  to  procure  a  Sword  and  present  it  to  the 
aforesaid  infant  son  of  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsythe,  as  an 
expression  of  the  grateful  sense  they  entertain  of  the  gallantry 
and  good  conduct  of  the  aforesaid  Colonel  Benjamin 

The  House  immediately  adopted  these  resolutions  and  sent 
them  to  the  Senate.  They  were  concurred  in  by  the  Senate 
on  the  following  day. 

Other  representatives  went  from  Stokes  County  to  the 
Assembly  in  the  following  years,  and  nothing  more  is  known 
of  the  matter  until  the  letter  which  Mrs.  Co  win,  formerly 
Mrs.  Forsyth,  wrote  from  Tennessee  in  November,  18 19, 
after  she  had  read  the  resolutions  in  the  newspaper.  Her  first 
letter  remaining  unanswered,  she  wrote  again  in  May,  1820. 
In  this  second  letter  she  said  that  she  had  five  daughters  and 
one  son.  The  youngest  daughter,  Mary  L.  Forsyth,  was  eight 
years  old.  The  son,  James  N.  Forsyth,  was  born  September  27, 
1808.  The  family  was  living  in  Bedford  County,  Tennessee, 

24         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

thirty-seven  miles  from  Nashville.  She  said  that  the  son, 
James,  was  in  poor  health,  probably  stone  in  the  kidneys,  and 
she  thought  it  might  be  wise  to  let  him  attend  school  in  Ten- 
nessee for  the  present.  "I  have  sent  my  children  to  school  as 
much  as  my  situation  would  admit."  The  letter  was  signed 
"Elizabeth  B.  H.  Cowan."  By  the  end  of  1819,  Forsyth's 
daughter  Elizabeth  had  married  Samuel  Smalling  and  Sally 
Forsyth  had  married  Lemuel  Perry.  On  December  i  of  that 
year  George  W.  Gaboon  of  Blount  Gounty,  Alabama,  sold  to 
the  sLx  children  of  Benjamin  Forsyth  109%  acres  in  Bedford 
County,  Tennessee,  the  deed  providing  that  Elizabeth  B. 
Cowan  was  to  continue  to  reside  on  the  place. 

Again  there  is  a  gap  in  the  records,  but  in  November,  1823, 
when  James  N.  Forsyth  was  fifteen  years  old,  he  was  brought 
to  North  Carolina,  and  was  entered  at  the  Academy  in  Hills- 
boro,  John  Rogers,  principal.  Bills  on  file  show  that  he  was 
outfitted  with  new  clothes  and  furnished  with  books  at  the 
expense  of  the  state,  through  the  private  secretary  of  Gov- 
ernor Gabriel  Holmes. 

The  young  man  entered  the  University  at  Chapel  Hill  in 
July,  1824.  Again  the  expenses  were  borne  by  the  state  treas- 
ury, and  in  addition  to  the  regular  courses  he  took  lessons  in 
elocution  in  Raleigh. 

In  1825  the  young  man  got  into  trouble  at  the  University 
and  was  dismissed.  Evidently  it  was  nothing  that  others  con- 
sidered very  serious,  for  the  Assembly  of  1825-26  adopted  a 
resolution:  "That  the  Governor  of  this  state  be,  and  he  is 
hereby  authorized  to  draw  out  of  the  Treasury  of  this  state 
the  sum  of  $750,  the  same  to  be  by  him  vested  in  some  pro- 
ductive stock ...  for  the  benefit  of  James  Forsythe,  the  same 
to  be  transferred  to  the  said  James  when  he  arrives  at  the  age 
of  twenty-one  years." 

A  further  resolution  repealed  the  action  of  18 17  concern- 
ing his  education,  no  longer  needed  because  the  young  man 
had  joined  the  Navy.  It  was  provided  that  in  case  of  the  death 

Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth  25 

of  Forsyth  before  he  became  of  age  the  investment  should 
revert  to  the  state. 

The  amount  named  in  this  resolution  is  the  same  as  the  sum 
mentioned  when  a  sword  was  to  be  bought  for  Captain  John- 
ston Blakeley,  and  the  investment  doubtless  took  the  place  of 
the  sword  originally  planned  for  the  "infant  son  of  Colonel 
Benjamin  Forsythe." 

The  stock,  however,  never  passed  into  the  hands  of  James 
N.  Forsyth,  for  he  was  drowned  in  1829,  when  the  ship  on 
which  he  was  a  midshipman  was  lost. 

During  all  the  years  it  was  the  custom  in  erecting  a  new 
county  in  North  Carolina  to  give  it  the  name  of  some  notable 
man;  so  it  was  quite  natural  that  when  the  legislature  divided 
Stokes  County,  in  1849,  the  members  should  remember  the 
honors  paid  to  the  memory  of  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth  by 
the  Legislature  of  18 17,  and  should  perpetuate  his  fame  by 
naming  this  new  county  for  him. 



J>M     de    ScHWeiMlTZ; 

UNLIKE  the  story  of  Colonel  Benjamin  Forsyth,  the 
early  life  of  Salem  is  known,  even  in  detail.  The 
Moravian  settlers  in  what  is  now  Forsyth  County 
were  educated  men,  firmly  convinced  of  the  value 
of  carefully  kept  records;  so  the  ministers  wrote  diaries  of 
what  happened  day  by  day,  and  the  church  boards  had  secre- 
taries who  wrote  into  books  the  minutes  of  each  board  meet- 
ing. Not  only  did  they  keep  these  records  for  their  own  use 
and  the  use  of  their  successors,  but  they  preserved  them  so 
carefully  that  in  Salem  there  is  no  break  in  the  story  from  the 
day  of  its  founding  until  the  present. 

Salem,  as  the  central  town  in  Wachovia,  was  planned  from 
the  first  purchase  of  the  Tract;  and  the  name  of  the  town 
was  suggested  by  Count  Zinzendorf  six  or  more  years  before 
it  was  possible  to  begin  to  carry  out  the  plan.  He  probably 
chose  the  name  because  Salem  means  "peace,"  and  he  wanted 
peace,  in  its  truest  and  broadest  sense,  to  be  a  characteristic  of 
the  place. 

The  Moravians  had  known  much  that  was  not  peace. 
Founded  after  the  Hussite  Wars  by  followers  of  the  great 
Bohemian  reformer,  John  Hus,  the  ancient  Unitas  Fratrum, 
or  Unity  of  Brethren,  had  known  persecution  after  persecu- 
tion; and  the  members  often  suffered  martyrdom  as  did  Hus, 
who  was  burned  at  the  stake  in  141 5  because  he  would  not 
obey  the  orders  of  the  Romish  hierarchy  and  give  up  his 
simple  belief  that  men  ought  to  accept  the  Bible  as  God's 
word,  rather  than  obey  men  who  substituted  their  own  will 
for  the  divine  precept. 

In  1722  descendants  of  members  of  the  ancient  Brethren 
emigrated  from  Moravia  to  Saxony  and  found  refuge  on  the 
estate  of  Nicholas  Lewis,  Count  Zinzendorf.  There  the 
ancient  church  was  reorganized,  and  from  there  it  spread  into 
various  countries  on  the  continent  of  Europe  and  into  Eng- 
land. The  stake  had  gone  out  of  fashion,  but  the  opposition 
endured  was  not  small;  so  there  was  a  movement  toward 


30         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

America,  first  to  Georgia,  then  to  Pennsylvania,  and  finally 
to  North  Carolina.  The  name  "Moravian"  to  designate  the 
church  formerly  known  as  Unitas  Fratrum,  originated  in  this 
eighteenth-century  development,  and  it  is  appropriate  today 
because  it  was  through  the  Moravian  branch  of  the  renewed 
Unity  of  Brethren  that  this  church  possesses  the  episcopate, 
secured  in  1467  and  handed  down  without  a  break  to  the 
Moravian  bishops  of  today. 

The  Moravian  settlers  in  Wachovia  were  trained  crafts- 
men. Ministers,  doctors,  storekeepers,  carpenters,  masons, 
smiths,  and  numerous  other  handicraftsmen  had  been  care- 
fully instructed  in  their  respective  trades  and  professions. 
Co-operation  was  the  rule.  The  community  of  effort  that 
prevailed  when  Bethabara  was  a  small,  frontier  village  was 
not  carried  over  into  Salem  in  a  business  way,  but  the  spirit 
remained,  and  any  man  or  woman  who  would  not  obey  the 
simple  rules  of  conduct  which  had  been  established  was 
quietly  asked  to  leave. 

Wachovia  had  been  bought  for  a  down  payment  and  an 
annual  quitrent.  Before  the  Revolutionary  War  an  agreement 
had  been  reached  with  the  heirs  of  Earl  Granville  under 
which  the  quitrent  title  was  to  be  bought  by  the  Moravian 
Church.  The  Confiscation  Acts  passed  by  the  North  Carolina 
Assembly  early  in  the  Revolution  extinguished  the  titles  of 
absentee  English  proprietors;  but  in  1778  the  title  to 
Wachovia  was  transferred  to  the  Reverend  Frederic  William 
Marshall,  a  naturalized  citizen  of  Pennsylvania,  and  this  trans- 
fer was  confirmed  by  the  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  in 
1782.  As  Marshall  held  the  title  in  trust  for  the  church  as 
represented  by  the  bona  fide  settlers  in  Wachovia,  he  thought 
that  the  contract  to  buy  the  quitrents  had  been  nullified  by 
the  results  of  the  war,  but  the  leaders  in  England  stood  by 
their  agreement,  and  the  quitrents  were  duly  purchased. 
Because  of  the  quitrent  system,  however,  little  of  the  land  in 

Around  Salem  Square  31 

Wachovia  was  sold  outright  at  first.  Much  of  it  was  leased 
until  a  later  date. 

In  Salem  this  lease  system  persisted  for  a  long  time;  it  was 
finally  abrogated  in  1856.  Under  this  system  Salem  Congrega- 
tion leased  land  from  the  church  as  a  whole,  the  Salem  lot 
being  about  three  thousand  acres.  In  the  town  of  Salem  lots 
were  leased  to  individuals.  The  "improvements"  on  the  lots 
belonged  to  the  men  who  built  the  houses,  their  rights  secured 
by  bond.  This  prevented  random  buying  and  selling,  and 
enabled  the  church  leaders  to  be  sure  that  purchasers  would 
be  desirable  citizens. 

The  site  for  Salem  was  selected  in  1765,  after  the  surveyor 
Renter  had  carefully  searched  the  entire  central  portion  of 
the  Wachovia  Tract,  and  had  noted  a  number  of  possible 
sites.  The  place  chosen  lay  half  way  up  the  hill  leading  from 
the  Wach  (Salem  Creek)  to  the  Annaberg  (Winston).  The 
ground  sloped  in  both  directions,  east  and  west,  but  there 
were  several  good  springs  to  furnish  water,  and  a  clear  little 
branch  on  the  west  (Tar  Branch)  to  supply  the  immediate 
needs  until  wells  could  be  dug.  The  town  was  high  enough 
up  the  ridge  to  be  safe  in  times  of  flood,  when  the  Wach 
might,  and  occasionally  did,  rise  to  a  dangerous  height.  On 
the  other  hand,  in  the  still  higher  ground  there  were  good 
springs  which  would  make  possible  a  water  system  when  the 
settlers  found  time  for  that. 

Work  began  on  January  6,  1766,  when  men  from  Bethab- 
ara  and  Bethania,  with  some  others  recently  arrived  from 
Europe,  tramped  the  six  miles  from  Bethabara  through  the 
forest  and  felled  the  first  tree  for  a  log  house  to  shelter  the 
workmen  who  should  build  the  town. 

Plans  for  the  town  had  been  made  in  advance,  and  were 
designed  to  fit  the  ground.  There  was  the  main  street,  running 
north  on  the  crest  of  the  hill,  with  parallel  streets  to  east  and 
west,  and  cross  streets  at  suitable  intervals.  One  of  the  blocks 

32         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

so  formed  was  chosen  as  the  open  Square,  around  which  the 
chief  houses  were  to  stand. 

Later  in  1766  the  first  house  was  built  on  the  main  street. 
It  was  of  "frame"  construction,  a  unique  method  which  per- 
mitted the  use  of  the  material  available,  not  well  suited  for 
the  buildings  of  logr  houses.  Heavy  timbers  were  erected  for 
the  framing;  then  rude  laths  were  wrapped  in  a  mixture  of 
clay  and  straw,  and  the  laths  were  inserted  across  from  one 
grooved  upright  to  another.  When  pressed  down  they  made 
a  thick  wall,  as  warm  as  brick.  When  the  clay  began  to  wash 
out  after  years  of  service  the  wall  could  be  weatherboarded 
to  become  as  good  as  new. 

When  the  first  room  was  finished  in  this  first  house  Gott- 
fried Praezel  moved  in  and  set  up  his  loom,  a  forecast  of  the 
city's  textile  industry  today. 

The  second  house  on  the  main  street  was  known  for  years 
as  "the  two-story  house."  The  first  house  and  others  of  that 
period  were  generally  of  one  story,  with  a  high-pitched  roof 
and  a  basement.  On  the  first  floor  of  the  two-story  house  there 
was  the  first  meeting  hall  of  Salem.  Until  it  was  built  services 
had  been  held  in  one  of  the  rooms  in  the  small  first  house. 

The  immediate  preparation  of  a  place  of  worship  indicates 
the  first  of  the  purposes  for  which  the  Moravians  had  come 
to  North  Carolina— freedom  to  worship  God  in  their  devout, 
practical  way.  They  had  an  inherited  belief  that  religion  was 
a  personal  matter  between  a  man  and  his  God;  but  they  be- 
lieved also  in  a  religion  to  be  lived  with  and  through  every- 
day life  seven  days  in  the  week.  In  Georgia  the  climate  had 
been  against  them,  and  a  number  of  them  had  died;  the  neigh- 
bors also  refused  to  understand  their  position  in  several  prac- 
tical matters.  In  Pennsylvania  their  concern  for  the  conversion 
of  the  Indians  had  been  misunderstood;  and  the  community 
life  of  the  early  years  had  been  severely  criticized  by  those 
who  reflected  the  animosity  shown  by  certain  parties  in 
Europe.  In  North  Carolina,  surrounded  by  their  own  broad 

Around  Salem  Square  33 

acres,  they  made  immediate  arrangements  for  places  of  wor- 
ship, to  which  they  welcomed  any  and  all  visitors  who  might 
wish  to  unite  with  them  in  the  services. 

They  made  no  attempt  to  proselyte.  Service  to  their  white 
neighbors  was  the  second  announced  purpose  of  their  coming 
to  North  Carolina,  and  they  served  freely  without  asking 
reward.  Had  they  gathered  in  all  the  Christians  in  the  neigh- 
borhood who  were  without  pastoral  service  they  might  have 
swept  the  state,  for  they  were  organized  here  long  before 
other  denominations.  But  this  they  never  attempted.  They 
sought,  rather,  to  hold  the  leaderless  groups  steady  until 
pastors  of  their  various  denominations  might  be  sent  to  them, 
a  fraternal  generosity  which  has  seldom  been  understood. 

Before  the  year  1766  ended,  two  more  of  the  small  houses 
had  been  built  just  north  of  the  first  house.  The  fourth  house 
is  the  oldest  now  standing  in  Salem.  For  many  years  it  was 
occupied  by  Charles  Holder,  a  saddle-maker;  it  now  belongs 
to  the  Colonial  Dames,  who  have  restored  it. 

The  next  year  a  potter's  shop  and  a  blacksmith's  shop  were 
built.  Both  crafts  were  of  immense  value  to  the  town  and  to 
the  neighborhood.  When  news  spread  through  the  country- 
side that  the  Salem  potter  had  burned  a  kiln  of  ware,  so  many 
persons  crowded  in  that  sometimes  there  were  not  enough 
pieces  to  go  around.  Good  clay  was  found  in  a  meadow  by 
the  creek  (now  the  Salem  College  athletic  field),  yellow  clay 
for  the  making  of  kitchen  ware,  and  gray  clay  for  the  pipe- 
heads,  so  long  a  staple  of  trade  in  Salem. 

Brick  and  tile  were  also  made  in  that  meadow,  not  by  the 
potter  but  by  brickmakers,  for  those  were  the  days  of  spe- 
cialists in  many  lines.  Salem  did  not  import  brick  and  furni- 
ture from  Europe,  as  was  done  in  many  cities  on  the  Atlantic 
seaboard.  Salem  imported  men  who  could  make  furniture  and 
brick  and  other  things  which  the  residents  of  a  city  needed. 
This  made  her  largely  self-sufficient  in  the  days  when  the 
only  means  of  communication  were  letters  carried  by  passing 

34         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

travelers  or  by  special  messengers;  when  the  only  means  of 
transportation  inland  were  carts  or  wagons.  Some  things,  of 
course,  were  brought  by  wagon  from  Pennsylvania,  or  from 
Petersburg,  Virginia,  or  from  Charlestown,  South  Carolina, 
or  from  Cross  Creek  (Fayetteville),  the  nearest  point  to  which 
things  could  be  brought  by  boat.  At  those  places  deerskins 
and  a  few  other  local  commodities  could  be  bartered  for 
coffee,  tea,  window  glass,  sugar,  and  other  articles  handled 
by  the  store.  Books  usually  came  from  England  or  Germany, 
where  Salem  maintained  a  standing  order  for  the  publications 
of  the  Unity. 

The  first  really  large  building  operation  was  the  erection  of 
the  Brothers  House,  facing  the  Square  from  the  west.  This 
was  the  home  of  the  numerous  young  men  and  bovs  who  had 
come  to  grow  up  with  Salem,  and  there  they  had  their  work- 
shops, with  their  journeymen  and  apprentices.  They  had  their 
own  organization,  their  own  finances,  their  own  kitchen, 
their  own  farm;  indeed,  for  many  years  the  Brothers  House 
was  the  industrial  center  of  the  community.  They  took  pos- 
session of  their  House  in  1769,  most  of  them  coming  from 
Bethabara,  where  there  had  been  a  similar  institution. 

This  Brothers  House  was  of  "frame"  construction— with  a 
difference.  In  burning  brick  for  chimneys  there  were  often 
some  which  were  not  hard  enough  to  stand  exposure  to  the 
weather;  so  the  second  type  of  framing  omitted  the  laths  with 
the  clay-straw  wrapping,  added  a  few  more  inside  braces,  and 
filled  the  intervening  spaces  with  these  softer  brick,  laid  up 
without  mortar. 

The  third  type  of  building  came  in  with  the  erection  of  the 
Gemein  Haus  (Congregation  House),  for  many  years  the 
largest  house  in  the  community.  The  foundation  and  the  first 
story  were  of  uncut  stone,  laid  up  with  clay.  The  walls  were 
made  very  thick,  to  compensate  for  lack  of  lime  in  the  bind- 
ing, lime  being  very  scarce  and  hard  to  get.  The  second  story 
was  of  the  second  type  of  frame  construction,  and  there  was 

Around  Salem  Square  35 

a  high-pitched  roof,  permitting  several  rooms  on  the  third 
floor.  In  the  course  of  time  this  building  was  covered  with 
stucco,  which  greatly  improved  its  appearance. 

The  Meeting  Hall  was  on  the  second  floor,  and  for  this 
Meeting  Hall  a  pipe  organ  was  built  by  Bulitschek,  an  organ 
builder  who  had  come  to  live  in  Wachovia  in  the  Bethania 
neighborhood.  On  the  first  and  second  floors,  at  the  north 
end,  there  were  housekeeping  apartments  for  ministers  of  the 
congregation;  on  the  third  floor  there  were  guest  rooms.  The 
south  half  of  the  first  and  third  floors  respectively  was  used 
by  the  Single  Sisters  (the  unmarried  women)  of  the  commu- 
nity, for  living  rooms  and  work  rooms. 

The  Meeting  Hall  in  the  Gemein  Haus  was  consecrated  on 
November  13,  177 1,  and  on  the  same  day  the  Salem  Congrega- 
tion was  formally  organized,  with  the  Reverend  Paul  Tiersch 
as  the  first  pastor. 

The  next  year  saw  much  moving  from  Bethabara  to  Salem. 
The  community  store  was  moved  into  the  first  story  of  the 
two-story  house,  and  the  merchant,  Traugott  Bagge,  setded 
his  family  in  the  second  story.  Gottlieb  Reuter  built  a  small 
house  for  himself  and  his  wife  diagonally  across  from  the 
southwest  corner  of  the  Square.  Matthew  Miksch  rented  an- 
other small  house  which  the  Congregation  had  built  on  Main 
Street  and  began  to  manufacture  snuff,  and  smoking  tobacco. 
Heinrich  Herbst  took  charge  of  a  tanyard  just  west  of  the 
village.  Jacob  Meyer  and  his  wife  took  charge  of  the  tavern. 
Other  small  houses  were  built,  and  by  the  end  of  the  year 
most  of  the  residents  of  Bethabara  had  moved  to  Salem,  and 
life  in  the  central  town  was  well  established.  The  financial 
board  of  the  Congregation  acted  also  as  the  town  committee, 
performing  many  of  the  duties  of  a  modem  board  of  alder- 
men, building  supervisor,  supervisor  of  public  works,  high- 
way commission,  and  so  on.  A  local  justice  of  the  peace 
guaranteed  the  enforcement  of  the  civil  code. 

Nor  was  public  health  neglected.  Salem  had  a  succession  of 

36         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

capable  doctors,  and  only  one  or  two  poor  ones.  There  were 
midwives,  taught  by  the  doctor.  There  was  a  volunteer  nurs- 
ing staff,  pledged  to  serve  at  regular  times.  The  Brothers 
House  and  the  Sisters  House  had  each  its  own  "sickroom"  and 

Alore  surprising,  however,  was  the  early  date  at  which 
schools  were  begun  for  the  children  of  the  community.  There 
were  very  few  children  in  Salem  in  1772.  Many  of  the  resi- 
dents were  the  unmarried  men  and  women  referred  to  above. 
Most  of  the  married  people  coming  to  Wachovia  had  left 
their  children  in  the  schools  of  the  Moravian  Church  in  Penn- 
sylvania. But  the  leaders  in  Salem  were  university-bred  men, 
who  cared  so  much  for  education  that  they  arranged  for  the 
education  of  Salem  children  as  soon  as  there  were  any  old 
enough  to  learn  their  letters.  There  had  to  be  two  schools,  for 
in  those  days  it  was  not  considered  proper  for  boys  and  girls 
to  go  to  school  together;  but  schools  there  must  be;  so  one 
for  little  boys  was  begun  in  the  home  of  the  master  carpenter, 
Christian  Triebel,  and  one  for  little  girls  in  a  room  in  the 
Gemein  Haus,  with  Elisabeth  Oesterlein  as  their  teacher.  The 
school  for  boys  served  a  number  of  generations,  and  was 
finally  discontinued  when  the  public  school  system  of  the 
city  made  it  unnecessary.  The  infant  school  for  girls  of  1772 
has  attained  maturity  in  the  Salem  College  of  today. 

The  business  of  the  store  became  considerable,  and  it  was 
decided  to  build  a  new  brick  store  on  Main  Street,  opposite 
the  southwest  corner  of  the  Square  and  across  the  cross  street 
from  the  Renter  house.  When  this  was  finished  the  store 
business  was  moved  into  the  north  half  of  the  house,  and 
merchant  Bagge  and  his  family  took  up  their  abode  in  the 
south  part.  The  two-story  house  became  the  residence  of  the 
congregation  bookkeeper  and  surveyor,  Ludwig  Meinung. 
The  "skin  house,"  a  small  house  across  Main  Street  from  the 
two-story  house,  used  by  the  store  as  a  warehouse  for  deer- 
skins, was   changed   into   a   home   for   the   Reverend   John 

Around  Salem  Square  37 

Michael  Graff  and  his  wife,  who  had  been  living  in  Bethabara. 
The  Graffs  lived  there  until  the  death  of  the  Reverend  Paul 
Tiersch  made  Br.  Graff  the  pastor  of  the  Congregation,  and 
he  moved  with  his  wife  into  the  Gemein  Haus. 

For  the  first  thirty-five  years  of  the  life  of  Salem  the  most 
influential  man  was  the  Reverend  Frederic  William  Marshall. 
He  was  the  son  of  an  officer  in  the  German  army,  and  had 
been  destined  by  his  father  for  that  service.  He  had  been 
trained  to  healthful  living,  prudent  management  of  funds,  and 
good  manners,  and  had  been  taught  to  carry  responsibiUties. 
Of  good  family,  educated  at  the  University  of  Leipzig,  he 
would  seem  to  have  had  a  bright  future  in  his  father's  profes- 
sion, but  when  he  was  about  eighteen  years  of  age  he  learned 
to  know  members  of  the  Moravian  Church,  decided  to  join 
them,  and  did  so,  with  his  father's  consent.  All  of  his  training 
stood  him  in  good  stead  in  his  new  life.  He  was  in  Wachovia 
on  a  visit  when  the  site  for  Salem  was  selected,  and  he  re- 
turned to  make  it  his  home  for  the  rest  of  his  long  life.  Offi- 
cially he  represented  the  Unity  at  large,  especially  in  real  estate 
matters.  He  also  held  various  local  church  offices;  and  his 
knowledge  of  architecture,  gathered  from  residence  in  various 
parts  of  Europe  and  in  Pennsylvania,  was  the  controlling 
factor  in  the  designing  of  most  of  the  houses  in  Salem. 

It  happened,  however,  that  he  was  not  in  Salem  during  the 
earlier  years  of  the  Revolutionary  War.  He  had  been  called 
to  Europe  to  an  important  church  synod,  and  the  war  pre- 
vented his  return  until  1779.  This  left  the  burden  of  respon- 
sibility on  John  Michael  Graff  and  Traugott  Bagge,  who  seem 
to  have  borne  the  brunt  of  it— Graff  in  congregational  affairs 
and  Bagge  in  poHtical  and  commercial  matters. 

For  six  years  Salem  not  only  shared  in  the  distresses  of  the 
country  at  large,  but  had  many  local  problems  to  meet,  and 
both  may  be  noted  briefly. 

Active  trouble  began  in  the  early  summer  of  1775,  when 
the  battle  of  Lexington,  in  Massachusetts,  stirred  resentment 

3  8         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

throughout  the  nation.  News  of  this  engagement  reached 
Salem  by  rumor  on  May  8;  newspapers  received  on  May  17 
reported  that  there  had  been  a  "skirmish  near  Boston,"  and 
also  that  Parliament  had  declared  the  Congress  meeting  in 
Philadelphia  to  be  in  rebellion  against  the  English  Crown. 

The  Moravian  records  give  a  vivid  picture  of  the  confusion 
that  followed— mental  confusion  caused  by  uncertainty  as  to 
what  should  or  could  be  done  by  the  colonists  who  wanted 
independence,  by  a  flood  of  rumors  with  which  the  Loyalists 
sought  to  arouse  the  adherents  of  the  Crown,  and  by  economic 
troubles  which  had  resulted  from  high  prices  and  fluctuating 

The  Moravians  were  divided  in  sentiment.  They  had  no 
quarrel  with  England;  indeed,  they  had  many  friends  in  that 
country.  On  the  other  hand,  they  were  loyal  citizens  of  their 
adopted  country.  There  must  have  been  many  discussions  on 
the  best  way  to  meet  the  situation.  Bishop  John  Michael  Graff 
handled  the  matter  with  rare  good  judgment  and  with  sur- 
prising success.  He  begged  the  Brethren  to  refrain  from 
discussion,  especially  with  strangers  who  might  misquote 
them.  He  "left  every  man  free  to  act  according  to  his  con- 
science" in  the  matter  of  militia  duty.  Salem  stood  firm  for 
freedom  from  military  service  and  in  willingness  to  pay  the 
threefold  tax  in  lieu  thereof;  the  Broadbayers  of  Friedland 
took  exactly  the  opposite  position.  Other  iMoravian  groups  in 
Wachovia  were  more  or  less  divided  in  sentiment.  Graff's 
unbounded  patience,  tact,  and  ability,  held  them  all  steady  in 
their  confessed  desire  for  Christian  brotherhood. 

That  hot-headed  partisans  could  not  understand  them  is  not 
surprising.  They  refused  even  to  listen  to  the  plans  of  the 
Tories  and  thereby  aroused  their  wrath.  Their  refusal  to  take 
the  Test  Oath  angered  the  less  intelligent  of  the  Continentals. 
Fortunately  the  captain  of  militia  in  their  district,  Henry 
Smith,  and  Colonel  Martin  Armstrong  were  friendly  and  did 
what  they  could  for  them. 

Around  Salem  Square  39 

The  congress  which  met  in  Hillsboro  in  August,  1775, 
authorized  the  first  issue  of  paper  currency  without  royal 
authority.  This  was  followed  by  other  issues  in  North  Caro- 
lina and  in  adjoining  states,  and  as  it  was  fiat  money  it  depre- 
ciated rapidly,  throwing  a  heavy  burden  on  the  businesses  of 
Salem  and  bringing  them  heavy  losses. 

The  year  1776  brought  the  beginning  of  demands  for  sup- 
plies for  militia  and  Continental  troops,  a  demand  that  con- 
tinued throughout  the  war.  Salem  was  really  only  a  small 
village,  and  how  it  was  possible  to  furnish  the  large  amount 
of  everything  that  was  furnished  is  one  of  the  mysteries  of 
history.  Traugott  Bagge,  though  he  held  no  commission,  was 
virtually  a  purchasing  agent  for  the  militia  and  the  Con- 
tinentals, and  was  ofKcially  certified  as  "a  true  friend  to 
American  liberty." 

The  Halifax  convention  of  April,  1776,  forwarded  to  the 
Continental  Congress  its  resolution  to  co-operate  in  declaring 
independence.  Congress  acted  on  July  4,  and  on  the  Sunday 
following  receipt  of  the  official  notice  of  the  Declaration  of 
Independence,  which  was  posted  in  the  Salem  tavern,  petitions 
for  the  King  were  dropped  from  the  litany  read  in  the  Salem 
church,  and  prayers  for  the  American  government  were 

The  Assembly  .of  April,  1777,  passed  a  new  militia  act, 
under  which  all  men  from  sixteen  to  sixty  years  of  age  were 
liable  for  duty,  with  no  exceptions  allowed  for  conscientious 
scruples.  This,  and  the  Confiscation  Act  of  November  in  the 
same  year,  placed  Salem  in  a  precarious  position,  and  all  the 
rest  of  Wachovia  as  well.  What  might  happen  was  uncertain 
until  January,  1779,  when  the  Assembly  drew  up  a  form  of 
Affirmation  of  Allegiance  which  the  Moravians  were  willing 
to  accept,  and  on  February  4  the  men  of  Salem  took  the 
Affirmation  before  Justice  Dobson. 

In  April  of  that  year  Pulaski's  Legion  was  in  Salem  for  four 
days.  They  behaved  well,  but  one  of  the  soldiers  had  small- 

40         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

pox,  and  this  brought  the  disease  into  Salem  in  an  epidemic 
which  lasted  until  October. 

Frederic  William  Marshall  and  his  wife  returned  to  Salem 
on  November  5,  and  on  the  22  nd  he  took  the  Affirmation  of 

The  year  1780  was  full  of  difficulty  and  danger  for  Salem. 
Trade  and  handicrafts  brought  more  loss  than  profit.  The 
currency  fell  and  fell  in  value.  Taxes  were  three  times  as  high 
as  in  the  preceding  year.  There  was  constant  demand  for 
grain  and  cattle  for  the  troops.  Fortunately  there  was  a  good 

Besides  the  never-ending  stream  of  soldiers,  many  poor 
families  passed  through  Salem,  fleeing  in  first  one  direction 
and  then  another  as  the  English  and  Tories  swarmed  over 
South  Carolina  and  Virginia.  All  possible  kindness  was  shown 
to  them,  though  it  increased  the  burden  on  the  slender  re- 
sources of  the  town. 

In  1 78 1  the  war  approached  nearer  and  nearer  to  Salem. 
First  came  parts  of  Greene's  army:  ammunition  wagons, 
which  stopped  to  load  shells;  and  the  field  hospital  which 
stayed  only  one  day  but  left  behind  the  more  seriously 
wounded  men  to  be  cared  for  by  the  Salem  doctor,  Jacob 
Bonn.  Then  came  lawless  militia,  and  the  Wilkes  men  espe- 
cially seemed  to  delight  in  excesses  of  every  kind,  including 
personal  attacks. 

Then,  on  February  i  o,  came  Lord  Cornwallis  and  his  army, 
chasing  General  Greene.  The  regulars  made  many  demands; 
the  camp  followers  stole  a  great  deal,  but  on  the  whole  less 
damage  was  done  than  might  have  been  expected. 

The  next  few  days  were  fairly  quiet,  but  the  days  from 
the  15th  to  the  i8th  were  "days  of  darkness  and  terror,"  to 
quote  the  Salem  diary.  More  lawless  militia,  led  by  enemies 
of  the  Moravians,  plundered  the  homes  and  business  places  of 
Salem  and  assaulted  the  citizens. 

The  battle  of  Guilford  Courthouse,  on  March  15,  attracted 

Around  Salem  Square  41 

little  attention  at  the  time,  because  it  was  "another  English 
victory"  and  Cornwallis  held  the  field,  while  Greene  retired. 
Actually  it  was  the  beginning  of  the  end,  for  on  October  30 
Salem  heard  that  the  English  general  had  surrendered  at  York- 
town  on  October  19. 

Meanwhile  General  Greene  had  led  his  forces  south  to  free 
South  Carolina  and  Georgia,  and  the  coming  and  going  of 
soldiers  through  Salem  continued,  though  as  a  rule  their 
behaviour  was  better. 

In  November,  1781,  and  again  in  January,  1782,  the  North 
Carolina  Assembly  met  in  Salem,  both  times  failing  to  transact 
business  for  lack  of  a  quorum.  The  presence  of  so  many  dis- 
tinguished guests  taxed  the  resources  of  the  town  to  the  limit, 
but  was  of  lasting  benefit,  for  the  Assemblymen  learned  to 
know  and  appreciate  the  men  of  Salem. 

At  the  next  election  Traugott  Bagge  was  elected  a  repre- 
sentative from  Surry  County.  He  and  Marshall  attended  the 
April,  1782,  session  of  the  Assembly,  held  in  Hillsboro,  where 
Marshall  secured  confirmation  of  his  standing  as  Proprietor 
of  Wachovia,  thereby  putting  to  a  definite  end  all  danger  of 
confiscation  of  the  Moravian  properties.  Bagge  was  appointed 
auditor  for  Surry  County  in  connection  with  claims  for  serv- 
ices and  supplies  during  the  war,  and  with  two  auditors  from 
Guilford  County  sat  in  Salem  as  the  Committee  of  Auditors 
for  the  Upper  Board  of  Salisbury  District,  beginning  their 
work  on  June  10. 

On  August  29,  1782,  Bishop  Graff  died  in  Salem.  He  had 
led  his  people  well  and  had  lived  long  enough  to  see  the  end 
of  hostilities  and  the  prospect  of  peace. 

On  January  20,  1783,  the  Preliminary  Treaty  of  Peace  was 
signed  in  Paris.  The  news  reached  Salem  on  April  19  and  was 
received  with  joy.  On  July  4  the  Moravians  of  North  Caro- 
lina celebrated  a  Day  of  Thanksgiving  proclaimed  by  Gov- 
ernor Alexander  Martin  and  sang  with  fervor  a  stanza  written 
for  one  of  their  services: 

42         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Peace  is  with  us!  Peace  is  with  us, 

People  of  the  Lord! 
Peace  is  with  us!  Peace  is  with  us! 

Hear  the  joyful  word! 
Let  it  sound  from  shore  to  shore! 
Let  it  echo  evermore! 
Peace  is  with  us!  Peace  is  with  us! 

Peace,  the  gift  of  God. 

The  next  twenty  years  were  a  building  period  in  Salem, 
during  which  many  of  its  large  houses  were  erected.  First 
came  the  Salem  tavern.  The  frame  house  which  had  served  so 
well  during  the  early  years  of  Salem,  burned  in  the  very  early 
morning  of  January  31,  1784.  There  was  no  loss  of  life,  but 
little  was  saved  except  the  tavern  clock.  The  town  was  much 
inconvenienced  by  the  destruction  of  this  house  and  at  once 
began  to  rebuild,  replacing  the  frame  structure  by  a  substan- 
tial brick  building,  with  vaulted  cellars. 

A  large  part  of  the  material  used  for  the  new  tavern  had 
been  prepared  in  anticipation  of  the  building  of  a  Sisters 
House;  so  as  soon  as  the  tavern  was  completed,  plans  for  the 
Sisters  House  were  again  taken  up,  and  this  building  was 
erected  in  1785.  In  it  the  unmarried  women  set  up  an  organi- 
zation which  paralleled  that  of  the  Brothers  House.  All  of 
the  crafts  followed  by  the  women  of  that  day  found  place 
there,  and  a  special  weave  house  was  built  and  equipped.  As 
most  of  the  men  who  had  been  weavers  had  entered  other 
business,  this  enterprise  of  the  Sisters  House  w^as  important 
for  a  number  of  years. 

In  1786  a  brick  addition  was  added  to  the  Brothers  House, 
which  doubled  its  size.  In  digging  the  foundation  for  this 
addition  a  distressing  accident  occurred.  One  evening  the 
Brethren  were  working  on  the  excavation  for  the  basement. 
Just  at  midnight  a  side  wall  caved  in,  burying  one  man  com- 
pletely and  another  partially.  The  second  recovered  quickly, 

Around  Salem  Square  43 

after  he  had  been  bled— bleeding  was  the  approved  ''first  aid" 
of  that  day.  The  first  man,  a  shoemaker  by  the  name  of  An- 
dreas Kremser,  was  rescued  as  speedily  as  possible,  but  he  was 
so  seriously  injured  that  he  died  in  two  or  three  hours.  There 
is  nothing  in  the  incident  (except  the  hour)  to  suggest  a  ghost 
story,  but  the  tradition  of  a  "little  red  man"  who  haunted  the 
Brothers  House  persisted  for  many  years.  There  have  been 
no  reported  appearances  since  electric  lights  were  placed  in 
the  house. 

In  1788  lightning  rods  were  installed  on  the  more  impor- 
tant houses.  In  1790  a  paper  mill  was  built  immediately  west 
of  the  town  by  Gottlieb  Schober,  probably  the  most  versatile 
man  who  ever  lived  in  Salem. 

On  the  last  day  of  May,  1791,  President  George  Washing- 
ton visited  Salem.  He  was  returning  from  his  southern  tour 
and  planned  to  remain  only  one  night  in  Salem,  but  learning 
that  Governor  Alexander  Martin  wished  to  wait  upon  him  he 
decided  to  remain  two  nights,  apparently  the  only  time  on  his 
trip  when  he  did  this.  He  occupied  the  northeast  room  on  the 
second  floor  of  Salem  tavern  and  spent  the  day  visiting  the 
shops  of  the  town  and  other  places  of  interest.  The  records 
say  that  he  was  impressed  by  the  waterworks,  which  had  been 
built  during  the  war,  partly  to  give  work  to  the  Brethren, 
partly  to  secure  permanent  benefit  from  the  constantly  depre- 
ciating currency.  He  visited  the  school  for  little  boys,  which 
was  told  to  continue  as  usual.  As  one  awe-struck  little  fellow 
read  from  "Noah  Webster's  spelling  book"  the  words,  "A 
cat  may  look  on  a  king,"  the  President  smiled  and  remarked 
to  the  teacher,  "They  are  thinking  that  now!"  He  also  en- 
joyed the  music  of  the  community,  a  feature  of  Salem  which 
from  the  beginning  has  attracted  visitors. 

In  1792  Salem  was  given  a  United  States  post  office,  with 
Gottlieb  Schober  as  the  first  postmaster. 

In  1794  a  house  was  built  for  the  boys  school.  The  first 
story  was  of  stone,  the  second  of  brick,  the  roof  of  tile;  and 

44         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

the  vaulted  cellar  room,  the  cooking  hearth,  and  the  large 
oven,  make  it  an  unusually  suitable  place  for  the  present-day 
Museum  of  the  Wachovia  Historical  Society,  for  it  is  itself  a 
museum  piece. 

A  house  for  the  home  and  office  of  the  Salem  vorsteher 
(treasurer  of  the  congregation)  was  erected  in  1797.  It  also 
had  vaulted  cellars  and  stone  walls  for  the  first  story,  with 
brick  above.  It  required  a  minimum  of  remodeling  in  1942  to 
make  it  a  safe  depository  for  the  archives  of  the  Moravian 
Church  in  North  Carolina. 

From  1798  to  1800  all  efforts  of  the  builders  of  Salem  cen- 
tered in  the  erection  of  the  Church,  a  commodius  brick  struc- 
ture, w^hich  is  still  the  Home  Church  of  the  Congregation 
though  the  interior  has  twice  been  remodeled.  It  was  con- 
secrated on  November  9,  1 800,  with  a  province-wide  gather- 
ing on  November  13,  the  anniversary  of  the  organization  of 
the  Congregation.  An  organ  was  built  for  the  church  by 
David  Tanneberger,  of  Lititz,  Pennsylvania,  though  the  case 
was  made  in  Salem  by  Johann  Philip  Bachmann,  who  came 
from  Lititz  for  the  purpose. 

Two  other  events  of  1800  deserve  mention.  On  February  22 
Salem  held  a  special  service  in  the  Meeting  Hall  in  the  Gemein 
Haus  in  memory  of  General  George  Washington,  who  had 
died  on  December  14  of  the  preceding  year.  In  view  of  the 
slow  mail  of  that  day  Congress  had  recommended  February  2  2 
as  an  appropriate  day  of  remembrance. 

On  April  i  "it  pleased  the  Lord  to  bring  to  a  blessed  end 
the  life  of  our  old,  widowed,  Br.  Traugott  Bagge,  the  mer- 
chant here."  At  his  funeral  ru^o  days  later  the  number  of 
those  attending  was  so  large  that  the  Meeting  Hall  could  not 
hold  them.  He  had  lived  to  see  prosperity  return  to  the  town 
and  country  that  he  had  served  so  faithfully. 

In  1 80 1  a  large  brick  house  at  the  east  end  of  the  present 
Bank  Street  was  built  by  Dr.  Samuel  Benjamin  Vierling.  The 
Congregation  leaders  thought  that  the  doctor  was  erecting  too 

Around  Salem  Square  45 

large  a  house,  but  after  his  death  it  was  bought  by  the  Con- 
gregation and  has  served  as  residence  for  a  succession  of  Con- 
gregation officials. 

Three  very  different  items  mark  the  year  of  1802.  On  Feb- 
ruary 1 1  there  passed  away  the  ''heartily  beloved  and  honored 
Brother,  Frederic  William  Marshall,  who  had  served  the 
Unity  with  great  faithfulness  for  sixty-nine  years,  of  which 
forty  were  in  America,  and  most  of  them  in  Wachovia." 

Cowpox  had  recently  been  discovered  in  Europe,  and  in 
June  the  Salem  people  were  inoculated  by  Dr.  Vierling  with 
this  new  preventive  against  the  dread  scourge  smallpox,  and 
very  successfully. 

On  October  31  the  leaders  in  Salem  decided  that  the  re- 
quests of  the  past  ten  years  should  be  answered,  and  that 
arrangements  should  be  made  to  accommodate  daughters  of 
non-Moravian  parents  who  wished  their  girls  to  share  in  the 
education  given  in  the  Salem  Girls  School,  now  thirty  years 
old.  The  Reverend  Samuel  Gottlieb  Kramsch  was  called  as 
the  first  inspector  (principal),  and  plans  were  made  for  the 
immediate  construction  of  a  suitable  house,  now  known  as 
South  Hall  of  Salem  College.  It  took  two  years  to  build  this 
house  but  boarders  and  day  scholars  moved  into  it  in  1804. 
Until  it  was  ready  the  boarding  pupils  lived  in  the  Gemein 
Haus,  where  the  day  school  had  been  held  since  1772. 

The  third  announced  purpose  for  which  the  Moravians 
came  to  North  Carolina  was  to  take  the  Gospel  to  the  Indians. 
Circumstances  had  prevented  this  until  1801,  when  Gottlieb 
Byhan  and  his  wife  were  sent  to  Georgia  to  begin  a  mission 
among  the  Cherokee  Indians.  Springplace  became  the  center 
of  this  work,  which  was  continued  by  a  succession  of  men 
and  women  from  Salem  until  1836,  when  the  Government  of 
the  United  States  moved  the  Indians  westward  by  force  in 
order  to  give  their  land  to  whites.  The  sympathies  of  the 
missionaries  were  all  with  the  Indians.  They  wanted  to  accom- 

46         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

pany  their  flock,  and  when  this  proved  inadvisable  they  jour- 
neyed independently  and  joined  the  Indians  in  their  new 
abode.  Ultimately  the  control  of  this  Indian  mission  was  trans- 
ferred from  Salem  to  Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania. 

In  1 807  two  missionaries  were  sent  to  the  Creek  Indians  on 
Flint  River,  in  Georgia,  but  local  disturbances  rendered  the 
place  dangerous,  and  the  men  were  recalled  to  Salem  after  a 
few  years. 

Just  as  the  War  of  1 8 1 2  was  breaking  out,  Lewis  David  von 
Schweinitz  and  his  wife  journeyed  from  Europe  to  Salem. 
In  the  days  of  sailing  vessels  the  voyage  from  Europe  to 
America  was  long  and  dangerous.  Six  weeks  was  considered  a 
quick  trip;  six  months  was  not  unusual.  Shipwreck  was  an 
ever-present  possibihty.  One  of  the  most  thrilling  voyage 
diaries  extant  is  the  record  that  von  Schweinitz  kept  during 
his  journey  to  America. 

Lewis  David  von  Schweinitz  was  born  in  Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania,  where  his  father,  the  Reverend  H.  C.  A.  von 
Schweinitz  was  serving  in  the  Moravian  Church.  When 
the  father  was  called  to  another  position  in  Europe,  he  took 
his  family  with  him;  so  Lewis  David  completed  his  education 
in  Moravian  schools  in  Germany.  While  teaching  in  a  boys 
school  in  Niesky  he  gave  much  time  to  the  study  of  the  fungi 
of  Lusatia,  and  in  collaboration  with  Professor  von  Albertini 
published  a  beautifully  illustrated  book  on  the  subject.  This 
won  for  him  the  Ph.D.  degree  from  the  University  of  Kiel, 
and  he  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  American-born  man  to 
receive  a  doctor's  degree. 

In  Salem  he  held  the  position  in  the  church  formerly  held 
by  Marshall  and  served  with  great  ability.  He  also  continued 
his  botanical  studies,  and  is  sometimes  called  "the  father  of 
American  mycology."  In  1822  he  was  called  to  Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania,  where  he  died  on  February  4,  1834.  His  scien- 
tific works  were  written  in  Latin,  and  for  them  he  signed  his 
name  de  Schweinitz,  and  this  form  of  the  name  was  retained 

Around  Salem  Square  47 

by  his  four  sons,  all  of  whom  entered  the  ministry  of  the 
Moravian  Church.  Two  of  them  returned  to  Salem  and  filled 
important  positions  there. 

The  War  of  18 12,  which  so  nearly  terminated  the  life  of  de 
Schweinitz  and  his  wife  on  their  voyage  to  America,  came  to 
an  end  in  1815.  The  first  news  of  peace  was  celebrated  in 
Salem  in  the  evening  of  March  i  with  an  illumination  of  the 
town  accompanied  by  processions  and  music.  The  Day  of 
Thanksgiving  proclaimed  by  the  President  and  Congress  for 
April  1 3  was  observed  with  more  formality  in  Salem  and  the 
other  congregations  in  Wachovia. 

In  the  earlier  years  of  Salem  the  store  served  many  of  the 
purposes  of  a  local  bank.  In  July,  18 15,  men  of  Salem  secured 
a  branch  of  the  Bank  of  Cape  Fear,  which  had  headquarters 
in  Wilmington.  Named  as  agents  were  Charles  F.  Bagge, 
Christian  Blum,  and  Emanuel  Schober.  Blum  promptly  built 
himself  a  house;  and  in  18 16  he  became  the  active  agent  of 
the  branch  bank.  For  some  years  things  went  smoothly,  but 
the  income  was  insufficient  for  his  needs,  and  early  in  1827 
he  established  a  printing  office.  In  December  of  that  year 
disaster  overtook  him.  He  was  counting  paper  currency  when 
it  was  time  to  go  to  the  church  and  light  the  candles.  Leaving 
the  bills  on  the  table  he  hastily  blew  out  the  lights,  and  so  far 
as  could  be  ascertained  a  spark  must  have  fallen  on  the  paper, 
for  he  had  hardly  reached  the  church  when  his  table  at  home 
was  a  mass  of  flames.  The  fire  was  put  out  before  the  house 
caught,  but  an  estimated  $10,000  in  currency  was  burned. 
It  looked  as  if  Blum  would  be  utterly  ruined,  for  the  head 
office  in  Wilmington  refused  at  first  to  believe  the  story;  but 
a  compromise  was  effected  by  Charles  Bagge,  and  Blum  was 
able  to  continue  his  printing  business,  though  he  lost  his  place 
as  bank  agent. 

At  about  the  same  time  the  banks  in  general  were  in  finan- 
cial difficulties.  Men  who  had  bought  bank  stock  on  credit 
lost  heavily  when  their  loans  were  called,  citizens  of  Salem 

48         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

among  the  rest.  The  State  Bank  and  the  Bank  of  New  Bern 
liquidated.  The  Bank  of  Cape  Fear  also  touched  bottom,  but 
held  on  and  regained  credit.  In  1847  a  brick  building  was 
erected  for  a  new  branch  of  the  Bank  of  Cape  Fear  at  the 
southwest  corner  of  Main  Street  and  the  cross  street  there- 
after known  as  Bank  Street. 

In  addition  to  his  many  other  interests,  Gottlieb  Schober 
had  become  a  Lutheran  minister,  having  accepted  ordination 
in  that  denomination  in  order  to  serve  the  scattered  Lutheran 
congregations  still  without  pastoral  service.  His  field  was  too 
large  for  one  man,  and  the  Salem  ministers  often  helped  him 
by  holding  services  at  one  or  another  place  when  he  was  busy 
elsewhere.  One  result  of  this  co-operation  was  the  establishing 
of  the  Hopewell  Sunday  School,  in  September,  18 16. 

Rippel's  Church,  or  Hopewell,  was  about  four  miles  south 
of  Salem,  and  several  of  the  teachers  in  the  Salem  Girls 
School,  including  one  of  Schober's  daughters,  volunteered  to 
go  there  every  Sunday  and  conduct  a  school,  in  which  they 
would  teach  the  children  and  young  people  to  read  so  that 
they  might  read  the  Bible.  In  addition,  the  scholars  were 
taught  Bible  verses  and  trained  to  sing  hymns.  The  next  year 
a  similar  Sunday  school  was  opened  in  Salem  for  the  benefit 
of  the  children  of  neighbors  for  whom  there  was  no  other 
opportunity  for  education. 

The  young  people  of  the  Salem  congregation  did  not  need 
this  early  type  of  Sunday  school.  Reading  was  taught  in  the 
day  schools  of  Salem,  and  religious  instruction  was  given  in 
the  children's  meetings  held  during  the  week.  What  is  now 
the  Home  Moravian  Sunday  School  was  not  begun  until  1 849, 
and  then  more  in  the  modern  manner. 

On  January  20,  1822,  the  Salem  Female  Missionary  Society 
was  organized,  primarily  to  foster  religious  work  among  the 
Negroes,  though  also  for  the  support  of  foreign  missions. 
There  were  not  many  Negroes  living  in  the  town  of  Salem, 
but  there  were  more  on  the  neighboring  farms.  The  Salem 

Around  Salem  Square  49 

board  of  elders  therefore  appointed  the  Reverend  Abraham 
Steiner  to  take  charge  of  the  work,  and  he  immediately  began 
to  hold  meetings  on  the  farms  around  Salem.  Three  of  the 
older  Negroes  were  communicant  members  of  the  Salem  con- 
gregation, and  around  them  a  little  Negro  congregation  was 
gradually  assembled.  The  first  church  ifor  them  was  a  small 
log  structure,  consecrated  in  1823.  On  March  4,  1827,  a  Sun- 
day school  was  begun  there  by  members  of  the  Female  Mis- 
sionary Society.  A  new  church  was  erected  in  1861;  to  this  a 
large  addition  was  made  in  1890,  and  the  name  "St.  Philips" 
was  given  to  it  by  Bishop  Edward  Rondthaler.  The  Female 
Missionary  Society,  which  changed  its  name  to  the  Woman's 
Missionary  Society,  has  always  maintained  its  interest  in  the 
"colored  church." 

Dr.  Frederic  Schuman,  who  succeeded  Dr.  Vierling  as  one 
of  the  Salem  doctors,  was  very  fond  of  music,  and  tradition 
says  that  he  trained  the  musicians  who  rendered  Haydn's 
oratorio,  "The  Creation,"  which  was  given  in  the  Salem 
church  on  July  4,  1829,  and  again  in  the  church  in  1833. 
Blum  printed  the  libretto,  and  on  one  copy  in  the  Salem 
Archives  the  names  of  the  soloists  have  been  written,  so  it  is 
known  that  one  or  both  times  (the  libretto  is  not  dated)  Dr. 
Schuman  sang  the  part  of  Uriel  in  the  first  part,  while  Henry 
Shultz  sang  it  in  the  second  part;  Frederic  Christian  Meinung 
sang  the  part  of  Raphael;  and  Antoinette  Bagge  the  part  of 
Gabriel.  In  the  trio  with  Uriel  and  Raphael,  A.  E.  Crist  took 
the  part  of  Gabriel. 

In  1836  a  beginning  was  made  in  introducing  steam  power 
into  Salem  industries.  As  a  result  of  stories  of  15  to  20  per 
cent  profit  made  by  other  cotton  factories  in  the  state,  the 
Salem  Cotton  Manufacturing  Company  was  organized,  and 
the  first  general  meeting  of  the  company  was  held  on  July  9. 
Stock  amounting  to  $50,000  was  quickly  subscribed  by  thirty 
stockholders,  who  paid  $200  per  share.  An  agent  was  ap- 

50         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

pointed;  a  substantial  factory  building  was  erected,  with  the 
necessary  other  houses  for  employees;  an  engine  was  bought 
in  Baltimore;  spindles  and  looms  were  installed. 

During  the  early  years  business  was  satisfactory,  but  by 
1847  the  picture  had  changed.  Debtors  were  numerous,  and 
so  were  creditors.  The  panic  caused  by  the  Mexican  War 
made  it  impossible  to  collect  debts.  Cotton  was  high;  the  price 
of  "domesticks"  and  yarn  was  relatively  low.  In  November, 
1849,  it  was  decided  "to  wind  up  as  soon  as  possible."  The 
larger  stockholders  protected  the  creditors  who  did  not  own 
stock,  and  took  heavy  losses.  In  March,  1854,  the  plant  was 
bought  by  John  Morehead  of  Greensboro. 

Morehead  sold  the  property  to  Rufus  L.  Patterson,  who  ran 
it  as  a  grist  mill.  During  the  Civil  War  it  was  again  a  yarn 
mill,  owned  by  Robert  Gray  and  Peter  Wilson.  Later  it  was 
bought  by  the  firm  of  F.  &  H.  Fries,  and  was  again  for  some 
years  a  grist  mill.  The  property  (at  the  end  of  Cherry  Street, 
on  the  south  side  of  Brookstown  Avenue)  is  now  used  by  the 
Western  Electric  Company. 

While  the  cotton  factory  was  sliding  down  hill  Francis 
Fries  was  developing  a  wool  mill  on  lot  No.  103,  on  the  north- 
west corner  of  New  Shallowford  Street  and  Salt  Street 
(Brookstown  Avenue  and  South  Liberty  Street) .  Fries  leased 
the  lot  in  February,  1 840,  and  immediately  began  to  erect  the 
factory,  placing  it  in  the  middle  of  the  lot  on  the  east  side  of 
the  small  branch  which  ran  across  the  lot.  A  wood-burning 
steam  engine  furnished  the  power,  and  the  first  wool  rolls 
were  carded  on  June  17.  Spinning  was  commenced  on  Octo- 
ber 31.  Looms  were  added,  and  in  May,  1842,  Fries  could 
announce  to  the  public  that  he  expected  "to  keep  constantly 
on  hand  a  good  assortment  of  Rolls,  common  Yarn,  Stocking 
Yarn  ready  twisted,  and  cheap  Lindseys  and  Cloths  of  differ- 
ent colors,  qualities  and  prices."  By  May  of  the  next  year 
"good,  heavy  Jeans"  had  been  added  to  the  hne,  and  became 
one  of  the  most  popular  products. 

Around  Salem  Square  51 

On  March  5,  1846,  Francis  Fries  took  into  partnership  his 
younger  brother,  Henry  W.  Fries,  who  had  already  been 
helping  him  in  the  mill.  Connections  were  made  with  business 
firms  in  the  North;  and  trade  spread  widely  in  the  South. 
During  the  Civil  War  the  Fries  mills  worked  largely  on  the 
cloth  used  for  the  Confederate  uniforms. 

Francis  Fries  died  in  1863.  His  brother  remained  the  head 
of  the  firm  to  the  end  of  his  long  life;  the  three  sons  of 
Francis  Fries  became  partners  as  they  reached  the  age  of 
twenty-one  years.  The  property  was  ultimately  sold  to  the 
Southbound  Railway  Company  and  the  site  is  now  occupied 
by  the  freight  station  of  that  Company. 

In  January,  1852,  the  Fayette ville  and  Western  Plank  Road 
had  reached  High  Point,  and  application  was  made  to  the 
Salem  church  boards  for  right  of  way  over  the  Salem  land. 
This  was  gladly  granted,  for  the  plank  road  was  then  a  very 
modern  form  of  improved  highway.  Wooden  rails  were  laid, 
with  planks  placed  side  by  side  across  them.  It  is  said  that 
the  planks  were  not  nailed  down;  so  the  road  must  have  been 
a  very  noisy  and  very  impermanent  affair,  but  at  least  it  kept 
the  wagons  above  the  mud.  A  Mr.  Cooper  was  the  engineer, 
and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  confer  with  him  as  to  how 
the  road  would  be  run  through  Salem.  It  was  decided  to  grade 
Main  Street  from  the  south  corner  of  the  Square  to  New 
Shallowford  Street,  the  planks  to  be  laid  in  the  center,  while 
the  town  would  pave  the  rest  of  the  street  on  each  side. 

Fries  wanted  the  road  to  turn  west  at  New  Shallowford 
Street  and  pass  his  factory;  and  when  others  decided  that  it 
must  go  "past  the  hotels"  into  Winston,  he  built  a  spur  track 
on  New  Shallowford,  meeting  the  main  road  a  short  distance 
west  of  town  on  its  way  to  Bethania.  The  plan  had  been  to 
extend  it  much  farther  to  the  west,  but  this  was  never  done. 

After  the  Civil  War,  Mr.  George  Hinshaw  wanted  to  buy 
a  lot  on  Cherry  Street  which  had  been  crossed  by  the  road 
after  it  turned  west  in  Winston.  Former  stockholders  of  the 

52         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Plank  Road  claimed  that  the  land  covered  by  the  right  of  way 
had  been  given  to  them,  but  lawyers  ruled  that  a  permit  to 
use  became  void  when  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  granted 
had  ceased  to  exist.  The  Union  Bus  Station  now  stands  at  that 

Three  other  items  may  be  noted  that  belong  to  the  period 
before  the  Civil  War. 

In  1 84 1  the  Belo  home  was  erected.  Edward  Belo  was 
trained  as  a  cabinet-maker,  but  he  had  ambitions  to  become  a 
merchant;  so  he  gave  up  his  position  as  a  master  cabinet-maker 
and  opened  a  small  store  in  the  house  on  the  northeast  corner 
of  Main  and  Bank  streets,  originally  the  "skin-house,"  but 
more  recently  the  home  of  his  father  Frederic  Belo.  The  small 
store  prospered,  and  Edward  Belo  bought  the  home  from  his 
widowed  mother,  who  moved  to  the  Widows  House.  He  also 
bought  the  home  of  his  brother,  Lewis  Belo,  and  in  the  place 
of  these  two  small  houses  he  erected  the  large  house.  His  store 
occupied  the  Main  Street  floor;  his  family  lived  on  the  second 
floor,  entering  from  Bank  Street,  and  his  clerks  roomed  on  the 
third  floor.  The  iron  grill-work  on  the  portico  and  in  the 
fence  and  the  three  iron  animals  on  the  parapet  beside 
the  steps  were  made  at  his  foundry  north  of  town. 

In  1849  Stokes  County  was  divided,  and  the  Forsyth 
County  commissioners  bought  52^/4  acres  of  Salem  land  for 
the  new  county  seat.  Small  as  was  the  price  paid,  it  enabled 
the  Salem  church  boards  to  complete  their  payments  to  the 
Unity  Administration  for  the  entire  Salem  tract  and  so  made 
possible  the  abrogation  of  the  lease  system  in  Salem  in  1856. 

During  the  years  various  improvements  had  been  made  at 
the  house  which  accommodated  the  girls  school,  and  two 
additions  had  been  built;  but  more  room  was  needed,  and  in 
1854  the  old  Gemein  Haus  was  taken  down,  and  a  large  brick 
building  (Main  Hall)  was  erected  in  its  place. 

Even  this  was  not  sufficient  when  the  Civil  War  came. 
Parents  in  more  exposed  sections  thought  of  Salem  as  a  safe 

Around  Salem  Square  53 

place  for  their  daughters.  So  many  came  that  all  available 
space  was  used  and  place  for  more  was  found  in  homes  in  the 
town.  ''We  have  no  more  beds,  but  if  you  will  furnish  beds 
we  will  try  to  take  care  of  your  daughters,"  was  one  message 
sent  to  prospective  patrons. 

Food  for  so  large  a  group  was  a  serious  problem.  Governor 
Vance  sent  sugar  from  captured  supplies.  Former  pupils  later 
remembered  with  some  amusement  the  picture  made  by  their 
dignified  Inspector  (Principal)  as  he  bestrode  a  horse  behind 
a  herd  of  swine  which  he  was  helping  to  drive  to  town  for 
the  Academy  table. 

The  first  volunteer  company  to  go  out  from  Salem  was  led 
by  Captain  Alfred  H.  Belo,  son  of  Edward  Belo.  A  flag  was 
made  for  them  by  some  of  their  friends,  and  the  young  ladies 
stood  on  the  steps  of  the  Belo  home  as  they  presented  it  to  the 
young  soldiers  grouped  on  the  pavement  below.  A  few  days 
later  the  company  gathered  in  front  of  Main  Hall,  and  Bishop 
George  Bahnson  gave  them  his  blessing  as  they  left  for  the 
front.  Their  flag  is  now  in  the  Confederate  Museum  in  Rich- 
mond, Virginia.  Another  flag,  made  for  Captain  Wharton's 
company,  is  in  the  Museum  of  the  Wachovia  Historical 
Society  in  Winston-Salem. 

Near  the  close  of  the  war  Stoneman's  Brigade  approached 
Salem.  Stoneman  and  part  of  his  force  went  to  Salisbury  to 
tear  up  the  railroad  there;  General  Palmer  and  the  rest  of  the 
men  came  to  Salem.  A  scouting  party  went  out  to  see  whether 
the  troops  were  actually  approaching,  for  there  had  been 
several  false  alarms.  This  time  they  appeared,  the  scouts  were 
obliged  to  scatter,  and  most  of  them  lost  their  horses;  but 
word  was  brought  to  Salem  and  the  Reverend  Robert  de 
Schweinitz,  the  Inspector  of  the  Academy,  and  Joshua  Boner, 
Mayor  of  the  town,  went  out  to  meet  them  and  to  ask  for 
protection  for  the  School  and  for  the  residents  of  the  town. 
The  Inspector  tied  his  white  handkerchief  to  his  cane  and 
waved  it  as  a  flag  of  truce,  but  the  soldiers  paid  no  attention 

54         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

to  him,  and  he  impulsively  grasped  the  rein  of  the  horse  on 
which  the  General  was  riding.  The  General  reached  for  his 
pistol,  and  (he  never  knew  why)  the  Inspector  exclaimed: 
"I  am  de  Schweinitz!"  In  utter  surprise  the  General  put  his 
pistol  back  into  the  holster,  and  said,  "I  had  a  teacher  of  that 
name  when  I  was  in  school  in  Lititz." 

Perhaps  because  of  this  early  and  pleasantly  remembered 
contact  with  the  Moravians,  perhaps  because  he  knew  the  war 
was  nearly  over  and  did  not  wish  to  cause  needless  destruc- 
tion—whatever the  cause— the  General  did  give  the  School 
and  the  town  the  desired  protection.  Some  stores  were  seized, 
much  food  was  demanded  by  the  soldiers  and  was  prepared 
for  them,  but  there  was  none  of  the  ruthless  destruction  of 
property  so  frequently  occurring  in  war. 

Reconstruction  brought  its  own  problems  to  Salem.  The 
wool  mill  sent  two  men  to  the  south  to  gather  up  the  cotton 
which  had  been  bought  but  not  delivered.  The  railroad  had 
been  broken  in  various  places,  but  the  cotton  which  could 
not  be  brought  to  Salem  was  taken  to  the  nearest  seaport  and 
shipped  to  the  North,  which  re-established  credit  there.  The 
method  of  purchase  and  sale  by  barter  had  continued  through- 
out the  war  and  could  still  be  used.  Most  of  the  former  slaves 
continued  to  serve  the  famihes  which  had  been  kind  to  them 
before  the  war. 

The  Salem  Female  Academy  suffered  severely,  for  parents 
elsewhere  were  generally  not  in  a  position  to  send  their 
daughters  away  for  an  education.  The  School,  already  ninety- 
four  years  old,  took  out  a  charter  in  1866,  giving  it  legally  all 
the  rights  and  privileges  of  a  college.  Gradually,  as  times  grew 
better,  the  number  of  pupils  increased  again;  the  preparatory 
grades  were  dropped;  the  Academy  and  College  were  sepa- 
rated; and  the  Academy  was  transplanted  into  buildings  of 
its  own  beyond  the  ravine,  while  the  College  kept  the  old 
frontage  on  Salem  Square. 

Moravian  Church  finances  were  complicated  by  the  serious 
losses  during  the  war,  which  had  swept  away  practically  all 

Around  Salem  Square  55 

its  invested  funds.  When  the  Reverend  Edward  Rondthaler 
came  as  pastor  of  Salem  Congregation  in  1877,  he  drew  the 
leading  laymen  of  Salem  into  church  affairs  again,  and  the 
members  in  general  began  to  open  their  pocketbooks  in  a  way 
which  had  not  seemed  necessary  until  then. 

As  Winston  grew,  Salem  men  showed  more  and  more  inter- 
est in  it  and  shared  in  the  businesses  established  there. 

The  town  of  Salem  was  incorporated  in  1856,  with  Charles 
Brietz  as  the  first  mayor. 

The  "Congregation  of  United  Brethren  of  Salem  and  its 
Vicinity"  was  incorporated  in  1874;  the  "Board  of  Provincial 
Elders  of  the  Southern  Province  of  the  Moravian  Church  or 
Unitas  Fratrum"  was  incorporated  in  1877.  Bishop  Emil  A. 
de  Schweinitz,  the  last  of  the  Proprietors  of  Wachovia,  con- 
veyed to  the  respective  boards  the  lands  properly  belonging 
to  them,  and  the  trusteeship,  a  century  and  a  quarter  old, 
came  to  an  end. 

For  a  number  of  years  Winston  and  Salem  lived  side  by 
side,  two  municipalities  but  in  truth  a  Twin  City— as  it  was 
often  called.  The  postoffices  were  consolidated  by  Mr.  Philip 
Lybrook,  postmaster  in  Winston,  who  saw  in  the  increased 
size  of  the  office  an  opportunity  to  give  the  citizens  city 
delivery  of  the  mail,  and  the  name  Winston-Salem  was  given 
at  that  time.  In  191 3,  by  vote  of  the  people,  the  two  cities 
were  united  in  government,  as  they  had  been  united  in  interest 
for  many  years. 



WINSTON,  unlike  Salem,  was  established  with 
little  planning  for  its  future  development. 
Indeed,  the  only  planning  for  the  new  town 
over  the  line  from  Salem  was  the  laying  out  of 
a  central  square  for  the  courthouse  and  the  extension  as  high- 
ways of  the  Salem  streets  of  Main  and  Salt  (afterwards 
Liberty)  northward  to  Seventh  and  the  laying  out  of  cross 
streets  east  and  west,  also  as  highways. 

The  pen-and-ink  map  of  early  Winston  preserved  in  the 
Moravian  Archives  shows  that  the  Winston  of  1849  com- 
prised the  territory  included  between  Church  and  Trade 
(formerly  Old  Town)  as  far  north  as  Sixth  and  between 
Main  and  Trade  as  far  north  as  Seventh. 

This  tract  of  51  i/i  acres,  which  for  the  sum  of  $256.25  the 
county  commissioners  purchased  from  Salem  Congregation 
for  the  county  seat  of  Forsyth,  was  divided  into  seventy-one 
lots,  not  counting  the  site  of  the  courthouse.  The  first  sale  of 
these  lots  at  public  auction  was  held  May  12,  1849,  and  Robert 
Gray  bought  the  first,  number  41,  site  of  Wachovia  Bank  and 
Trust  Company,  for  $465.  On  June  22,  1849,  the  second  sale 
of  lots  was  held.  The  purchasers  at  these  two  sales,  many  of 
them  buying  more  than  one,  were  Robert  Gray,  David  Blum, 
Isaac  Gibson,  John  S.  Brown,  J.  Sanders,  J.  A.  Waugh, 
Thomas  J.  Wilson,  John  Keller,  D.  Starbuck,  Thomas  Sid- 
dall,  Thomas  Ayres,  A.  J.  Stafford,  John  Pepper,  F.  C. 
Meinung,  John  Masten,  C.  L.  Banner,  Christian  Reed,  David 
Cook,  Joshua  Bethel,  Francis  Fries,  J.  P.  Vest,  I.  Golding, 
A.  Nicholson,  A.  Vogler,  Christian  Hege,  J.  H.  White,  P. 
Hopkins,  R.  Walker,  D.  Collins,  Henry  Holder,  S.  Mickey, 
Edward  Reich,  J.  Vogler,  Jacob  Tise,  J.  Ferrabe,  Joseph 

It  is  of  interest  to  know  that  before  Winston  was  set- 
tled there  was  one  dwelling  on  the  site  of  the  county-seat- 
to-be,  the  substantial,  two-story  home  of  Judge  Thomas  J. 
Wilson,  at  Second  and  Main  streets.  Judge  Wilson,  so  the 


6o         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

story  goes,  wishing  to  live  in  the  country,  obtained  from  the 
Moravian  Congregation  a  lease  on  the  land  upon  which  he 
built  his  home  place.  This  was  evidently  before  the  year  1849, 
for  the  deed  to  Judge  Wilson  from  Salem  Congregation,  dated 
May  12,  1849,  recites  that  T.  J.  Wilson  lived  on  the  site  under 
a  lease  and  that  upon  the  paying  of  a  reasonable  and  moderate 
sum  ($133.00)  he  was  to  have  conveyed  to  him  the  said  lot  in 
fee  simple. 

The  second  house  erected  in  Winston  was  that  of  Mr. 
Jesse  Kennedy  on  Liberty  Street  near  First,  according  to  the 
statement  of  Air.  Robert  Gray  (son  of  Mr.  Robert  Gray,  Sr., 
one  of  the  founders  of  Winston) ,  in  his  Fourth  of  July  ora- 
tion in  1876.  The  first  stores  erected  were  those  of  Harmon 
Miller,  Robert  Gray,  Sr.,  Sullivan  &  Bell,  and  William 

The  first  mayor  of  the  small  town  was  William  Barrow; 
the  first  police  officer,  Hezekiah  Thomas,  who  in  addition  to 
his  other  duties  was  required  to  patrol  the  town  at  night, 
stopping  at  each  corner  and  sounding  his  trumpet  to  let  the 
inhabitants  know  that  he  was  on  his  job  and  ready  for  any 

For  two  years  after  the  erection  of  Forsyth,  its  county  seat 
had  no  name.  There  were  some  who  thought  that  it  should  be 
called  Salem.  As  the  courthouse  neared  completion,  however, 
that  idea  caused  dissatisfaction.  So  the  Court  of  Pleas  and 
Quarter  Sessions,  which  had  charge  of  county  aff^airs,  ordered 
that  the  sheriff  of  Forsyth  call  for  an  election  to  name  the 
new  town  by  popular  vote. 

For  some  reason  this  motion  of  the  court  was  lost,  and  it 
was  not  until  the  January,  185 1,  meeting  of  the  General 
Assembly  that  a  name  was  finally  decided  upon  for  Forsyth's 
county  seat.  Colonel  Alarshall,  who  lived  in  the  Salem  Chapel 
section  of  the  county,  introduced  the  bill  giving  the  name 
Winston  to  the  town.  An  act  was  passed,  and  on  January  15, 
1 85 1,  this  Act  was  ratified.  It  was  two  months  later  that  the 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        6i 

name  Winston  appears  for  the  first  time  in  county  records 
when  on  March  17,  185 1,  the  minutes  state  that  "Court  was 
opened  and  held  at  the  Court-House  in  the  town  of  Winston." 

It  seems  strange  that  Colonel  Marshall  should  have  selected 
the  name  of  a  Virginian  rather  than  a  native  North  Carolinian 
for  the  county  seat  of  Forsyth.  It  is  true  that  Joseph  Winston, 
for  whom  our  town  was  named,  lived  for  years  in  Surry 
County,  later  Stokes,  but  the  first  twenty-three  years  of  his 
hfe  he  spent  in  Virginia,  where,  in  Louisa  County  on  June  17, 
1746,  he  was  born  and  where  at  an  early  age  he  made  a  name 
for  himself  as  an  Indian  fighter.  In  an  expedition  against  fron- 
tier Indians  he  was  severely  wounded.  Unable  to  walk,  he 
was  carried  on  the  back  of  a  comrade  to  a  place  of  conceal- 
ment where  for  three  days  he  lived  on  wild  berries. 

About  1769  Joseph  Winston  moved  from  Virginia  to  North 
Carolina  and  settled  on  a  fork  of  the  Dan  River,  where,  as  the 
old  records  state,  he  might  have  a  view  of  the  mountains 
whose  cloud-capped  summits  seemed  within  a  squirrel's  jump 
of  heaven. 

During  the  Revolutionary  period  he  was  a  daring  fighter. 
At  the  battle  of  King's  Mountain  he  so  distinguished  himself 
that  the  General  Assembly  of  North  Carolina  voted  him  an 
''elegant"  sword.  Twice  he  represented  his  district  in  Con- 
gress; and  when  his  section  of  Surry  became  Stokes,  he  was 
five  times  elected  senator  from  Stokes. 

On  April  21,  18 15,  he  died,  leaving  a  large  family;  among 
his  children  were  three  sons  born  at  a  single  birth.  One  of 
these  triplets  became  a  major  general;  another  a  judge;  and 
the  third,  removing  to  Mississippi,  became  lieutenant  gov- 
ernor of  that  state. 

Major  Joseph  Winston  was  buried  in  his  family  plot  in 
Germanton,  Stokes  County.  Much  later  his  remains  and  his 
tombstone  were  removed  to  the  Guilford  Battle  Ground,  and 
placed  where  he  had  fought  in  the  crucial  engagement  at 
Guilford  Courthouse. 

62         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Of  the  beginning  days  of  Winston  no  records  have  been 
found.  The  first  mention  of  the  town  is  the  following  item 
from  the  February  8,  185 1,  issue  of  the  People's  Press  of 

"Our  young  neighbor-town  Winston  can  boast  of  the  Hall 
of  Justice,  which  stands  out  in  bold  relief— an  ornament  to 
the  county  and  surpassed  by  few,  if  any,  buildings  of  the 
kind  in  the  State.  There  let  Justice  reign  supreme. 

"Then  comes  the  Prison  House— not  yet  completed,  rather 
a  gloomy  looking  place.  May  the  mere  sight  of  its  grated 
windows  prove  a  terror  to  evildoers  and  its  cells  ever  remain 

"Several  dwellings,  store-houses,  hotels,  and  a  Church  [the 
Methodist  Protestant  on  Liberty  and  Seventh,  present  site  of 
the  First  Methodist  Episcopal  Church]  have  been  erected  and 
in  part  occupied.  Other  buildings  are  in  process." 

On  March  22,  185 1,  the  People's  Press  again  refers  to  the 
new  town  across  Salem  line: 

"A  new  Post  Office,"  the  editor  states,  "has  been  established 
at  Winston,  John  P.  Vest,  Esq.,  Postmaster,"  and  among  the 
advertisements  he  gives  notice  that  "the  subscriber,  John  B. 
Panky,  is  determined  to  open  an  English  and  Classical  School 
in  Winston,  his  terms  for  the  first  five  months  being  $15  for 
language,  $10  for  higher  branches  of  English  and  $3  for  lower. 
Outside  pupils  can  obtain  board  in  Salem  for  $5  or  $6  per 

Board  for  Mr.  Panky's  "outside  pupils"  must  have  been  in 
keeping  with  the  cost  of  living  in  the  community,  for  accord- 
ing to  the  market  prices  listed  in  the  People's  Press  of  the  day 
flour  was  7  dollars  a  barrel,  lard  8  cents  a  pound,  butter  1 2  V2 
cents  a  pound,  eggs  5  cents  a  dozen,  and  chickens  6  to  8  cents 
a  pound. 

Slowly  but  steadily  little  Winston  grew,  and  on  January  3, 
1852,  we  find  editor  Blum  writing  in  the  People's  Press,  "An 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       63 

occasional  walk  to  our  adjoining  neighbor  Winston  never 
fails  to  impress  us  with  the  growing  importance  of  that  place. 
New  and  tasty  buildings  have  been  erected  in  1851  and  others 
are  in  progress.  The  citizens  of  Winston  mostly  display  that 
neatness  in  the  erection  of  their  dwellings  which  strikes  the 

Within  the  pages  of  the  Books  of  Minutes  of  the  first  com- 
missioners of  Winston,  an  item  here  and  there  helps  one  to 
reconstruct  life  as  it  was  in  the  beginning  days  of  Forsyth's 
county  town. 

Book  One  of  these  records  starts  with  the  organization, 
April  15,  1859,  of  the  first  Board  of  Commissioners— William 
Barrow,  mayor  (who  like  the  other  early  mayors  of  Winston 
received  no  remuneration  other  than  grateful  thanks  for  the 
time  and  effort  spent  upon  the  upbuilding  of  the  community) 
and  Robert  Gray,  H.  A.  Holder,  Jacob  Tise,  Henry  Renegar, 
N.  S.  Cook,  Franklin  L.  Gorrell,  and  A.  J.  Stafford,  commis- 
sioners, elected  for  one  year. 

Problems  dealing  with  the  retailing  of  spirituous  liquor 
within  village  bounds— the  issuing  of  hquor  licenses,  the  dis- 
position of  drunkards,  the  appointment  of  constable  and 
patrolmen  to  keep  order,  the  erection  of  a  calaboose— occupy 
a  large  place  in  these  early  town  records. 

One  of  the  first  laws  made  by  the  commissioners.  May  1 1 , 
1859,  related  to  the  punishment  of  a  person  found  drunk  on 
the  street;  he  was  to  be  committed  to  jail  until  he  became 
sober  and  then  he  was  to  be  taken  to  the  whipping  post  and 
given  not  less  than  15  lashes  nor  more  than  39. 

Next  to  liquor,  taxes,  and  the  keeping  up  of  public  high- 
ways, the  question  most  perplexing  to  the  early  commissioners 
of  Winston  was  what  to  do  about  the  dogs  that  ran  at  large 
on  the  streets,  and  the  cows  and  the  hogs. 

Winston's  thrifty  householders  at  this  time  raised  hogs  on 
their  premises,  and  many  of  them  were  none  too  particular 

64         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

in  keeping  them  in  their  pens.  Indeed,  hogs-at-large  became 
such  a  nuisance  that  at  one  session,  December  27,  1871,  the 
commissioners  went  so  far  as  to  appoint  a  committee  to  confer 
with  a  like  committee  from  Salem  as  to  the  necessity  and 
feasibility  of  forming  a  hog  association  of  mutual  interest  to 
both  communities. 

Characteristic  of  the  spirit  of  the  friendly  little  Winston  of 
the  1 870's— population  four  or  five  hundred— is  the  resolution 
passed  during  the  administration  of  Mayor  T.  T.  Best  and 
Commissioners  Cyrus  B.  Watson,  Edward  Spaugh,  J.  S. 
White,  P.  C.  Miller,  and  Henry  Holder  concerning  one  J.  N. 
Mathes  (of  whom  nothing  can  be  found  except  this  one 
reference  to  him). 

It  seems  that  these  officials  felt  especially  grateful  to  Mathes 
for  the  interest  he  had  manifested  in  town  affairs  during  their 
administration,  and  so,  leaving  on  record:  "Everything  he 
touches  thrives,"  they  passed  the  resolution  that  this  co-opera- 
tive citizen  be  given  not  only  a  vote  of  thanks  but  a  gift  of  a 
pair  of  breeches  and  a  gourd— and  to  purchase  this  gift  the 
individual  members  of  the  Board  brought  out  from  their  own 
pockets  the  sum  of  $7.15. 

There  was  little  to  break  the  monotony  of  every-day  life  in 
early  Winston.  General  muster,  with  the  marching  and  drill- 
ing of  village  and  county  boys  and  men  to  the  sound  of  fife 
and  drum,  through  mutual  interest  drew  together  in  friendly 
intercourse  people  of  all  classes.  A  "big  meeting"  at  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  corner  of  Sixth  and  Liberty, 
with  its  hearty  singing  and  shouting,  was  also  an  occasion  for 
old  and  young  to  mingle  not  only  in  spiritual  fellowship  but 
in  neighborly  companionship.  But  the  outstanding  occasions 
in  the  social  life  of  the  community  were  the  regularly  re- 
curring sessions  of  court,  with  the  attendant  crowds,  noisy 
and  good-natured,  blocking  the  muddy  streets,  talking 
politics,  swapping  horses,  crowding  village  stores. 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        65 

During  court  week  everybody  in  the  county  came  to  town, 
and  everybody  in  town  went  to  courthouse  square,  not  so 
much  for  the  purpose  of  attending  to  legal  affairs  as  to  mingle 
with  the  crowds  and  have  a  general  good  time. 

On  horseback,  on  foot,  the  people  would  come  to  town— 
in  covered  wagons  bearing  the  trademarks  of  the  Nissen  or 
Spach  Wagon  Works  of  Waughtown,— with  fresh  eggs,  kegs 
of  butter,  beeswax,  dried  fruit,  to  barter  at  village  stores  for 
shoes  and  dishpans  and  dress  materials,  all  packed  in  with  the 
women  and  children  and  family  dogs. 

If  from  a  distance,  the  families  in  wagons  would  come  pre- 
pared to  camp  out  at  night  in  the  vacant  lot  where  now  stands 
the  O'Hanlon  Building,  their  gay  patch  quilts  on  the  wagon 
seats,  their  frying  pans,  huge  tin  coffee  pots,  and  lanterns 
swinging  on  the  backs  of  the  wagons. 

In  1854  the  Plank  Road  from  Fayetteville  to  Bethania  was 
completed,  passing  through  Winston  where  now  a  narrow 
alley  from  Liberty  to  Trade  separates  the  tall  stores  on  either 
side.  The  coming  in  of  the  stage  coach  along  the  Plank  Road, 
with  the  driver  announcing  his  arrival  by  shrill  blasts  from  his 
tin  horn,  caused  housewives  to  run  to  their  doors,  craftsmen 
and  merchants  and  attorneys-at-law  to  lay  aside  their  tasks. 

In  the  1850's  party  spirit  ran  high  in  our  community.  For 
the  purpose  of  boosting  General  Winfield  Scott  for  the  presi- 
dency of  the  United  States  and  William  A.  Graham  of  North 
Carolina  for  his  running  mate,  the  Whigs  of  Winston  and  of 
Salem  formed  the  Chippewa  Club,  which  every  Monday 
night  during  the  campaign  met  in  the  courthouse  for  fiery 
Whig  speeches  interspersed  with  enlivening  strains  from  the 
Salem  Brass  Band. 

On  October  23,  1852,  the  Chippewas  had  a  great  Scott  and 
Graham  Day.  By  ten  in  the  morning  the  streets  were  thronged 
—loyal  Whigs  came  not  only  from  all  parts  of  Forsyth  and 
Stokes  but  from  Guilford  and  Davidson  and  Randolph. 

66         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Amid  the  firing  of  cannons,  the  procession  under  Chief 
Marshal  Colonel  Matthias  Masten  and  his  associate  marshals— 
R.  W.  Wharton,  Dr.  Samuel  Martin,  Edwin  Leight,  A.  Staub, 
Matthew  Boner— and  headed  by  the  Salem  Brass  Band  in  their 
chariot  drawn  by  four  richly  caparisoned  horses,  slowly 
moved  in  solid  columns,  with  banners  and  flags  waving,  from 
Salem  Tavern  up  Main  Street  to  the  courthouse. 

"From  windows  and  balconies,"  the  Weekly  Press  tells 
us,  "ladies  waved  their  handkerchiefs,  betokening  that  their 
cheers  and  smiles  were  for  the  Old  Hero  of  Lunday's  Lane. 
The  enthusiastic  multitude  in  response  burst  into  shout  after 
shout  for  The  Ladies!  Scott  and  Graham! 

"At  the  Courthouse  there  was  great  speaking;  the  elector 
for  the  district,  Ralph  Gorrell,  Esq.  of  Guilford,  enhancing 
the  attention  of  the  audience  for  two  hours  in  a  peculiarly 
argumentative  speech." 

Then  came  the  barbecue— 3,000  pounds  of  meat  with  great 
bowls  of  steaming  soup  and  other  good  things  in  proportion 
spread  on  long  tables  in  the  Square. 

Speech-making  followed  the  barbecue  until  sundown,  and 
then,  after  a  short  intermission  for  supper,  the  hearty  Whigs 
reassembled  for  more  speeches  until  far  into  the  night. 

When  in  1861  the  call  came  for  volunteers  for  the  Con- 
federate cause,  the  Winston  men  and  boys  of  military  age 
began  at  once  to  prepare  for  military  service;  they  were  for- 
tunate in  having  as  their  drill  master  a  fellow  citizen  who  in 
the  Mexican  War  had  served  under  General  Taylor— the 
"patriotic  and  indefatigable  Colonel  Joseph  Masten."  In  June, 
1 86 1,  the  three  local  companies  of  Winston  and  Salem  and 
Forsyth  volunteers— the  Forsyth  Rifles  under  Captain  Alfred 
H.  Belo,  the  Forsyth  Greys  under  Captain  Rufus  Wharton, 
the  "stout  and  able-bodied  men"  of  Captain  Frank  P.  Miller's 
Company— left  to  join  the  army  assembling  in  Virginia. 

Only  once  during  the  fierce  struggle  between  the  North 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       67 

and  the  South  was  Winston  invaded  by  enemy  troops.  On 
April  10,  1865,  three  thousand  cavalrymen  under  General 
Palmer  of  Stoneman's  Brigade  passed  through  the  town  and 
encamped  for  the  night  beyond  Salem  Creek. 

When  a  day  or  two  before  this  there  had  come  rumors 
that  Stoneman's  Brigade,  which  had  done  much  harm  to  the 
countryside  to  the  west  and  northwest,  was  on  the  march 
toward  Winston  and  Salem,  there  was  great  excitement  in  the 
county  town.  There  was  no  way  to  protect  the  courthouse 
and  its  records;  the  young  men  of  the  village  had  marched 
off  to  war  or  returned  crippled  or  disabled  by  wounds  and 
lack  of  proper  nourishment. 

From  the  official  report  of  Clerk  of  Court  John  Blackburn 
we  learn  of  the  state  of  affairs  when  at  length  the  men  on  the 
lookout  for  the  enemy  came  dashing  back  from  Liberty  to 
the  Square  with  word  that  the  dreaded  invaders  had  actually 
appeared  on  the  outskirts  of  the  town. 

In  his  graphic  way.  Clerk  of  Court  Blackburn  makes  us  see 
his  nervous  haste  as,  searching  through  his  records  in  the  un- 
guarded courthouse,  he  tumbles  the  most  valuable  of  the 
papers  into  a  sack,  and  with  sack  over  his  shoulders,  journals 
and  minute  books  under  his  arm,  rushes  out  of  the  building 
across  the  street  to  the  Widow  Long's  house  to  deposit  with 
her  the  sack,  and  then  on  to  Mrs.  Emily  Webb's  and  to 
Franklin  L.  Gorrell's  with  his  other  documents. 

His  papers  off  his  mind,  the  Clerk  of  Court  joined  the 
Salem  delegation,  going  northward  up  Liberty,  white  hand- 
kerchiefs in  hand,  to  surrender  to  the  oncoming  host  the  key 
of  their  town. 

The  Salem  delegation  was  composed  of  the  principal  of 
Salem  Academy,  the  Reverend  Robert  de  Schweinitz;  Mr. 
R.  L.  Patterson;  and  the  Mayor  of  Salem,  Joshua  Boner;  with 
this  group  was  Mayor  Thomas  J.  Wilson  of  Winston. 

Clerk  Blackburn  in  his  graphic  style  makes  us  feel  the  tense- 

68         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

ness  in  the  air,  the  long  waiting  for  the  enemy;  and  then  as 
General  Palmer  and  his  staff  appear,  he  makes  us  see  the  wav- 
ing of  the  white  handkerchiefs,  the  response  of  the  Yankee 

"One  of  our  company,"  writes  Blackburn,  "introduced 
himself  to  General  Palmer  and  then  introduced  the  others  to 
him,  and  he  introduced  us  to  several  of  his  officers  and  invited 
us  to  accom.pany  him  into  town. 

"Which  we  did,"  he  concludes. 

The  events  which  took  place  in  our  community  during  the 
summer  of  the  Surrender,  we  would  never  have  known  had 
not  the  Moravians  kept  accurate  records  in  their  congrega- 
tional diaries  and  memorabilia  of  1865. 

From  these  sources  we  learn  that  on  Sunday  afternoon 
May  14,  1865,  several  hundred  troops  of  the  Ohio  Volunteer 
Cavalry  under  a  Colonel  Saunderson  arrived  in  Winston  to 
take  military  charge  of  Winston  and  Salem;  on  July  13,  1865, 
they  departed. 

The  Federals  set  up  camp  on  what  is  now  the  R.  J.  Rey- 
nolds parking  lot  behind  City  Hall  and  the  adjacent  (then) 
vacant  property  to  the  south  as  far  perhaps  as  Belews  Street, 
Salem.  The  officers,  according  to  Salem  Diary,  took  residence 
in  the  homes  of  Mr.  Joseph  Lineback  and  Air.  Edward  Hege, 
of  Salem,  and  (according  to  another  authentic  source  of  in- 
formation) in  the  home  of  Judge  D.  H.  Starbuck,  present  site 
of  City  Hall. 

As  to  conditions  under  military  rule,  the  Salem  Diary  gives 
the  following  hints: 

''May  25,  186^.  One  of  the  Federal  soldiers  was  killed  today 
by  the  accidental  discharge  of  a  pistol  in  the  hands  of  a 
drunken  comrade. 

''July  2.  The  heat  is  unusually  great  and  diseases  begin  to 
show  themselves.  Dead  horses  are  not  removed  sufficiently  far 
from  town  by  the  soldiers  and  spread  a  very  unpleasant  and 
unhealthy  smell. 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        69 

''July  75.  On  Monday  the  soldiers  had  been  paid  off  and 
since  then  many  had  not  seen  a  sober  moment.  Though 
professing  to  be  the  friends  and  liberators  of  the  colored 
people,  they  treated  some  of  them  with  inhuman  barbarity. 
The  officers  were,  with  a  very  few  honorable  exceptions, 
extremely  immoral  men  and  the  privates  followed  suit.  Their 
influence  upon  the  community  was  evil  and  only  evil  and  that 
continually."  (This  last  entry  seems  to  have  been  written  after 
the  departure  of  the  troops.) 

The  sound  of  the  horn  on  February  14,  1872,  for  the  open- 
ing of  Major  T.  J.  Brown's  warehouse  (an  old  stable  on  Lib- 
erty near  Fifth  converted  into  a  warehouse)  for  the  first  sale 
of  leaf  tobacco  in  Winston  marked  the  beginning  of  a  new 
era  in  the  history  of  the  town. 

Before  this  time  the  sale  of  dried  fruit  and  berries  had  been 
the  main  source  of  ready  money  for  the  village— the  yearly 
sales  at  one  store  alone,  that  of  Pfohl  and  Stockton,  Main 
Street  facing  west  and  Third  Street,  amounting  to  more  than 
$50,000.  For  years  after  the  sale  and  manufacture  of  tobacco 
became  the  chief  industry  of  the  town,  the  buying  and  selling 
of  dried  fruit  continued  to  be  profitable.  The  late  Bishop 
Edward  Rondthaler,  who  came  to  Winston-Salem  in  1877, 
when  asked  toward  the  close  of  his  life,  by  a  news  reporter, 
what  had  impressed  him  most  in  passing  through  Winston  for 
the  first  time,  replied  that  it  was  the  evidence  of  big  business 
done  in  dried  fruit— the  sight  of  boxes  and  boxes  on  the  streets 
filled  with  dried  fruit  waiting  to  be  shipped  by  train  and 

Soon  after  Major  Brown  opened  the  first  warehouse  in 
Winston,  there  was  so  much  tobacco  "rolled  in"  to  the  vicinity 
of  the  warehouse  that  the  town  commissioners  had  to  pass 
an  ordinance  forbidding  this  way  of  conveying  barrels  and 
hogsheads  of  tobacco  along  village  streets. 

At  this  time  and  for  years  afterwards  the  streets  of  Winston 
were  ungraded  and  unpaved,  and  it  was  no  unusual  sight  to 

70         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

see  the  horses  drawing  covered  wagons  of  tobacco  or  dried 
fruit  floundering  in  the  mud  and  the  wagons  mired  up  to  the 

Between  the  present  site  of  the  Charles  store  and  the  State 
Theatre  there  was  a  ravine  so  deep  that  anyone  standing  on 
Liberty  Street  near  Seventh  could  watch  a  covered  wagon, 
going  south  on  Liberty,  disappear  as  it  dipped  into  Fifth 
Street  and  then  slowly  reappear  as  it  came  up  on  the  other 
side  of  the  cross  street. 

Another  deep  ravine  extended  across  the  street  at  the  cor- 
ner of  Trade  and  Fourth,  opposite  where  now  the  Anchor 
Store  is  located;  at  this  point  pedestrians  had  to  cross  the 
street  on  a  foot-log  over  a  running  stream  fifteen  feet  below. 

From  the  O'Hanlon  corner,  at  Fourth  and  Liberty,  the 
street  descended  sharply  to  Trade  and  from  Trade  it  sharply 
ascended  to  Cherry. 

The  lack  of  street  lamps  after  sundown  added  greatly  to 
the  inconvenience  of  pedestrians  and  the  danger  of  driving 
after  dark.  When  in  January,  1878,  the  town  commissioners 
gave  the  order  for  eleven  new  kerosene  street  lamps  to  be  put 
up.  Editor  Goslen  of  the  Uiiion  Republican  declared  in  his 
January  17  issue:  "We  think  it  will  take  not  eleven  more  new 
lamps  but  1,400  more  to  light  up  the  town  sufficiently  enough 
for  a  person  to  see  how  to  get  out  of  the  mud." 

However,  the  placing  of  additional  street  lamps  seems  not 
to  have  solved  the  light  question  of  early  Winston,  for  even 
after  the  coming  in  of  the  railroad,  freight  continued  to  be  so 
irregular  that  often  the  town,  sometimes  for  a  week  at  a  time, 
was  without  kerosene  for  public  or  private  use. 

On  Saturday  afternoon,  July  11,  1873,  the  first  train 
crossed  the  high  trestle,  320  feet  long  and  70  feet  high— at  the 
time  the  highest  bridge  of  its  kind  in  the  state-onto  the  tracks 
leading  to  the  tiny  railroad  station,  site  of  the  present  freight 
depot.  The  whole  town,  black  and  white,  old  and  young,  had 
trudged  down  to  the  banks  of  Salem  Creek  and  to  the  near-by 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        71 

hills  to  watch,  with  the  assembled  throngs  from  Salem,  the 
passing  of  the  iron  horse  over  the  high  bridge. 

At  the  first  signs  of  the  black  smoke  of  the  "harnessed 
steam,"  the  Salem  Band  burst  into  strains  of  welcome,  and  as 
with  a  roar  the  noisy  visitant  to  the  quiet  bounds  of  the 
Moravian  town  approached  the  trestle  and  in  safety  passed 
from  one  end  to  the  other,  the  expectant  crowds  mingled  their 
shouts  with  the  triumphant  blast  of  the  brass  horns. 

Commemorating  the  looth  anniversary  of  American  inde- 
pendence, Winston  together  with  Salem  had  a  grand  and 
glorious  celebration  on  July  4,  1876. 

At  the  dawn  of  day  the  sleepy  dwellers  of  the  towns  were 
awakened  by  the  music  of  tin  horns,  pans,  and  bells  as  small 
boys  paraded  the  streets.  Then,  as  the  sun  arose,  a  salute  of 
thirteen  guns  was  fired  and  for  half  an  hour  the  bells  from 
every  church,  factory,  and  the  courthouse  pealed  forth  their 
joyous  notes.  At  nine  o'clock  the  procession  began  moving 
from  Courthouse  Square  southward  along  Main  Street. 

Preceded  by  the  Salem  Brass  Band  came  three  colorful 
floats.  The  first,  a  car  drawn  by  six  horses,  containing  thirteen 
girls,  beautifully  adorned,  represented  the  thirteen  original 
states.  The  second,  an  immense  car  drawn  by  ten  horses,  con- 
tained girls  who  in  their  distinctive  costumes  represented  the 
various  states  comprising  the  Union  in  1876.  The  third, 
drawn  by  four  horses,  bore  the  Goddess  of  Liberty,  supported 
on  each  side  by  a  girl,  appropriately  draped,  representing  the 
products  of  North  Carolina. 

On  Salem  Square  the  patriotic  exercises  were  held.  Colonel 
R.  L.  Patterson  made  the  anniversary  address,  and  Robert 
Gray,  Esq.,  of  Raleigh,  a  son  of  Robert  Gray,  Sr.,  one  of  the 
founders  of  Winston,  reviewed  in  fine  literary  style  the  his- 
tory of  Salem  and  of  Winston. 

At  2:30  in  the  afternoon  there  was  another  parade— a  fan- 
tastic parade  as  it  was  called— of  sixty  young  men  dressed  as 
oddities,  from  gypsies  to  Indians,  from  the  elephant  accom- 

72         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

panying  a  John  Robinson  show  to  the  traveling  menagerie  of 
a  second  P.  T.  Bamum. 

After  nightfall,  with  a  grand  display  of  fireworks  on 
Cherry  Street,  Winston,  the  glorious  and  long-to-be-remem- 
bered Fourth  of  July  celebration  ended. 

Winston  from  its  very  earliest  days  was  a  church-going 
community,  the  Methodist  outnumbering  the  other  denom- 
inations. The  first  Methodist  prayer  meeting  of  which  any 
record  has  been  preserved  was  held  in  the  early  1 840's  in  the 
old  Nading  home  at  the  extreme  end  of  what  is  now  North 
Liberty  Street  but,  in  the  1 840's,  was  the  tiny  village  of 
Liberty.  This  prayer  meeting  was  conducted  by  the  pioneer 
Methodist  preachers  of  this  section,  the  Reverend  John  Al- 
spaugh,  the  Reverend  Alfred  Norman,  whose  son  the  Rev- 
erend W.  C.  Norman  forty-odd  years  later  became  pastor  of 
Old  Centenary  on  Liberty  and  Sixth,  and  by  Mr.  Lewis 
Rights,  who  afterwards  became  a  Moravian  minister. 

The  first  church  edifice  erected  in  Winston  was  the  Prot- 
estant Methodist  (now  the  First  Methodist  Church)  on 
Liberty  and  Seventh.  As  early  as  1 842  the  Protestant  Method- 
ists were  worshipping  as  a  congregation  in  a  small  log  house 
in  the  scattered  settlement  known  as  Liberty;  when  Forsyth 
County  was  erected,  the  congregation  purchased  the  Liberty 
lot  in  the  county  seat,  and  in  1850  built  on  this  lot  a  neat 
frame  church.  In  1876  this  frame  church  building  was  moved 
to  the  back  of  the  property,  facing  Old  Town  Road  (now 
Trade  Street),  and  a  brick  building  was  erected  at  the  cost 
of  $3,500. 

It  is  of  interest  to  know  that  this  first  church  edifice  became 
a  tobacco  factory,  the  pioneer  tobacconists  C.  J.  Ogburn  and 
W.  P.  Hill  for  years  carrying  on  their  manufacture  of  plug 
tobacco  in  the  building  located  on  Old  Town  and  Seventh 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  denomination  built  the  second 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        73 

church  in  Winston.  It  was  formerly  the  custom  for  this  de- 
nomination to  form  first  a  society  and  then  from  the  society 
organize  a  church.  The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of 
Winston  had  its  beginning  in  a  society  known  as  the  "Mul- 
berry Tree  Society,"  so  called  because  the  "big  meetings"  of 
the  Society  were  held  in  the  open  under  a  large  mulberry  tree 
(in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Children's  Home) .  In  time  this 
Mulberry  Tree  Society  expanded  into  the  Old  Jerusalem 
Church,  the  house  of  worship  being  a  stout  frame  building 
on  a  hill  not  so  far  from  the  historic  mulberry  tree.  When 
Forsyth  County  was  erected,  the  congregation  sold  the  Jeru- 
salem Church  property  and  with  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  of 
the  land  and  the  sale  of  the  lumber,  which  was  hauled  to 
Winston,  purchased  a  lot  for  the  sum  of  $79.25,  in  Winston, 
at  the  corner  of  Liberty  and  Sixth,  and  began  the  building  of 
a  simple,  unpretentious  house  of  worship  which  in  time  was 
replaced  by  the  handsome  Old  Centenary  Church. 

It  was  quite  an  undertaking  for  the  small  group  from  the 
Old  Jerusalem  Church  and  the  handful  of  the  denomination 
residing  in  the  village  to  build  their  Winston  church.  Under 
the  leadership  of  the  zealous  and  indefatigable  pastor  of  the 
congregation,  the  Reverend  W.  W.  Albea,  affectionately 
called  Uncle  Albea,  and  through  the  "constant  support,  aid, 
and  encouragement"  of  Mr.  Robert  Gray  and  Mr.  John 
Sanders,  both  of  whom  were  among  the  first  to  establish 
themselves  in  business  in  the  county  town,  the  congregation 
would  build  awhile  and  then  when  their  funds  were  ex- 
hausted, they  would  stop  building  operations,  give  again  to 
the  limit  of  their  individual  ability,  solicit  gifts  from  their 
friends,  and  start  building  again. 

It  was  a  great  day  when  finally  the  small  church  was  com- 
pleted and  the  congregation  gathered  for  the  dedication.  Dr. 
Charles  F.  Deems,  who  later  became  founder  and  pastor  of 
the  Church  of  the  Strangers,  New  York  City,  preached  the 

74         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

sermon.  Dr.  Deems  was  a  small  man  and  in  order  to  be  seen 
above  the  pulpit,  he  had  to  stand  on  a  box  placed  behind  the 

\\'hile  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  was  in  process  of 
building,  the  congregation  worshipped  in  the  courthouse.  In 
the  early  days  of  Winston  it  was  customary  for  the  various 
denominations,  before  the  erection  of  their  church  edifices,  to 
hold  preaching  services  in  the  courthouse. 

In  i860  the  Reverend  Frontis  H.  Johnston,  at  the  solicita- 
tion of  Judge  Thomas  J.  Wilson  and  Mr.  Hezekiah  D.  Lott, 
began  holding,  every  month  or  so,  preaching  services  in  the 
courthouse  for  the  four  or  five  Presbyterians  in  the  commu- 
nity and  their  interested  friends. 

Judge  Wilson  was  not,  at  this  time,  a  Presbyterian,  but 
through  the  reading  of  the  Bible,  the  study  of  history,  and 
occasional  attendance  on  Presbyterian  preaching  while  on 
his  circuit,  he  had  become  convinced  that  a  church  holding 
the  Presbyterian  doctrine  was  needed  in  the  growing  county 
seat  of  Forsyth. 

And  it  was  in  the  parlor  of  the  young  lawyer's  home.  Sec- 
ond and  Main  streets,  that  the  Presbyterian  Church  of  Win- 
ston, the  first  church  of  this  faith  in  the  county,  was  con- 
stituted, as  the  records  say,  on  Saturday,  October  5,  1862, 
with  eight  charter  members:  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Franklin  L.  Gor- 
rell,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hezekiah  D.  Lott,  Judge  and  Mrs.  Thomas 
J.  Wilson,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Wilson,  mother  of  Judge  Wilson, 
and  Mrs.  Catherine  E.  Wharton,  the  wife  of  a  prominent 
physician  in  the  county.  Mrs.  Rufus  L.  Patterson,  who  during 
the  planning  for  the  organization  of  the  church  had  been 
most  active  and  liberal,  was  called  to  her  heavenly  home  {ivQ 
months  before  the  plans  were  perfected. 

On  Sunday,  October  6,  the  small  brick  church  on  Cherry 
Street  was  dedicated.  The  pastor,  the  Reverend  F.  H.  John- 
ston, preached  from  the  text.  Psalms  84:  11;  the  six  children 
of  the  congregation— Flora  Virginia,  Sarah  Lena,  Arthur  Pat- 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        75 

terson,  and  Henry  Stokes  Lott  and  Edgar  Henry  and  Jose- 
phine Elizabeth  Wilson— were  baptized,  and  the  three  men 
of  the  congregation  were  duly  elected  Ruling  Elders  and 
ordained.  Of  the  eight  charter  members  of  the  Presbyterian 
Church,  two  joined  from  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
one  from  the  Methodist  Protestant,  and  one  was  of  Quaker 

The  First  Baptist  Church  was  organized  on  September  22, 
1 87 1,  in  the  courthouse  by  Elders  F.  M.  Jordan  and  Robert 
Gourley  with  Eve  charter  members:  Alfred  Holland,  the  first 
Baptist  who  located  in  Winston,  and  four  women.  Miss 
Nannie  E.  Holland,  Miss  Nannie  Marshall,  Mrs.  Permelia 
Jones,  and  Miss  Sarah  F.  Kerr. 

In  the  Biblical  Recorder  of  some  years  ago  Mr.  Jordan  told 
of  the  beginning  days  of  this  congregation.  "For  four  years," 
he  said,  "we  held  our  services  in  the  Courthouse.  Here  we  had 
our  communion  service  at  night,  the  members  sitting  in  the 
jury  box  with  bright  lights  beaming  down  from  the  chan- 
deHers.  It  was  a  solemn  scene. 

"I  bought  the  lot  loo  by  200  feet  on  Second  Street  on  June 
18,  1874,  for  which  I  paid  $250.  I  went  to  Raleigh  and  col- 
lected the  money  from  the  First  Baptist  Church,  of  which 
Dr.  T.  H.  Pritchard  was  the  beloved  pastor. 

"The  Board  gave  me  $100  per  year;  the  distance  [from  his 
home  in  Hillsboro  to  Winston]  was  70  miles;  it  required  fiYt 
days  each  trip  and  sometimes  more,  and  by  the  time  I  paid 
my  railroad  and  stage  fare,  there  was  little  left." 

A  story  of  human  interest  concerning  Brother  Jordan,  as 
he  was  affectionately  called,  was  related  to  me  by  Miss  Ethel 
McGalliard,  a  great-granddaughter  of  Mr.  Jesse  Kennedy,  one 
of  the  founders  of  Winston.  Every  time  that  Brother  Jordan 
came  to  Winston  to  hold  services  in  the  courthouse,  he  would 
stay  in  the  hospitable  Kennedy  home.  One  day  he  came  to 
Winston  wearing  such  a  shabby  hat  that  his  host  asked,  "Is 
that  the  best  hat  you  have?" 

76         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

"Yes,"  replied  the  self-sacrificing  man  of  God.  Whereupon 
Mr.  Kennedy  bought  him  a  new  hat  and  made  sure  that  he 
did  not  give  it  away  before  leaving  town. 

When  the  movement  for  the  erection  of  an  Episcopal 
Church  began  in  1877,  there  was  but  one  communicant  of 
that  church  living  in  Winston,  a  young  lawyer,  Mr.  J.  C. 
Buxton,  son  of  an  Episcopal  clergyman.  In  Salem  there  were 
three  women  of  the  Episcopal  faith— Miss  Laura  Lemly,  who 
during  her  long  life  was  a  most  ardent  and  consecrated  mem- 
ber of  St.  Paul's,  Mrs.  W.  H.  Wheeler,  and  Mrs.  B.  F. 

With  selfless  devotion  this  small  group,  assisted  in  time  by 
other  Episcopalians  moving  into  the  community,  gathered 
funds  for  the  purchase  of  a  lot,  at  the  corner  of  Fourth  and 
Pine  (Marshall)  and  the  erection  on  it  of  a  small  frame 
church  building,  its  tall  spire  towering  over  the  other  build- 
ings of  the  county  town. 

Bearing  the  name  St.  Paul's,  the  church,  in  February,  1879, 
was  consecrated.  Bishop  Lyman,  assisted  by  the  rector,  the 
Reverend  W.  S.  Bynum,  and  the  Reverend  R.  B.  Sutton, 
D.D.,  conducted  the  services;  the  Bishop  preached  from  the 
text,  John  4:  23,  24.  At  the  meeting  of  the  North  Carolina 
Diocesan  Convention  in  Fayetteville,  May  15,  1879,  St.  Paul's 
Episcopal  Church  of  Winston  was  admitted  to  the  Conven- 

During  the  early  days  of  St.  Paul's  there  were  hardly  more 
than  a  dozen  families  affiliated  with  the  church.  At  one  time 
when  the  rector  was  planning  a  series  of  services  explaining 
to  outsiders  as  well  as  his  own  congregation  the  fundamental 
doctrines  of  the  church,  he  inserted  in  the  local  press  an 
invitation  to  the  general  public  to  attend  the  meetings,  stating 
that  St.  Paul's  was  not,  as  was  generally  believed  in  the  com- 
munity, the  church  of  the  kid-gloved,  silk-stockinged  crowd. 

The  finest  bell  that  was  ever  brought  to  Winston,  and  the 
most  musical,  was  the  great  bell  of  St.  Paul's,  weighing  1,030 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        77 

pounds  and  measuring  from  lip  to  lip  exactly  three  feet.  On 
one  side  the  bell  bore  the  inscription: 

Excites  Lentos 
Clinton  H.  Meneely  Bell  Company,  Troy,  N.  Y. 
A.D.  1800 
and  on  the  opposite  side: 

"Glory  to  God  in  the  Highest." 

The  earliest  Negro  churches  in  Winston  had  interesting 
beginnings.  Lee  Fries,  an  elderly  member  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church  on  the  corner  of  Seventh  and  Chestnut, 
organized  under  the  auspices  of  the  Northern  M.E.  Church, 
remembers  the  story  of  the  beginnings  of  the  Methodist  and 
Baptist  Negro  congregations  in  Winston.  According  to  Lee, 
shortly  after  the  surrender,  his  father  and  mother,  ex-slaves  of 
the  Francis  Fries  family  of  Salem,  moved  to  Waughtown, 
where  there  was  quite  a  colony  of  colored  folks.  Lee's  father 
and  mother  had  been  taught  to  read  and,  being  deeply  re- 
ligious, they  soon  began  holding  prayer  meetings  in  their 
home.  During  the  day  while  the  father,  John  Fries,  was  work- 
ing in  the  Fries  Wool  Mill,  the  mother,  Paulina,  was  passing 
the  word  around  the  neighborhood  of  the  prayer  service,  and 
when  night  came  the  one-roomed  cabin  would  be  crowded. 

Every  three  or  four  weeks  a  Negro  preacher,  Andrew 
Willburn,  who  had  a  little  farm  between  Thomasville  and 
High  Point,  would  come  walking  in,  his  Bible  and  hymn  book 
under  his  arm,  to  hold  preaching  services.  The  home  became 
too  small  to  hold  the  crowds  who  came  to  hear  the  preacher, 
and  an  old  schoolhouse  was  secured  for  the  services.  At  this 
time  Lewis  Banner,  who  worked  in  the  dye  room  of  the  Fries 
Factory,  assisted  also  in  the  services,  especially  at  funerals. 

Outgrowing  the  schoolhouse,  the  congregation  moved  to 
Happy  Hill,  a  Negro  settlement  on  the  outskirts  of  Salem,  and 
held  their  services  under  a  bush  arbor. 

After  a  time,  they  moved  into  Winston,  and  in  a  hall  on 
Chestnut  and  Seventh,  in  front  of  the  present  site  of  the  St. 

78         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Paul  Negro  ME.  Church,  the  Reverend  George  W.  Holland 
of  Danville,  as  Lee  says,  "opened  up  Winston  to  the  Baptists." 

A  slightly  different  version  of  this  story  was  given  me  by 
the  church  office  of  the  First  Baptist  Church,  at  Sixth  and 
Chestnut.  According  to  this  record,  the  Negroes  of  the  Baptist 
faith,  before  1879,  gathered  for  worship  under  bush  arbors 
and  also  in  a  building  on  Fourth  and  Chestnut  streets,  known 
as  Hinshaw's  Hall.  The  preacher  at  these  assemblies,  as  they 
were  called,  was  the  Reverend  George  W.  Holland. 

Some  time  in  1879,  in  the  spring  perhaps,  or  early  summer, 
the  Reverend  Henry  A.  Brown,  beloved  pastor  of  the  (white) 
Baptist  Church  and  pastor-at-large  of  the  town,  organized  the 
congregation  under  the  Reverend  George  W.  Holland  into 
the  first  Negro  church  of  the  Baptist  denomination  in  Win- 
ston, formally  designated  as  The  First  Baptist  Church. 

Some  time  after  this  the  congregation  purchased  a  lot  on 
Sixth  and  Chestnut  from  the  Moravian  Conerecration  for  the 
sum  of  $75.  The  deed  bears  the  date  July  23,  1879.  In  1882, 
through  the  devotion  and  sacrificial  giving  of  the  congrega- 
tion, a  building  was  erected— a  neat  "wooden"  structure  rest- 
ing on  high  brick  pillars,  and  facing  Sixth  Street.  It  was  in 
the  commodious  basement  of  this  church  that  the  first  tax- 
supported  school  for  Negro  children  in  Winston  was  held. 

In  the  1879  Directory,  the  Reverend  L.  R.  Ferebee 
(colored)  is  listed  as  pastor  of  the  A.  M.  E.  Zion  Church, 
Fourth  and  Liberty,  but  no  facts  have  been  found  concerning 
this  church. 

According  to  Lee  Fries,  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
North,  on  Chestnut  and  Seventh,  of  which  he  is  a  member, 
is  the  oldest  Alethodist  Church  of  the  Negro  race  in  Winston, 
for  while  the  St.  James  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  is  the 
oldest  congregation  of  the  denomination  in  town,  in  that,  at 
an  early  date,  it  moved  here  as  an  organization  from  else- 
where, the  Church  on  Chestnut  and  Seventh  was  the  first  to 
erect  a  house  of  worship. 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        79 

Like  the  Negro  Baptist  movement  in  Winston,  Lee  Fries 
says,  the  Methodist  movement  had  its  beginning  in  Waugh- 
town  shortly  after  the  surrender.  An  ex-slave  of  the  Francis 
Fries  family,  Harry  Fries  (no  kin  to  Lee's  father  but  living 
next  door  to  him)  was  an  ardent  Methodist  and  when  his 
neighbor  started  a  Baptist  prayer  meeting,  he  started  a  Meth- 
odist one. 

The  two  prayer  meetings  never  conflicted;  on  one  night 
the  whole  neighborhood,  old  and  young,  would  gather  in  the 
Methodist  home;  on  another  night,  in  the  Baptist  home.  The 
grown  folks  would  bring  their  chairs  to  the  meetings;  the 
children  would  sit  on  the  floor.  The  leader— Methodist  or 
Baptist  as  the  case  might  be— would  read  the  Scriptures  and 
pray  and  then  the  congregation  would  lift  up  their  voices 
in  the  singing  of  the  old  hymns  loved  by  all  churches,  such  as 
"Amazing  grace,  how  sweet  the  sound!" 

In  time  the  Methodists  moved  from  Waughtown  to  Win- 
ston, the  Reverend  Isaac  Wells  preaching  for  them  under  a 
bush  arbor  in  front  of  a  small  log  house  on  North  Liberty 
Street.  From  miles  around,  on  foot,  in  wagons,  the  colored 
people  would  come  to  the  preaching  under  the  arbor.  All  day 
they  would  stay  (they  could  have  no  night  meetings  as  they 
had  no  way  of  lighting  their  arbor),  spreading  their  lunches 
in  picnic  style  during  the  noon-day  intermission. 

Finally  under  Wells's  leadership,  they  were  able  to  build  a 
church,  an  unpretentious  little  church,  on  the  present  site  of 
the  warehouse  of  the  Brown-Rogers-Dixson  Hardware  Com- 
pany on  Seventh  Street  near  the  railroad.  Under  the  Reverend 
George  Morehead  the  present  church  was  erected;  it  was 
finished  by  the  Reverend  Shamberger. 

The  St.  James  A.  M.  E.  Church,  through  the  oldest  member 
of  its  congregation,  J.  C.  McKnight,  has  furnished  the  follow- 
ing interesting  information  concerning  the  beginnings  of  that 

Under  the  leadership  of  a  Negro  preacher  named  Caldwell, 

8o         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

St.  James  was  organized  in  1882  in  a  building  on  Chestnut 
between  First  and  Second  streets. 

The  names  of  the  following  charter  members  have  been 
preserved:  Giles  Bason,  Luther  Walls,  William  Mendenhall, 
Amos  Yarbrough,  and  three  other  men  whose  last  names  were 
Forsythe,  Harrell,  and  Yauncey;  i\lrs.  Elisa  Bohannon,  Mrs. 
Edith  Miller,  Mrs.  Mary  Hall,  and  Mrs.  Anna  Harrell.  For 
over  sixty  years  Mrs.  Edith  Miller  and  Mrs.  Anna  Harrell 
remained  devoted  members  of  the  church. 

The  earliest  mayors  of  Winston  were,  William  Barrow 
(1859),  Peter  A.  Wilson  (i860),  Robert  Gray  (1861),  H.  K. 
Thomas  (1862),  H.  K.  Thomas  (1863),  H.  K.  Thomas 
(1864),  Thomas  J.  Wilson  (1865),  T.  T.  Best  (1866),  T.  T. 
Best  (1867),  T.  T.  Best  (1868),  Jacob  Tise  (1869),  Jacob 
Tise  (1870),  John  W.  Alspaugh  (1871),  T.  T.  Best  (1872), 
John  W.  Alspaugh  (1873),  T.  T.  Best  (1874),  John  W.  Al- 
spaugh (1875),  D.  P.  Mast  (1876),  Martin  Grogan  (1877), 
A.  B.  Gorrell  (1878),  A.  B.  Gorrell  (1879). 

In  1867  Winston  had  no  municipal  election;  the  town  was 
in  Military  District  No.  2,  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  com- 
mander of  the  district.  Major  D.  E.  Sickles;  and  in  accordance 
with  the  special  order  No.  1 3  2  of  the  Federal  government  the 
officers  of  the  town  had  to  be  appointed,  not  elected.  Accord- 
ingly, Major  Sickles  appointed  as  mayor  T.  T.  Best  and  as 
commissioners  D.  H.  Starbuck,  J.  S.  White,  John  D.  Tavis, 
Benjamin  Spaugh,  Jacob  Tise,  William  E.  Axson,  N.  W. 

Before  taking  office  each  of  these  appointed  men  had  to 
take  the  oath  prescribed  by  Congress  July  2,  1862:  "I  do 
solemnly  swear  that  I  will  support  and  maintain  the  Constitu- 
tion and  Laws  of  the  U.S.  and  the  Constitution  and  Laws  of 
N.  C,  not  inconsistent  therewith.  So  help  me,  God." 

The  business  carried  on  in  the  Winston  of  the  1870's  may 
be  seen  in  the  following  facts  from  a  pamphlet  published  at 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston         8i 

the  Blum's  Print  Shop,  Salem,  in  1878,  entitled  Guide  Book 
of  Northwestern  North  Carolina. 

In  1878  the  population  of  Winston  was  2,500.  The  sale  and 
manufacture  of  tobacco  was  the  leading  industry  of  the  town, 
with  fifteen  independent  tobacco  factories  and  four  tobacco 
warehouses,  employing  a  working  force  of  more  than  1,000 
hands,  mostly  Negroes.  But  there  were  also  four  wagon  and 
buggy  works  doing  a  good  business,  two  saddle  and  harness 
shops,  and  one  livery  stable  (even  at  this  early  date  Winston 
was  becoming  known  as  a  center  for  the  sale  and  exchange  of 
horses);  there  were  eighteen  stores  carrying  groceries  and 
general  merchandise,  four  millinery  establishments,  two  tailor- 
ing establishments,  three  men's  ready-to-wear  shops,  one  store 
selling  men's  clothing  and  furs,  one  shoe  store  which  sold 
men's  hats  also;  there  were  two  jewelry  stores,  two  drug 
stores,  one  hardware  store,  two  confectioneries,  one  store 
selling  tinware  and  stoves. 

The  Winston  of  1878  was  a  trading  center  of  some  impor- 
tance. The  town  had  a  thriving  bank,  the  First  National, 
established  in  1876,  with  J.  A.  Bitting  as  president  and  J.  W. 
Alspaugh  as  cashier.  There  were  three  up-to-date  hotels— the 
long-established  and  popular  Wilson  Hotel,  the  Merchants, 
known  as  Pfohl  and  Stockton's,  and  the  Central. 

From  the  very  beginning  days  of  Winston  the  local  news- 
papers had  a  great  part  in  furthering  every  movement  for  the 
growth  of  the  town. 

In  1856  F.  E.  Boner  and  James  Collins  began  the  publica- 
tion of  Winston's  first  newspaper,  a  weekly  entitled  the 
Western  Sentinel.  In  a  short  while  John  W.  Alspaugh  ac- 
quired the  entire  control  of  the  weekly,  making  it  the  most 
influential  paper,  during  the  stirring  days  of  the  late  1850's 
and  the  i86o's,  throughout  this  section  of  North  Carolina. 

In  1870  the  National  Advocate ,  financed  by  a  small  group 
of  local  members  of  the  Republican  party  and  edited  by  F.  T. 

82         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Walser,  was  established  in  Winston.  In  1874  Captain  J.  W. 
Goslen  purchased  the  paper,  changing  its  name  to  the  Union 
Republican  and  making  it  in  time  the  leading  periodical  of  the 
Republican  party  in  the  state. 

In  1879  Colonel  James  A.  Robinson,  popularly  known  as 
Old  Hurrygraph,  began  the  publication  of  a  small  weekly, 
The  Winstoji  Leader,  devoted  to  the  interests  of  the  Demo- 
cratic party. 

The  years  beginning  with  the  i88o's  mark  a  period  of  ex- 
pansion in  the  history  of  Winston.  The  mayors  during  this 
period  were  A.  B.  Gorrell  (1880),  Peter  A.  Wilson  (1881), 
J.  C.  Buxton  (1882),  J.  C.  Buxton  (1883),  J-  C.  Buxton 
(1884).  On  November  i.  Mayor  Buxton  resigned  to  enter  the 
senatorial  contest  and  Samuel  H.  Smith  was  elected  to  fill  the 
unexpired  term.  In  May,  1885,  Samuel  H.  Smith  was  elected 
but  resigned  the  office  in  August,  and  Charles  Buford  filled 
out  Mr.  Smith's  unexpired  term.  In  1886  T.  J.  Wilson  served 
as  mayor;  in  1887,  Charles  Buford;  in  1888,  Charles  Buford. 
In  1889  the  biennial  plan  of  election  was  inaugurated  and 
Charles  Buford  remained  in  office  until  1 890. 

During  1890- 1892  D.  P.  Mast  was  mayor;  in  1892  Robah 
B.  Kerner  was  elected  for  two  years  but  died  in  office  Sep- 
tember 25,  1893,  ^^^  Garland  E.  Webb  was  elected  to  fill 
his  unexpired  term.  Then  followed  in  1894- 1896,  Eugene  E. 
Gray;  in  1896- 1898,  Paul  W.  Crutchfield.  In  1898  A.  B. 
Gorrell  was  elected  but  died  in  office  December  9,  1899,  ^^^ 
John  F.  Griffith  filled  out  his  unexpired  term. 

The  financial  center  of  the  busy  little  tobacco  town  of  the 
i88o's  and  90's  was  the  short  street  from  Fourth  to  Fifth,  then 
called  Old  Town  but  now  Trade. 

On  the  corner  of  Fifth  facing  west  was  the  thriving  grocery 
store  of  Vaughn  and  Prather;  on  the  corner  of  Fourth  facing 
west  was  the  brick  store  of  H.  D.  Poindexter,  bearing  on  its 
south  wall  the  trade  mark  of  the  store,  a  fleet  deer. 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        83 

Between  these  two  stores,  catering  not  only  to  the  town 
but  to  a  widespread  country  trade,  stood  the  mammoth  brick 
warehouse  of  Colonel  A.  B.  Gorrell,  the  Farmers'  Warehouse, 
extending  from  Old  Town  to  Liberty,  and  noted  at  the  time 
of  its  opening  in  1881  as  having  the  largest  warehouse  floor 
space  in  the  world  for  the  sale  of  loose  tobacco. 

Across  Old  Town  Street  from  the  Farmers'  Warehouse 
two  concerns  carried  on  big  business:  the  tobacco  warehouse 
of  Major  James  Scales  and  Captain  M.  W.  Norfleet,  called  the 
Piedmont  Warehouse  and  known  for  its  reliability  and  its 
popularity  far  and  wide  with  tobacco  growers;  and  to  the 
north  of  Piedmont  the  brick  tobacco  factory  of  T.  L.  Vaughn, 
three-and-one-half  stories  high  and  modern  in  every  respect. 

On  Fourth  Street  facing  north  and  causing  a  dead  end  to 
Old  Town  or  Trade  Street  was  the  huge  Hinshaw  and  Me- 
dearis  store,  selling  everything  from  a  shoestring  to  a  parlor 
suite  of  furniture— the  pioneer  department  store  of  northwest- 
ern North  Carolina. 

The  business  carried  on  in  the  stores,  factory,  and  ware- 
houses on  this  short  street  was  astounding;  thousands  of 
dollars  changed  hands  each  working  day,  and  on  Saturdays 
and  during  the  tobacco  season  the  street  was  thronged  from 
morning  till  night  with  pedestrians,  horses,  and  vehicles. 

It  was  indeed  a  fitting  recognition  when  the  city  fathers, 
sensing  the  importance  of  Old  Town  Street,  changed  its  name 
to  Trade. 

As  a  slant  on  the  civic  life  of  Winston  during  this  period 
when  the  town  was  expanding  in  many  directions,  the  follow- 
ing notes  are  taken  from  the  Book  of  Minutes  of  the  Board 
of  Aldermen. 

August  4,  1879.  Messrs  Clarke  and  Ford  appointed  Keepers 
of  the  Scales  and  Weigh  Masters  until  May  i,  1880;  pay  fixed 
at  five  cents  for  each  weighing  except  for  unloaded  wagons, 
on  which  they  are  to  have  no  pay. 

In  January,  1882,  Winston  was  threatened  with  an  epidemic 

84         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

of  smallpox.  The  Board  of  Aldermen  ordered  that  every  per- 
son in  town,  old  and  young,  be  vaccinated;  a  pest  house  was 
rented— at  four  dollars  a  month— for  those  who  had  contracted 
the  disease,  and  those  who  had  been  exposed  to  smallpox  were 
confined  in  quarantine  quarters  under  strict  guard.  Hence  the 
following  minute  from  a  called  meeting  of  the  Board  January 
14,  1882:  "Whereas  it  appears  that  the  persons  confined  in 
quarantine  in  AVinston  on  account  of  having  been  exposed 
to  smallpox  have  become  drunk  and  are  threatening  to  break 
the  grounds  and  spread  the  disease,  on  motion  ordered  that 
persons  confined  within  the  limits  of  quarantine  who  shall 
become  disorderly  shall  be  punished  by  having  a  ball  and 
chain  put  on  them." 

January  19,  1882.  "Be  it  ordained  that  no  person  shall  enter 
Winston  from  the  train  of  the  N.W.N.C.  Railroad  without 
first  being  vaccinated  or  presenting  satisfactory  proof  of  vac- 
cination to  the  physician  in  charge  at  the  Depot." 

February  7,  1882.  "Ordered  that  who  first  discovers  a  fire 
is  to  proceed  with  all  haste  to  Pace's  Warehouse  [Farmers' 
Warehouse  on  Old  Town,  now  Trade  Street]  and  inform  the 
Watchman  the  number  of  the  Ward  [at  this  time  the  town 
was  divided  into  four  fire  wards]  who  will  by  first  giving  the 
alarm  by  rapid  ringing  of  the  bell  and  then  a  short  intermis- 
sion, sound  the  number  of  the  ward  the  fire  is  in." 

On  May  3,  1882,  the  town  constable  was  elected  with  the 
understanding  that  when  not  engaged  upon  the  duties  of 
constable  and  tax  collector,  he  was  to  do  full  police  duty;  his 
salary  was  fixed  at  $100  per  year,  plus  5  per  cent  commission 
on  taxes  collected  and  fees  and  costs  on  all  cases  as  policeman 
or  constable. 

At  this  same  meeting  the  salaries  of  policemen  were  also 
fixed:  the  Chief  of  Police  received  $40  per  month  and  costs 
and  fees  not  exceeding  $200,  and  the  officers  under  him,  $35 
per  month  and  fees  and  costs  not  exceeding  $200.  The  salary 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        85 

of  the  lamp-lighter,  Alfred  Wright,  colored,  was  raised  to 
$15  per  month. 

June  6,  1882.  Salary  of  Mayor  fixed  at  $200  per  year;  of 
Secretary-Treasurer,  $150.  Noah  Carter's  appHcation  for  per- 
mission to  run  flying  Jennies  on  the  Fourth  of  July  granted  at 
$5  for  the  privilege. 

July  3,  1883.  On  request  of  some  barbers,  ordered  that 
barber  shops  be  closed  on  the  Sabbath.  Ordered  also  that 
policemen  request  parties  not  to  feed  [horses]  on  the  streets; 
that  certain  sidewalks  [on  Fourth  near  Old  Town  or  Trade] 
be  filled  up  when  dirt  can  be  obtained. 

October  3,  1883.  Ordered  that  the  Fire  Committee  make 
arrangements  with  some  party  owning  a  pair  of  good  horses 
to  have  them  promptly  at  the  Engine  House  [on  Liberty  just 
off  Third]  on  the  alarm  of  fire;  for  each  time  the  engine  is 
carried  to  a  fire  the  said  party  to  receive  $5. 

January  27,  1883.  Alfred  Wright,  lamp-lighter,  allowed 
$  1 8  per  month  with  understanding  that  he  devote  more  time 
to  cleaning  and  keeping  in  good  order  the  Lamps. 

February  6,  1883.  Application  presented,  signed  by  a  num- 
ber of  citizens,  asking  that  stepping  stones  be  placed  across 
the  streets  at  the  Baptist,  Presbyterian,  Methodist  Episcopal, 
Methodist  Protestant,  and  Episcopal  Churches. 

July  3,  1883.  The  Captain  of  the  Fire  Company  reported 
that  the  Company  was  in  an  improving  condition  and  more 
interest  manifested  and  the  membership  increased. 

August  7,  1883.  The  riding  of  bicycles  on  side  walks  pro- 

August  4,  1884.  Moved  and  carried  that  the  Fire  Commit- 
tee be  empowered  to  purchase  Fire  Hats  for  the  Fire 

June  3,  1889.  Petition  signed  by  50  ladies  and  gentlemen 
asked  that  the  old  Barringer  House  on  Liberty  be  removed  at 
once  as  it  was  day  by  day  becoming  more  of  a  nuisance. 

•  86         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

A  growing  sense  of  civic  responsibility  marked  the  Win- 
ston of  this  period. 

On  Tuesday,  May  8,  1883,  the  registered  voters  cast  their 
ballots  for  tax-supported  schools.  On  June  19,  1883,  five  men 
were  elected  school  commissioners:  W.  A.  Whitaker,  James 
A.  Gray,  Calvin  H.  Wiley,  James  Martin,  and  Pleasant  Hanes. 
Calvin  H.  Wiley  was  chosen  chairman  of  the  board,  W.  A. 
Whitaker,  secretary,  and  James  A.  Gray,  treasurer. 

Night  after  night  during  the  unusually  sultry  summer  and 
early  fall  of  1883  these  five  men,  after  long,  strenuous  hours 
in  bank,  factory,  or  office,  would  gather  in  the  study  of  the 
chairman  and  for  hours  at  a  time,  sometimes  until  midnight, 
wrestle  with  figures  and  building  plans  and  details  which  took 
a  great  deal  of  maneuvering  to  be  fitted  into  a  whole.  Day 
after  day  they  would  tramp  over  the  dusty  streets  to  study 
the  various  lots  in  different  sections  of  the  town  which  had 
been  suggested  as  suitable  school  sites  by  interested  citizens. 

Finally  school  lots  were  chosen  and  the  school,  West  End, 
erected  for  white  children.  On  September  9,  1884,  West  End 
School  opened  in  regular  session  with  275  pupils.  Before  this 
formal  opening,  the  school  had  had  a  short  session  from  May 
23  to  June  II,  1884,  for  the  purpose  of  organization. 

The  amount  raised  by  taxation  was  entirely  inadequate  for 
the  erection  of  West  End  School;  private  citizens  borrowed 
and  advanced  an  amount  nearly  equal  to  the  deficit,  and  two 
other  citizens  loaned  the  residue.  The  lot  cost  $3,000,  the 
building  $17,500,  and  the  furnishings  $4,500. 

Since  there  was  little  money  on  hand  for  the  building  of  a 
school  house  for  Negro  children,  the  School  Board,  by  an 
arrangement  with  the  trustees  of  the  First  Baptist  Church 
(colored).  General  Barringer,  Henry  Pendleton  and  Peter 
Martin,  converted  the  church  into  a  school.  Later  the  Depot 
School  was  erected,  partially  with  funds  personally  solicited 
from  Northern  philanthropists  by  the  chairman  of  the  board 
and  Superintendent  Julius  L.  Tomlinson. 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        87 

Our  first  public  school,  organized  upon  a  sound  financial 
basis  and  an  up-to-date,  far-sighted  educational  policy,  at- 
tracted much  attention.  The  editor  of  the  widely-read  New 
England  Journal  of  Educatioji,  Dr.  A.  D.  Mayo  of  Boston, 
after  a  visit  to  Winston  four  months  after  the  opening  of 
West  End  wrote  in  his  Journal: 

"The  new  city  of  Winston,  N.  C,  has  done  the  most  nota- 
ble work  among  Southern  towns  of  its  size  in  the  establishment 
of  a  system  of  graded  schools.  During  the  year  it  has  built 
one  of  the  most  convenient  and  spacious  public  schoolhouses 
[West  End  School]  in  the  country,  and  gathered  the  white 
children  of  the  place  under  the  superintendency  of  Professor 
[Julius  L.]  Tomlinson,  so  well  known  by  his  excellent  serv- 
ices at  Wilson,  N.  C.  and  in  the  summer  normal  schools  of 
the  State. 

*'Only  four  months  from  its  organization,  the  school  with 
all  the  disadvantages  of  the  mixed  population  of  a  new  manu- 
facturing community  is  a  model  and  is  thronged  with  visitors 
from  all  over  the  Southern  country.  An  excellent  beginning 
has  been  made  with  the  colored  schools  and  a  handsome  lot 
awaits  the  next  effort  for  a  commodious  schoolhouse. 

"In  all  his  labors,  the  indefatigable  superintendent  is  upheld 
by  an  energetic  school  board,  whose  chairman.  Dr.  Wiley, 
was  for  many  years  State  Superintendent  of  Education  and 
may  be  called  the  father  of  the  common  schools  of  North 

"Winston  is  a  new  city  of  remarkable  growth,  and  in  all 
ways  a  striking  representation  of  the  advancing  life  of  the 
New  South." 

The  movement  for  a  public  hospital  was  started  by  a  group 
of  thirty-one  women,  who  on  June  27,  1887,  at  the  home  of 
Dr.  Henry  T.  Bahnson,  Salem,  formed  themselves  into  the 
Twin-City  Hospital  Association,  electing  Mrs.  James  A. 
Gray,  president;  Mrs.  J.  C.  Buxton,  first  vice-president;  Mrs. 

88         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

J.  A.  Bitting,  second  vice-president;  Mrs.  J.  F.  Shaffner,  treas- 
urer; and  Mrs.  J.  M.  Rogers,  secretary. 

The  solicitation  for  funds  with  which  to  furnish  the  beds 
and  rooms  of  the  house  which  the  Association  rented  for  the 
hospital— the  old  Martin  Grogan  home  on  Liberty,  just  to  the 
south  of  the  First  National  Bank— met  with  generous  response; 
the  physicians  of  both  towns  graciously  offered  their  services; 
the  mayor  of  each  town  pledged  for  his  municipality  a 
monthly  sum  of  $12;  so  in  six  months'  time,  on  the  first  day 
of  December,  1887,  the  doors  of  the  first  institution  in  Win- 
ston for  the  care  of  the  sick  and  suffering  were  thrown  open. 

When  the  old  Grogan  house  proved  inadequate,  the  Asso- 
ciation moved  the  institution,  proudly  called  the  Twin-City 
Hospital,  to  a  one-story  frame  building  on  Brookstown  Ave- 
nue, containing  one  ward  and  three  private  rooms  with  a  total 
of  seventeen  beds. 

In  the  early  days  of  the  Twin-City  Hospital  the  equipment 
was  so  meagre  that  doctors  and  surgeons  who  came  to  operate 
on  their  patients  had  to  bring  their  own  surgical  instruments. 

In  June,  19 12,  the  Town  of  Winston  voted  bonds  for  the 
erection  of  a  fireproof,  up-to-date  hospital.  Ten  acres  of  land  in 
East  Winston  was  purchased  and  construction  started  on  the 
new  hospital  shortly  before  the  merging  of  Winston  and 
Salem  into  one  municipality. 

Winston's  first  system  of  water  works  was  a  private  affair, 
not  a  municipal  concern. 

Editor  George  M.  Mathes  of  the  Western  Sentinel,  in  his 
issue  of  October  27,  188 1,  tells  of  the  progress  of  the  Winston 
Water  Company:  "The  reservoir  will  be  completed  in  four 
weeks.  Takingr  all  the  difficulties  the  Board  of  Directors  have 
had  to  contend  with  in  putting  the  work  through,  we  think 
they  deserve  great  credit.  At  the  meeting  of  the  stock-holders 
of  the  Company  on  last  Thursday  night  Colonel  J.  W.  Al- 
spaugh  was  called  to  preside  and  George  W.  Hinshaw 
appointed  secretary.  The  old  Board  of  Directors  were  re- 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        89 

elected:  R.  J.  Wilson,  S.  E.  Allen,  E.  A.  Pfohl,  W.  L.  Brown, 
G.  W.  Hinshaw,  James  A.  Gray,  and  P.  H.  Hanes." 

Through  the  eyes  of  Editor  Goslen  of  the  Union  Repub- 
lican, who  drove  out  one  fine  Sunday  afternoon  to  Belo's 
Pond  to  inspect  the  waterworks  under  construction,  we  see 
the  signs  of  progress  and  business  activity  in  the  Winston  of 

The  editor,  after  stating  that  on  his  afternoon's  drive  he 
counted  fifteen  new  dwellings,  goes  on  to  say:  "In  the  heart 
of  the  town  is  the  Farmers'  Warehouse.  At  the  corner  in  the 
rear  of  Mr.  Susdorff 's  dwelling  and  near  the  new  warehouse 
on  Old  Town  Street  [Farmers'  Warehouse]  is  the  store  house 
of  Messrs.  Vaughn  and  Pepper  (corner  Fifth  and  Trade) 
just  under  cover. 

"On  the  corner  of  Fifth  and  Cherry  [site  of  Hotel  Robert 
E.  Lee]  we  note  with  pride  the  handsome  dwelling  of  Major 
T.  J.  Brown,  built  of  brick  and  stucco-finish,  with  tower  and 
porches,  containing  12  rooms  finished  in  style,  with  hot  and 
cold  water  and  gas  fixtures  complete. 

"As  we  drive  down  Presbyterian  Street  [so  the  editor  calls 
Cherry]  we  note  the  roomy,  old-fashioned  dwelling  of  Dr. 
Spencer;  James  A.  Gray,  Esq.,  assistant  cashier  of  the 
Wachovia  National  Bank,  we  learn,  has  purchased  the  prop- 
erty and  will  erect  upon  the  spacious  grounds  a  handsome, 
modern  residence. 

"Further  down  the  street,  on  the  Winston  line,  is  the  Dr. 
Shelton  dwelHng,  brick  and  stucco-finish,  with  handsome 
tower  and  porches  all  around,  containing  15  rooms  finished 
in  the  best  style;  the  mantels  are  especially  fine. 

"Going  out  4th,  on  Shallowford  Street  we  note  the  hand- 
some residence  Mr.  Chamberlain  is  erecting  [on  Broad,  facing 
east].  In  fact,  go  in  what  direction  we  may,  we  find  new 
buildings,  new  enterprises." 

Before  1882  Winston  had  no  fire  company,  the  only  ap- 
paratus for  fighting  fire  being  the  hooks  and  ladders  owned 

90         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

by  the  corporation.  Early  in  February,  1882,  W.  F.  Keith, 
representing  a  group  of  citizens  interested  in  procuring  more 
adequate  fire  protection  for  the  town,  appeared  before  the 
town  commissioners  with  the  proposition  that  a  voluntary 
fire  company,  unsalaried,  be  organized,  the  town  providing 
the  equipment  and  necessary  station  personnel. 

The  commissioners  accepted  the  challenge,  and  on  Feb- 
ruary II,  1882,  Winston's  first  fire  company— Steamer  No. 
I— was  formally  organized.  In  May  the  fire  engine  arrived  and 
the  young  fire-fighters  in  their  fine  new  uniforms,  purchased 
by  the  commissioners,  were  kept  busy  drilling  for  the  volun- 
tary service  they  had  assumed  for  the  town. 

E.  M.  Pace  was  the  first  captain  of  Steamer  No.  i;  he  was 
succeeded  by  W.  A.  Bevil,  and  Captain  Bevil  was  succeeded 
by  J.  H.  Masten.  In  1883  the  native-born  Englishman,  A.  J. 
Gales,  a  charter  member  of  the  Company,  was  elected  to  the 
captaincy  and  for  twenty-one  years  served  most  efficiently 
in  this  position. 

On  March  2,  1886,  Winston's  first  fire  company  was  incor- 
porated by  the  legislature.  In  1891  a  second  companv  of  un- 
salaried voluntary  firemen  was  organized.  Steamer  Company 
No.  2,  H.  L.  Foard,  captain.  In  1893  ^  hook-and-ladder  truck 
was  added  to  the  equipment.  In  this  year  also  the  motorizing 
of  the  department  was  begun.  The  first  motor  truck  arrived 
on  January  9,  191 3.  Under  the  leadership  of  Chief  Harry 
Nissen  in  19 14  the  complete  modernization  of  the  fire  depart- 
ment of  Winston-Salem  was  begun. 

For  twenty  and  more  years  after  the  organization  of  our 
fire  department  the  fire  horses  were  used  on  the  streets  during 
the  day  for  hauling  purposes;  thus  they  were  often  some  dis- 
tance from  headquarters  at  the  first  alarm  of  fire,  and  were 
delayed  in  getting  into  action. 

The  Union  Republican  of  December  16,  1886,  makes  men- 
tion of  this  use  of  the  fire  horses— or  mules  in  the  early  days: 
"The  town  commissioners  have  erected  a  stable  adjoining  the 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston         91 

fire  house  and  have  two  mules  quartered  there  to  draw  the 
city  garbage  cart  and  in  case  of  fire  to  draw  the  fire  engine." 

It  was  in  the  early  1890's  that  firebugs  seemed  to  be  at 
work  in  Winston.  First  in  one  section  of  the  town  and  then 
in  another  unexplained  fires  would  break  out.  In  the  Memorial 
of  Robah  B.  Kerner,  who  was  mayor  during  this  period,  a 
vivid  description  is  given  of  one  afternoon  and  evening  of 

While  at  one  fire,  the  Mayor  was  summoned  by  fire  bells 
loud  and  long  to  another  section  of  the  town.  After  assisting 
the  volunteer  firemen  in  getting  this  second  fire  under  control, 
the  Mayor,  exhausted  from  his  labors,  drove  to  his  home  on 
West  Fifth  near  Summit,  but  scarcely  had  he  seated  himself 
at  the  supper  table  when  the  fire  bells  summoned  him  to  a  third 

This  time  a  fire  was  raging  near  the  Courthouse  Square,  and 
the  Mayor,  hastening  to  the  Square,  found  a  scene  of  wild 
confusion.  "Firemen  ran,"  says  the  Memorial,  "the  engines 
roared,  a  babel  of  voices  rent  the  air,  and  from  every  ware- 
house and  church  steeple  bells  rang,  and  all  the  while  the 
excited  populace  were  rapidly  congregating  on  every  corner 
and  every  conceivable  place." 

Seeing  that  great  danger  was  imminent,  the  young  Mayor 
sprang  upon  the  nearest  goods  box  and  lifting  his  voice  like  a 
trumpet  called  to  the  seething  mass  of  people:  "Disperse!  Dis- 
perse at  once!  Anyone  remaining  on  the  streets  will  be  imme- 
diately sent  to  jail!" 

The  crowds  melted  away  and  soon  only  the  sound  of  the 
fire  engines  at  work  broke  the  quiet.  All  night  the  local  militia, 
assisted  by  a  hundred  extra  policemen,  patrolled  the  streets, 
guarding  the  property  and  lives  of  the  citizens,  too  alarmed  to 
rest  easy  in  their  beds. 

There  was  much  good-natured  rivalry  in  the  i88o's  and 
90's  between  the  fire  companies  of  Salem  and  of  Winston. 
The  veteran  member  of  Salem's  Rough  and  Ready  Fire  Com- 

92         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

pany,  Andrew  J.  Peddycord,  has  left  on  record  an  interesting 
instance  of  this  rivalry.  It  occurred  on  Thanksgiving  Day, 
1892,  when  the  recently  opened,  handsome  Zinzendorf  Hotel, 
present  site  of  the  C.  H.  Hill  home  on  West  Fourth,  was 
totally  destroyed  by  fire. 

Mr.  Peddycord,  driving  the  old  Salem  fire  engine  to  the 
scene  of  fire  was  dashing  up  Cherry  Street,  just  about  to  turn 
into  Fourth,  when  he  spied  the  Winston  steamer,  W.  F.  Keith 
engineer,  en  route  to  the  Zinzendorf— not  propelled  by  its 
own  steam  but  hitched  to  the  back  of  a  streetcar,  with  engi- 
neer Keith  seated  on  the  top  of  the  car. 

"I'll  go  by  'em  this  time!"  declared  the  veteran  fireman,  and 
dropping  the  driving  reins  on  his  fine  pair  of  black  horses,  he 
holloed,  "Go!"  and  gave  chase  to  the  streetcar. 

When  he  reached  the  old  Walker  tobacco  factory,  now  the 
Alexander  x\partment,  he  shouted  "Good-bye!"  to  the  Win- 
ston firemen  and  dashed  by  their  streetcar-driven  steamer. 

When,  however,  the  gallant  driver  of  old  Rough  and  Ready 
reached  the  hotel,  laid  out  the  hose  line  and  coupled  it  to  the 
hydrant,  he  found  there  was  no  water. 

All  the  heroic  firemen  of  both  towns  could  do  was  to  load 
their  hose  and  watch  the  fire  destroy  the  most  magnificent 
hotel  Winston  had  ever  erected.  The  fire  was  so  intense  that 
the  heat  was  felt  blocks  away  and  the  Davis  School  cadets 
and  volunteer  firemen  were  kept  busy  putting  out  fires  on 
the  roofs  of  adjacent  buildings  caught  by  sparks  from  the  fly- 
ing shingles  of  the  burning  hotel. 

It  was  a  bleak  winter  afternoon  before  the  days  of  auto- 
mobiles or  even  streetcars  in  Winston  that  a  policeman  going 
his  rounds  found  in  a  rather  disreputable  section  of  town  two 
ladies,  footsore  and  weary,  sitting  by  the  side  of  a  railroad 

To  the  policeman's  look  of  surprise,  the  elder  of  the  ladies 
answered,  her  gentle  face,  framed  in  its  widow's  bonnet, 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       93 

lighting  up  as  she  said  reverently,  "We  are  wearing  out  shoes 
to  the  glory  of  God." 

This  spirit  seems  to  have  been  the  motive  that  prompted 
the  ladies  of  the  Benevolent  Society,  organized  in  the  annex 
of  Old  Centenary  Church,  December  14,  1887,  to  do  their 
remarkable  work  among  Winston's  poor  and  destitute  for 
thirteen  years  and  five  months. 

When  one  considers  the  handicaps  of  the  little  band  of  con- 
secrated women— there  were  never  more  than  ninety-odd 
names  on  their  roll  and  during  some  years  there  were  less  than 
thirty— and  few  of  them  rich  in  this  world's  goods,  one  marvels 
at  their  courage  in  face  of  discouragement. 

While  the  annual  dues  of  the  members  and  the  contribu- 
tions of  the  husbands  and  "gentlemen  friends"  who  were  en- 
rolled as  honorary  members  formed  the  steady  revenue  for 
the  work  of  the  society,  the  generous  collections  gathered  at 
the  big  union  meeting  of  all  the  churches  in  Centenary  Church 
on  some  evening  each  year  between  Thanksgiving  and  Christ- 
mas helped  greatly.  Then,  too,  there  were  the  annual  Thanks- 
giving offerings  of  the  West  End  School  children,  and  later 
of  the  other  schools. 

On  the  day  before  the  Thanksgiving  holidays,  the  West 
End  pupils  would  bring  their  off erings— pennies  and  dimes  and 
nickels  they  had  earned  or  saved  from  their  small  allowances 
—potatoes  and  pumpkins  and  apples,  home-canned  peaches 
and  tomatoes,  sacks  of  meal  and  pounds  of  sugar;  Superin- 
tendent John  J.  Blair,  with  his  artistic  skill,  would  arrange  the 
offerings  on  the  rostrum  and  then  make  an  occasion  of  their 
pubUc  presentation  to  representatives  of  the  society;  there 
would  be  Thanksgiving  songs  and  recitations  and  the  choos- 
ing of  some  of  the  children  to  accompany  the  ladies  in  their 
distribution  of  the  gifts. 

If  at  times  the  ladies  (as  the  time-stained  Ledger  always 
designates  the  members  of  the  society)  were  imposed  upon 
by  the  supplicants  at  their  doors,  or  a  "case"  helped  for  years 

94         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

would  prove  unworthy,  they  would  put  it  down  in  their 
records  as  a  mistake  of  the  head  and  not  of  the  heart. 

Among  the  "cases"  there  was  old  Mr.  B.,  an  unwashed 
Confederate  soldier,  who  year  after  year  made  capital  of  his 
patriotism.  There  was  the  glib-tongued  Mrs.  E.,  who,  accom- 
panied by  her  bad  Httle  son— the  "onliest  one"  as  she  always 
spoke  of  him— would  sit  for  hours  at  the  fireside  of  some 
sympathetic  lis tener-to-her- woes.  There  was  the  notorious 
Mrs.  M.,  who  flatly  refused  to  go  to  the  poor  house,  pre- 
ferring, she  said,  to  continue  being  fed  by  the  ladies  rather 
than  be  dependent  on  strangers. 

Such  pure  charity  breathes  from  the  old  Ledger,  such  for- 
getfulness  of  self,  that  as  we  read  the  faded  words  we  feel 
almost  as  if  we  were  reading  a  second  book  of  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles: 

June  14,  1893.  "Mrs.  Hamilton,  whom  we  have  assisted 
since  we  have  had  a  society,  died  in  May.  She  was  94  years 
old  and  we  have  the  consolation  of  knowing  that  we  bright- 
ened her  bedside  by  giving  her  some  comforts  she  never 
would  have  received  if  it  had  not  been  for  this  society.  She 
died  trusting  in  the  Saviour." 

October,  1893.  "We  are  sorry  we  could  not  order  any 
wood  as  we  had  no  funds.  We  greatly  regret  this  as  it  will  be 
a  hard  winter  and  so  many  will  need  help  as  they  have  had 
so  little  to  do  this  summer." 

February  10,  1897.  "We  wish  to  make  special  mention  of 
a  munificent  gift  of  thirty  dollars  from  the  generous  firm  of 
Taylor  Brothers.  During  the  last  few  weeks  the  treasury  has 
been  heavily  taxed." 

April,  1897.  "The  meeting  was  rather  a  gloomy  one,  for 
dispondency  crept  into  our  hearts  as  we  faced  an  empty  treas- 
ury and  in  debt  seven  dollars.  The  question  was  asked.  What 
shall  we  do?  After  discussion  it  was  finally  decided  that  the 
society  would  appeal  to  the  public  for  aid,  and  Mrs.  Wiley 
was  requested  to  write  an  article  for  the  city  paper.  We  trust 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        95 

that  she  will  touch  the  hearts  of  the  people  in  a  manner  that 
will  call  forth  willing  and  liberal  response." 

January,  1901.  "Our  hearts  are  indeed  sorrowful  over  the 
recent  death  of  Mrs.  W.  T.  Martin,  one  of  our  most  efficient 
members.  Among  her  last  deeds  while  lingering  between  life 
and  death,  she  distributed  alms  to  'a  little  one'  in  His  name." 

The  officers  of  the  first  two  years  of  the  Benevolent  Society 
were,  in  1887,  Mrs.  S.  S.  Hendren,  president;  Mrs.  C.  H. 
Wiley,  vice-president;  Mrs.  Frank  Martin,  secretary;  Mrs. 
John  W.  Alspaugh,  treasurer;  in  1888,  Mrs.  C.  H.  Wiley, 
president;  Mrs.  J.  C.  Buxton,  vice-president;  Mrs.  Mary  C. 
Prather,  secretary;  Mrs.  D.  Rich,  assistant  secretary;  Mrs. 
John  W.  Alspaugh,  treasurer. 

The  summer  of  1887  marks  the  casting  aside  of  the  old 
gasolene  and  kerosene  street  lamps  and  the  lighting  of  Win- 
ston with  electric  lights. 

The  Winston  Electric  Light  and  Motive  Power  Company 
was  incorporated  March  25,  1887.  The  officers  of  the  stock- 
holders of  this  company  were  Judge  D.  H.  Starbuck,  presi- 
dent; Captain  D.  P.  Mast,  treasurer;  the  directors  were  T.  L. 
Vaughn,  J.  E.  Gilmer,  J.  A.  Bitting,  A.  Ryttenberg,  W.  A. 

At  eight  o'clock  on  the  evening  of  August  26,  1887,  Colo- 
nel Bitting  by  a  turn  of  the  hand  connected  the  street  lines 
with  the  arch  dynamo  machine,  and  the  awaiting  spectators 
on  the  streets  were  dazzled  with  the  first  flash  of  Winston's 
electric  lights. 

The  coming  on  of  the  lights  proved  a  seven  days'  wonder 
to  the  people  of  Winston  and  the  surrounding  country;  the 
battery  was  near  the  jail,  and  at  eight  o'clock  each  evening 
when  the  current  was  turned  on,  there  would  be  a  crowd 
standing  around  to  see  the  dazzling  sight. 

Some  weeks  after  the  installing  of  electricity,  early  one 
September    afternoon    during    a   severe    thunderstorm,   the 

g6         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

people  of  Winston  were  startled  by  the  sudden  flashing  on 
of  all  the  thirty-seven  arc  street  lights;  for  fivt  minutes  the 
lights  burned  with  intense  brightness,  then  snapped  out. 

Some  months  after  the  installment  of  electric  lights  Win- 
ston and  Salem  began  the  movement  for  an  electric  street 
railway;  on  March  ii,  1899,  ^^e  Winston-Salem  Street  Rail- 
way Company  was  incorporated.  In  January,  1891,  the  Elec- 
tric Company  and  the  Street  Railway  Company  were  con- 
solidated under  the  name  of  Winston-Salem  Railway  and 
Electric  Company. 

The  Union  Republican  of  Thursday,  July  17,  1890,  gives 
the  following  account  of  the  starting  of  the  streetcars. 

"Monday  afternoon  marked  another  step  in  the  ever-grow- 
ing prosperity  of  our  towns.  It  was  the  starting  of  the  electric 
streetcars,  an  event  looked  for  with  much  eagerness  and  ex- 
pectation. President  F.  J.  Sprague,  whose  system  operated 
the  plant,  arrived  upon  the  noon  train.  About  2  o'clock  p.m. 
the  first  car  made  a  trial  trip  over  the  line,  occupied  by 
President  Sprague,  Vice-President  E.  L.  Hawkins,  J.  H.  Mc- 
Clemment,  Mr.  Field  of  the  Field  Engineering  Company,  Mr. 
Bourn  of  the  Sprague  Company  and  others. 

"Although  the  machinery  was  all  new  and  the  track  just 
laid,  everything  worked  like  a  charm.  A  large  company  of 
citizens  witnessed  the  passing  of  the  car  and  the  Salem  Band 
made  music  as  a  token  of  appreciation  for  this  great  enterprise 
in  our  midst.  It  is  to  be  regretted,  however,  that  all  the  re- 
quired tests  were  not  made  first  and  Tuesday  afternoon  ap- 
pointed for  an  appropriate  jollification  with  music,  speeches, 
a  'turnover  of  the  line'  and  so  forth.  The  citizens  were  eager 
for  such  a  manifestation  and  waited  for  an  announcement  to 
that  effect. 

"Tuesday,  July  15,  1890,  the  cars  began  to  run  regularly, 
and  the  excursionists  from  Raleigh  made  free  use  of  them  as 
did  also  our  visitors  from  Greensboro  yesterday,  July  16. 

"For  the  past  few  nights  there  has  been  a  perfect  jam  of 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       97 

merry  pleasure  seekers  spinning  up  and  down  the  line,  and 
the  streets  thronged  with  spectators. 

'It  is  certainly  a  great  step  forward,  an  enterprise  that 
involved  a  large  outlay,  which  signifies  the  confidence  foreign 
capitalists  have  in  our  present  and  future  welfare,  and  we 
believe  that  the  investment  will  never  be  a  cause  for  regret. 
Onward  is  the  watchword  in  the  Twin  Cities  and  the  entire 
Piedmont  section  has  long  ago  caught  the  spirit  of  the  times. 

"To  the  citizens  in  town  and  in  country  we  would  say  that 
the  five  handsome  new  streetcars  and  two  flats  which  will 
soon  be  operated  on  schedule  time,  the  lights,  the  building  and 
machinery  that  operates  the  whole,  is  a  sight  worth  witness- 
ing. It  will  cost  nothing  to  look  at  and  but  a  nickel  to  ride." 

It  was  on  May  4,  1885,  that  Winston's  first  daily  newspaper 
appeared— the  Twiit  City  Daily,  a  modest  folio,  12  inches  to 
the  page,  owned  and  edited  by  P.  F.  Doub  and  ZoUicoffer 
Whitehead.  It  was  not  until  December  12,  1887,  however, 
when  J.  O.  Foy  assumed  complete  control  of  the  paper,  that 
it  really  began  to  make  an  impress  upon  the  life  of  Winston. 

In  the  meanwhile  the  Western  Sentinel  under  the  manage- 
ment of  Edward  A.  Oldham  was  taking  on  new  life.  In  1883 
Mr.  Oldham,  having  acquired  the  interest  of  G.  M.  Mathes, 
placed  on  the  date  line  of  the  paper  for  the  first  time  the 
hyphenated  word  Winston-Salem.  In  1885  Mr.  Oldham 
merged  the  Winston  Leader  with  his  paper  and  introduced 
many  new  features  in  the  staid  old  Democratic  weekly.  In 
1888  Vernon  W.  Long  succeeded  Mr.  Oldham  as  editor.  In 
1890  the  Tnjoin-City  Daily  acquired  the  Western  Sentinel, 
continuing  its  publication  as  a  weekly  and  adding  the  word 
Sentinel  to  the  title  of  the  Daily. 

In  1892  WilHam  F.  Burbank  purchased  the  two  Sentinels— 
the  weekly  Western  Sentinel  and  the  Tivin-City  Daily  Sen- 
tinel, and  upon  his  removal  to  California  two  years  later 
continued  the  publication  of  the  periodicals  under  an  incor- 
porated publishing  company. 

98         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Winston's  second  daily  newspaper  was  The  Journal  which, 
founded  by  C.  L.  Knight  with  the  help  of  J.  R.  Justice,  made 
its  first  appearance  on  April  3,  1897.  For  several  years  The 
Journal  was  published  as  an  afternoon  paper.  On  January  2, 
1902,  it  became  a  morning  paper  and  also  commenced  the 
publication  of  a  Sunday  issue. 

Since  May  i,  1937,  the  Winston-Salem  Journal,  the  Tivin- 
City  Sentijiel,  and  the  Sunday  Journal  and  Sentinel  have  been 
published  by  the  Piedmont  Publishing  Company.  Gordon 
Gray  is  president  of  the  Company  and  publisher  of  the 

In  the  development  of  Winston  from  the  small  country 
town  of  the  i88o's  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  has  played  an 
important  part.  This  organization,  composed  of  the  leading 
citizens  of  Salem  as  well  as  of  Winston,  from  its  very  begin- 
ning referred  in  its  minutes  to  our  community  as  Winston- 
Salem,  thus  anticipating  the  time  when  the  two  independent 
municipalities  would  be  united  as  one  city. 

The  first  mention  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce— spoken  of 
as  the  Board  of  Trade— is  to  be  found  in  the  Union  Repub- 
lican of  Thursday,  September  24,  1885,  and  reads  as  follows: 
"A  meeting  of  the  business  men  of  the  two  towns  was  called 
on  Monday  evening  last,  September  21,  at  the  office  of  Cap- 
tain E.  F.  Young  [who  is  listed  in  the  1884  Directory  of 
Winston  as  a  broker,  residing  at  the  Central  Hotel]  to  take 
into  consideration  the  organization  of  a  Board  of  Trade  for 
the  town  of  Winston." 

The  first  Minute  Book  of  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  was 
burned  on  the  night  of  February  5,  1889,  when  the  store  of 
the  secretary-treasurer,  J.  D.  Paylor,  in  which  the  book  was 
kept,  was  destroyed  by  fire.  Therefore  the  official  records  of 
the  Chamber  begin  with  the  February  9,  1889,  meeting  of 
the  Directors:  John  W.  Fries,  president,  J.  E.  Gilmer,  vice- 
president,  C.  A.  Hege,  R.  Stevens,  J.  L.  Patterson,  John  W. 
Hanes,  Chesley  Hamlen,  S.  E.  Allen,  and  J.  M.  Rogers. 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       99 

However,  important  items  concerning  the  beginning  days 
of  the  Chamber  have  been  found  in  the  Ujiion  Republican 
(which  has  the  only  complete  file  of  local  newspapers,  the 
other  early  daily  and  weekly  newspapers  of  Winston  having 
been  destroyed  by  fire) . 

The  U7iioji  Republican  of  Thursday,  October  22,  1885, 
states:  "At  a  meeting  of  citizens  of  Winston-Salem  held  Sep- 
tember 28,  1885,  to  consider  the  propriety  of  organizing  a 
Chamber  of  Commerce  for  the  two  towns,  a  form  of  Con- 
stitution [evidently  worked  out  at  the  called  meeting  in  the 
office  of  Captain  Young  on  the  evening  of  September  21] 
was  submitted  by  W.  A.  Whitaker,  A.  B.  Gorrell,  J.  M. 
Rogers,  H.  E.  Fries,  G.  W.  Hinshaw,  C.  Hamlen.  [A  com- 
mittee] was  appointed  to  examine  and  revise  this  paper  and 
report  to  an  adjourned  meeting  on  October  5th.  At  said  meet- 
ing (October  5)  the  form  of  constitution  hereinafter  given 
was  ordered  to  be  printed  and  distributed  among  the  citizens 
of  the  towns  for  their  consideration  and  the  undersigned  were 
elected  a  committee  to  attend  to  this  duty. 

"In  the  discharge  of  this  task  the  committee  felt  that  it  was 
proper  to  submit  to  the  public  concerned  some  explanations 
and  suggestions  in  regard  to  the  character,  principles,  and 
uses  of  the  important  movement  now  inaugurated."  (Then 
follows  the  explanation  of  the  objects  of  the  Association.) 

In  the  November  12,  1885,  issue  of  the  Union  Republican 
appears  the  next  reference  to  the  newly  organized  association: 
"The  Chamber  of  Commerce  met  in  the  Armory  of  the 
Forsyth  Rifles  Monday  evening  the  9th  inst.  Mr.  J.  M.  Rogers 
was  called  to  the  chair  and  Willis  E.  Hall,  Esq.  requested  to 
act  as  secretary. 

"Mr.  Morris,  Chairman  of  the  Committee  to  the  Tobacco 
Association  reported  that  the  Association  declined  to  join  the 
organization  as  a  body,  but  the  Association  passed  resolutions 
of  sympathy  with  the  movement  and  urged  its  individual 
members  to  join. 

lOO       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

"Mr.  Joe  Stockton  reported  from  the  Committee  to  the 
A^erchants  but  no  definite  action  thereon  was  had. 

"On  motion  of  Mr.  John  W.  Fries  the  Secretary  read  the 
Constitution  by  articles  which  were  considered  and  amended 
in  many  particulars. 

"Among  other  things  the  initiation  fee  was  reduced  to  $6. 
Finally  a  call  was  made  for  membership  under  the  present 
alterations  of  the  Constitution;  20  firms  signified  a  willing- 
ness to  join." 

The  Union  Republican  of  November  19,  1885,  reports: 
"Another  meeting  of  this  organization  was  held  in  the  Armory 
Monday  night  the  i6th  inst.  to  effect  a  permanent  organiza- 
tion and  to  elect  the  ofHcers.  The  meeting  w^as  called  to  order 
by  Mr.  J.  M.  Rogers,  Captain  E.  F.  Young,  secretary. 

"Upon  an  election  for  permanent  officers  being  held,  the 
following  were  elected:  president,  J.  M.  Rogers;  first  vice- 
president,  John  W.  Fries;  second  vice-president,  W.  A. 
Whitaker;  Board  of  Directors  consisting  of  8  members,  to 
wit:  H.  E.  Fries,  C.  A.  Hege,  C.  A.  Fogle,  R.  J.  Reynolds, 
P.  H.  Hanes,  W.  B.  Carter,  Jr.,  E.  A.  Pfohl,  George  W. 

"A  committee  was  appointed  to  secure  a  charter  for  the 

"Thirty-seven  business  firms  were  represented  in  the  meet- 
ing and  it  is  confidently  believed  and  expected  that  others 
will  join  now  that  the  association  is  permanently  organized 
and  fully  officered;  and  upon  a  thorough  investigation  of  the 
organization  and  from  the  character  of  the  gentlemen  enlisted, 
we  are  satisfied  that  it  is  upon  a  business  footing,  that  its  object 
is  a  good  one  and  as  such  deserves  the  hearty  cooperation 
of  all." 

The  minutes  of  the  called  meeting  October  17,  1885,  of  the 
Board  of  Aldermen  has  a  reference  to  the  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce which  shows  the  activity  of  the  Chamber  from  its  very 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       loi 

beginning:  "Mr.  E.  F.  Young,  secretary  pro.  tern,  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce  of  Winston  and  Salem  recently  or- 
ganized," the  record  states,  "appeared  and  in  behalf  of  the 
Chamber  of  Commerce  requested  that  the  Board  of  Town 
Commissioners  aid  in  repairing  the  main  thoroughfares  lead- 
ing into  Winston,  representing  to  the  Board  the  deplorable 
condition  of  such  roads. 

"After  discussion ...  it  was  moved  and  carried  that  the 
Street  Committee  instruct  the  Street  Superintendent  to  do 
upon  Shallowford  and  Germantown  roads  $ioo  worth  of 
work ...  to  be  done  under  supervision  of  Street  Committee 
and  a  committee  from  the  Chamber  of  Commerce." 

An  item  in  the  U72ion  Republican  of  November  19,  1885, 
refers  also  to  this  matter,  stating,  "At  the  first  meeting  [of  the 
Chamber]  to  consider  a  constitution  presented  for  adoption, 
the  matter  of  our  public  roads  leading  into  town  was  dis- 
cussed and  the  temporary  president  appointed  a  committee  to 
raise  money  for  the  improvement  of  said  roads  and  the  sum  of 
$1,600  was  raised." 

The  following  items  from  the  records  of  the  Chamber, 
1 889- 1 896,  show  the  wide  range  of  the  civic  activities  of  this 
group  of  interested,  wide-awake  citizens. 

February  9,  1889.  The  Board  of  Directors  met  in  a  called 
meeting  to  consider  what  action  should  be  taken  concerning 
the  bill  now  before  the  legislature  to  lower  the  legal  rate  of 
interest.  The  secretary  was  authorized  to  send  a  telegram  at 
once  to  Speaker  Leazer  and  Representative  Reynolds  of  the 
county  protesting  on  behalf  of  the  Chamber  against  the  pas- 
sage of  said  bill. 

April  13,  1889.  Mr.  J.  C.  Buxton  stated  that  in  an  informal 
meeting  of  some  of  our  citizens  held  a  few  days  since  with 
citizens  of  Kernersville,  a  resolution  was  passed  requesting 
this  meeting  of  the  Chamber  to  be  called  to  consider  the 
question  of  the  extension  of  the  High  Point,  Randleman, 

I02        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Ashboro,  and  Southern  Railroad  to  Winston  via  Kernersville. 
Mr.  Buxton  moved  that  the  Chamber  appropriate  $ioo  to- 
ward the  expense  of  surveying  said  route. 

March  ii,  1890.  The  meeting  was  called  to  consider  (i)  a 
pubHc  government  building  for  Winston,  (2)  the  proper 
advertising  of  our  material  resources  and  other  advantages, 
(3)  improvement  of  our  railroad  schedules. 

The  standing  Committee  on  Trade  and  Transportation 
was  requested  to  make  special  effort  to  secure  separate 
freight  and  passenger  trains  on  all  railroads  entering  Winston 
and  to  urge  a  more  accommodating  schedule  on  all  the  same. 

April  18,  1890.  The  Chamber  met  in  special  meeting  to 
consider  the  question  of  procuring  the  removal  of  Davis  Mili- 
tary School  from  La  Grange  to  Winston-Salem.  Mr.  G.  W. 
Hinshaw  for  the  Committee  on  Location  read  a  report  rec- 
ommending citizens  of  Winston-Salem  to  subscribe  and 
donate  $20,000  to  aid  and  encourage  Colonel  Davis  to  locate 
his  school  here.  Subscriptions  were  at  once  opened  and  $6,500 

October  8,  1890.  A  special  committee  was  appointed  to 
look  into  the  matter  of  free  postal  delivery  for  Winston. 

December  5,  1890.  Mr.  C.  B.  Watson  spoke  upon  the  neces- 
sity of  collecting  accurate  statistics  of  temperature  and  rain- 
fall, and  Dr.  Henry  Bahnson  made  a  strong  appeal,  showing 
the  necessity  for  keeping  vital  statistics  also. 

January  30,  1891.  President  John  Hanes  stated  the  object 
of  the  meeting  was  to  consider  the  matter  of  locating  at  this 
place  the  Agricultural  and  Mechanical  School  for  colored 
people.  The  Chamber  was  informed  that  a  delegation  from 
the  colored  people  was  in  waiting  and  on  motion  said  delega- 
tion was  invited  to  come  before  the  Chamber,  and  its  spokes- 
man Professor  Atkins  addressed  the  Chamber  in  an  eloquent 
and  impressive  manner.  Colonel  John  W.  Alspaugh,  Messrs. 
R.  B.  Crawford,  W.  A.  Whitaker,  and  T.  J.  Wilson  were 
appointed  to  take  the  whole  matter  in  charge.  Mr.  R.  B.  Glenn 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston      103 

and  the  secretary  (W.  A.  Blair)  were  appointed  a  committee 
to  memorialize  the  Legislature  upon  this  subject. 

February  9,  1891.  The  Committee  on  the  Industrial  School 
for  colored  people  reported  that  Messrs.  Eller  and  Starbuck 
had  offered  to  donate  an  admirable  site  of  25  acres  and  give 
an  easy  option  on  25  acres  additional,  that  owing  to  the  bad 
weather  the  canvass  had  not  been  pushed  but  that  about  $1,250 
had  been  raised.  Professor  Atkins  was  introduced  and  stated 
that  the  colored  people  had  raised  $2,000  and  could  raise  $500 

June  15,  1 89 1.  The  Chamber's  attention  was  called  to  the 
fact  that  while  excursion  rates  were  given  on  railroads  to 
almost  all  points  in  North  Carolina,  our  city  was  "coldly, 
calmly  passed  by." 

April  7,  1892.  The  question  of  a  paid  fire  department  was 

November  14,  1892.  The  President  spoke  of  the  terrific  fire 
which  had  visited  our  city,  and  said  it  seemed  right  to  call 
together  our  best  citizens  to  set  on  foot  preventive  measures 
for  the  future. 

January  2,  1893.  Mr.  Robert  B.  Glenn  spoke  of  the  advisa- 
bility of  bringing  up  the  question  of  consolidation  under  the 
name  of  Winston-Salem. 

April  2,  1894.  Mr.  George  Hinshaw  of  the  Committee  on 
Internal  Improvements  reported  that  arrangements  for  hold- 
ing the  Fruit  Fair  here  had  been  almost  completed  but  that 
the  frost  had  probably  killed  all  the  fruit  and  hence  there 
would  be  no  fair. 

January  20,  1896.  Professor  S.  G.  Atkins,  President  of  the 
Slater  Industrial  Academy,  was  introduced  and  made  an 
entertaining  and  delightful  speech,  telling  of  the  work  of  the 

In  1905  Slater  Industrial  and  State  Normal  School,  a  monu- 
ment to  its  founder.  Dr.  S.  G.  Atkins,  came  fully  under  state 
control  as  one  of  the  state  institutions  for  the  training  of 

I04        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Negro  teachers.  For  more  than  half  a  century,  Dr.  Atkins 
held  the  confidence  and  respect  of  both  white  and  colored 
races  in  the  community.  He  was  a  pioneer  in  the  industrial 
development  of  his  race  and  in  the  teacher-training  depart- 
ment in  Negro  education.  Amid  his  varied  and  arduous  duties 
as  head  of  the  Slater  School  (in  1925  under  a  new  charter 
renamed  The  Winston-Salem  Teachers'  College)  he  found 
time  to  work  through  civic  activities  for  the  welfare  and 
progress  of  his  race  in  our  community;  and  in  state-wide  and 
nation-wide  movements  relating  to  the  labor  and  economic 
aspects  of  the  race  problem  he  at  all  times  manifested  active 

Concerning  the  beginning  days  of  the  local  Y.Al.C.A.  the 
following  items  have  been  culled  from  an  interesting  article 
by  Colonel  William  A.  Blair  in  the  Anniversary  Edition  of  the 
Twin-City  Sentinel,  May  4,  1935: 

In  the  annex  of  Old  Centenary  Church,  on  Sunday,  Octo- 
ber 7,  1888,  with  Captain  R.  B.  Crawford  acting  as  chairman 
and  W.  A.  Blair  as  secretary  pro  tem,  the  Association  was 
organized  with  129  charter  members. 

A  committee  was  appointed  consisting  of  the  following 
men  from  the  various  churches  of  the  town:  Rev.  E.  P.  Davis, 
pastor  of  the  First  Presbyterian  Church,  Major  Samuel  H. 
Smith,  Mr.  Frank  A.  Coleman,  Dr.  W.  J.  Conrad,  Mr.  Rufus 
Spaugh,  Rev.  W.  E.  Swaim.  This  committee  was  instructed 
to  draw  up  a  constitution  and  by-laws  and  report  at  the  next 
meeting,  to  be  held  October  14,  1888,  in  the  First  Baptist 

Messrs.  Eugene  E.  Gray,  W.  T.  Carter,  E.  A.  Ebert,  J.  C. 
Buxton,  Robert  B.  Glenn,  and  B.  F.  Norman  were  appointed 
a  committee  to  select  rooms  for  the  Association. 

For  $25  per  month,  later  reduced  to  $20,  the  committee 
secured  suitable  quarters  in  the  upper  story  of  the  Jacobs 
Building,  Main  and  Third,  owned  by  a  pioneer  Hebrew  mer- 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston      105 

chant  of  the  town,  Mr.  Joe  Jacobs,  a  broad-minded,  public- 
spirited  citizen;  and  the  Association  was  immediately  launched. 
Mr.  E.  L.  Harris,  who  had  had  experience  in  Y  work  in  other 
cities,  was  employed  as  general  secretary. 

In  a  few  years  a  Woman's  Auxiliary,  consisting  of  repre- 
sentatives from  the  different  denominations,  and  the  Boys 
Department  were  organized  on  a  budget  of  $2,500. 

The  early  membership  fee  was  $2.00  and  for  an  additional 
$2.00  the  member  had  the  use  of  the  one  small  bathtub,  soap 
and  towels  thrown  in. 

For  the  sum  of  $4.50  a  stove  was  purchased  for  the  assem- 
bly room  and  later  a  bulletin  board-paid  for,  no  doubt,  by 
the  committee  appointed  to  secure  it,  Major  T.  J.  Brown, 
W.  S.  Clary,  and  John  W.  Hanes. 

At  one  meeting,  in  1893,  the  secretary  reported  that  the 
Association  had  no  Bibles  and  was  short  on  chairs  and  hymn 
books;  he  also  stated  that  some  of  the  boys  who  used  the 
rooms  had  rough  appearances  and  still  rougher  manners.  At 
a  meeting  in  1896  thanks  were  voted  the  telephone  company 
for  a  free  phone,  and  a  complimentary  ticket  of  membership 
was  ordered  to  be  sent  the  company. 

In  1897  the  Association  moved  their  quarters  to  Brown's 
Opera  House,  Main  and  Fourth;  educational  classes  were 
added  to  the  work  of  the  Association,  and  a  gymnasium 
opened  with  lockers,  bath,  and  dressing  rooms. 

In  1906  under  the  inspiring  leadership  of  Robert  C.  Nor- 
fleet,  president  of  the  Y  at  that  time,  the  sum  of  $55,000  was 
subscribed  in  a  whirlwind  campaign  of  fifteen  days  for  a 
building  to  be  erected  on  the  corner  of  Fourth  and  Cherry- 
present  site  of  the  Nissen  Building. 

Of  such  public  interest  was  this  campaign  for  a  new  Y  that 
the  completion  of  the  fund  was  announced  in  a  very  unusual 
manner.  By  special  permission  of  the  Board  of  Aldermen,  at 
8: 15  P.M.,  on  December  7,  1906,  the  fire  alarm  sounded  forth 
fifty  times,  one  stroke  for  every  thousand  dollars  raised.  In 

io6        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

1908   the   handsome  four-story  stone   building   of   colonial 
design  was  opened  and  occupied. 

From  May  14,  1900,  to  May  12,  191 3,  when  by  popular 
vote  Winston  ceased  to  be  a  separate  municipality  and 
through  consolidation  with  Salem  became  Winston-Salem, 
Winston  had  only  two  mayors:  O.  B.  Eaton  and  Rufus  I. 

In  1900  O.  B.  Eaton  was  elected  for  a  term  of  two  years; 
since,  however,  in  1902  Winston  had  no  election  (in  com- 
pHance  with  the  state  law  that  no  municipal  election  could  be 
held  in  the  same  year  as  the  general  state  election),  he  was 
retained  in  office  an  additional  year.  Elected  again  in  1903,  he 
remained  in  office  until  19 10.  The  191 1  municipal  vote  re- 
sulted in  the  election  of  Rufus  I.  Dalton  as  mayor.  Serving 
with  Mayor  Dalton  as  the  last  official  board  of  small-town 
Winston  were  the  following  aldermen:  Thomas  Maslin,  J. 
Walter  Dalton,  Garland  E.  Webb,  J.  R.  Watkins,  C.  L. 
Bagby,  N.  D.  Dowdy. 

These  last  thirteen  years  of  Winston  saw  the  town  expand- 
ing in  many  directions.  The  building  operations  were  exten- 
sive; industry  became  more  diversified;  the  street  railway  was 
extended  to  East  Winston;  the  Children's  Home,  site  of  the 
old  Davis  Military  School,  was  estabhshed;  the  Associated 
Charities  organized,  and  also  the  Y.W.C.A.;  the  city  school 
system  was  expanded,  especially  in  the  erection  of  a  separate 
building  for  the  high  school  department— the  handsome 
Cherry  Street  High  School;  a  fine  city  hall  was  erected  at  a 
cost  of  $75,000,  and  the  agitation  for  a  public  library  was 
brought  to  a  successful  conclusion  in  the  erection  of  Carnegie 
Library  on  Cherry  Street. 

The  movement  for  a  public  library  began  in  1903  when 
through  the  efforts  of  J.  C.  Buxton,  chairman  of  the  City 
School  Board,  Andrew  Carnegie  agreed  to  donate  to  the  city 
of  Winston  the  sum  of  $25,000  for  the  erection  of  a  building 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston      107 

upon  the  condition  that  the  city  would  furnish  a  lot  and  make 
an  annual  appropriation  of  not  less  than  $2,500  for  the  main- 
tenance of  the  institution. 

In  a  mass  meeting  in  February,  1903,  Mr.  Buxton  ac- 
quainted the  citizens  of  Winston  with  Mr.  Carnegie's  proposi- 
tion. Time  and  again  he  appeared  before  the  Board  of  Alder- 
men concerning  the  matter;  he  discussed  it  also  with  the 
commissioners  of  Salem. 

It  was  not  until  the  October  meeting  of  the  Board  of 
Aldermen,  however,  that  official  steps  were  taken  in  the 
matter  through  the  appointment  of  a  special  committee  to 
meet  with  a  like  committee  from  Salem.  On  December  21, 
1903,  the  Winston  Board  of  Aldermen  after  an  earnest  appeal 
from  Mr.  Buxton  adopted  the  following  resolution: 

"Whereas  Mr.  Andrew  Carnegie  has  offered  to  the  City  of 
Winston-Salem,  N.  C.  the  sum  of  $25,000  to  build  a  Public 
Library  for  the  use  and  benefit  of  said  Cities, 

"And  whereas  the  joint  committee  appointed  by  the  Board 
of  Aldermen  of  the  City  of  Winston  and  the  Commissioners 
of  the  Town  of  Salem  has  reported  to  their  respective  Boards 
that  it  is  not  convenient  at  this  time  to  accept  said  gift  on  the 
terms  proposed  by  Mr.  Carnegie  and  whereas  Mr.  Carnegie 
is  willing  to  give  the  City  of  Winston  the  sum  of  Fifteen 
Thousand  Dollars,  provided  the  City  of  Winston  will  appro- 
priate $1,500  per  year  for  the  maintenance  and  support  of  the 
library  and  provide  a  suitable  site  for  said  Building,  that  the 
offer  is  hereby  accepted  on  the  part  of  the  City  of  Winston 
and  this  Board  hereby  authorize  the  said  Library  Building  to 
be  erected  on  the  east  corner  of  the  West  End  Graded  School 
lot  fronting  on  Fourth  Street,  belonging  to  the  City  of  Win- 
ston, and  the  clerk  of  this  Board  is  hereby  authorized  and 
instructed  to  certify  this  resolution  to  Mr.  Andrew  Carnegie 
and  to  express  to  him  the  thanks  of  the  City  of  Winston  for 
his  liberal  donation: 

"Resolved,  that  an  annual  appropriation  of  $1,500  is  hereby 

io8        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

made  for  the  purpose  of  maintaining  and  supporting  the  said 
Hbrary;  the  sum  to  be  available  when  the  library  building  is 
completed  and  turned  over  the  City. 

"Resolved,  that  Mr.  J.  C.  Buxton,  the  Mayor  of  the  City, 
and  James  K.  Norfleet  be  and  are  hereby  appointed  as  the 
building  committee  who  shall  have  the  whole  matter  in 
charge.  W.  E.  Franklin,  Secretary  and  Treasurer.  O.  B. 

The  building  committee,  after  due  consideration,  decided 
that  the  West  End  School  property  was  not  the  best  location 
for  a  public  library  to  be  used  by  citizens  residing  in  far 
distant  sections  of  the  town.  Accordingly,  a  site  was  chosen 
in  the  heart  of  the  town,  on  Third  and  Cherry,  accessible  by 
foot  or  by  streetcar  to  all  sections. 

On  March  5,  1904,  the  Board  of  Aldermen  formally  au- 
thorized the  purchase  from  Mr.  James  A.  Gray  of  his  lots  on 
the  corner  of  Third  and  Cherry  at  the  price  of  $2,000,  the 
same  to  be  used  for  the  Public  Library  building. 

At  the  April  17,  1905,  meeting,  Mr.  Buxton  appeared  before 
the  Aldermen  and  stated  that  the  new  library  building  was 
almost  completed  and  that  in  as  much  as  the  library  had  no 
books,  it  would  be  well  to  appoint  a  committee  of  ladies  to 
assist  with  the  selection  of  books. 

The  Board  appointed  Mr.  Buxton  and  his  building  commit- 
tee to  continue  as  the  library  committee  for  one  year  with 
power  to  elect  a  librarian,  select  any  number  of  ladies  to  co- 
operate with  the  committee,  and  make  all  preparations  for  the 
opening  of  the  institution. 

The  library  committee  chose  Mrs.  Mary  Prather  as  librar- 
ian and  as  a  nucleus  for  the  new  library  transferred  to  its 
empty  shelves  the  well  selected  West  End  School  library, 
founded  through  the  indefatigable  labors  of  the  first  superin- 
tendent, Julius  L.  Tomlinson. 

On  February  14,  1906,  Carnegie  Library  was  formally 
opened.  Mr.  W.  A.  Whitaker,  who  had  had  much  to  do  with 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston      109 

the  founding  of  the  old  West  End  School  and  its  fine  library, 
checked  out  the  first  book. 

The  years  1905- 1909  stand  out  in  the  history  of  Winston, 
for  it  was  during  these  years  that  one  of  her  citizens,  Robert 
Broadnax  Glenn,  served  as  governor  of  North  Carolina. 

Coming  to  Winston  in  1886  from  Danbury,  where  he  had 
established  himself  as  a  rising  young  lawyer,  Mr.  Glenn  be- 
came active  in  the  civic  and  church  affairs  of  his  adopted 
home.  He  was  especially  interested  in  all  that  concerned  the 
moral  uplift  of  the  youth  of  the  community;  he  took  an  active 
part  in  the  organization  of  the  Y.M.C.A.,  and  as  an  elder  in 
the  First  Presbyterian  Church  he  gave  freely  of  his  time  and 
talents  to  that  important  office. 

In  his  youth  Robert  Glenn  was  an  ardent  advocate  of  tem- 
perance, and  when  he  became  governor  of  North  Carolina  he 
resolved  to  do  all  in  his  power  to  put  down  the  liquor  traffic 
in  his  beloved  commonwealth. 

Gifted  with  a  magnetic  personality,  with  unusual  powers 
of  oratory,  he  led  the  campaign  which  eventually,  in  1908, 
led  to  state-wide  prohibition.  In  the  face  of  powerful  liquor 
interests,  despite  personal  opposition  and  ridicule,  he  fearlessly 
gave  voice,  from  one  end  of  the  state  to  the  other,  to  the  cause 
which  he  believed  was  right. 

It  is  of  local  interest  to  note  that  when  state-wide  prohibi- 
tion went  into  effect,  on  January  i,  1909,  the  two  wholesale 
liquor  houses  in  our  community  and  the  twelve  liquor  saloons 
were  closed. 

Before  becoming  governor,  Mr.  Glenn  had  brought  distinc- 
tion to  Winston  by  his  fearlessness  in  the  execution  of  his 
office  as  solicitor  for  the  ninth  judicial  district;  as  U.  S.  Dis- 
trict Attorney  under  President  Cleveland  he  made  a  distin- 
guished record. 

With  the  zeal  he  had  used  in  fighting  the  liquor  interests. 
Governor  Glenn  during  his  administration  brought  about 
better  conditions  in  the  state  hospitals  for  the  care  of  the 

no        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

insane  and  in  the  institutions  for  the  deaf  and  dumb  and  the 
blind;  he  caused  the  enforcement  of  certain  laws  pertaining 
to  the  railroads  of  North  Carolina;  and  he  settled,  to  the  satis- 
faction of  creditors  and  with  honor  to  the  state,  the  debt 
which  for  years  had  been  hampering  North  Carolina's 

The  greatest  catastrophe  which  ever  befell  our  town  was 
the  bursting  of  the  large  brick  and  cement  city  reservoir,  at 
the  northern  end  of  Trade  Street.  The  entire  northern  wall 
gave  way  unexpectedly  at  five  o'clock  on  the  morning  of 
Wednesday,  November  3,  1904,  and  the  surging  torrent  of 
1 80,000  gallons  of  water  rushed  east  and  then  north  following 
the  ravine  to  Belo's  Pond,  carrying  death  and  destruction  in 
its  path.  Eight  houses  were  swept  away,  the  personal  effects 
of  the  families  living  in  them  scattered  everywhere.  Nine 
persons  were  killed  and  numbers  injured  more  or  less 
seriously.  The  fire  bells  rang  and  the  firemen  of  both  tow^ns 
rushed  to  the  scene  of  destruction  to  render  heroic  voluntary 

Just  ten  days  before  the  bursting  of  the  reservoir,  Win- 
ston's new  water  plant  (the  erection  of  which  was  made 
possible  by  the  passing  of  municipal  bonds  in  January,  1904) 
was  completed  and  water  pumped  into  the  new  standpipe. 

Had  the  accident  occurred  a  fortnight  before,  AA'inston 
would  have  been  without  water  and,  as  the  local  press  of  the 
day  stated,  every  cistern  in  town  would  have  been  dry  in  less 
than  forty-eight  hours. 

Among  the  people  living  near  the  reservoir  who  miracu- 
lously escaped  death  were  a  Negro  man  and  his  wife.  They 
were  carried  safely  in  their  bed  on  the  crest  of  the  flood  to 
the  bottom  land  around  Belo's  Pond.  A  boy  whose  mother 
was  crushed  to  death  in  the  collapse  of  the  wall  was  saved 
because  the  bed  on  which  he  was  sleeping  was  in  an  upper 
room  under  the  roof,  where  the  two  sides  came  together  in 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston        iii 

a  peak;  when  the  large  stones  hit  the  house,  the  low  roof 
dropped  over  the  bed,  permitting  the  sleeping  boy  to  con- 
tinue his  nap  in  safety. 

Through  the  untiring  efforts  of  Mrs.  R.  D.  Moseley  and 
her  Whatsoever  Circle  of  King's  Daughters,  the  Christian 
women  of  Winston  organized  on  March  8,  1905,  the  Asso- 
ciated Charities  of  Winston,  an  association  supported  by 
voluntary  gifts,  which  during  the  expanding  years  of  the 
1900's  did  a  great  and  lasting  work  among  the  poor  and 
underprivileged  of  the  community. 

Mrs.  Henry  L.  Riggins  was  elected  president  of  the  new 
organization;  Mrs.  D.  Rich,  first  vice-president;  Mrs.  James 
K.  Norfleet,  second  vice-president;  Mrs.  J.  M.  Rogers,  third 
vice-president;  and  Miss  Annie  Grogan,  secretary,  at  a 
monthly  salary  of  $20.  It  was  thought  best  to  have  a  business- 
man to  handle  the  financial  side;  so  Mr.  J.  F.  Griffith  was 
asked  to  serve  as  treasurer. 

The  sum  of  $1,200  was  set  for  the  first  year's  goal.  A  com- 
mittee headed  by  Mrs.  James  K.  Norfleet,  Mrs.  R.  D.  Mose- 
ley, and  Mrs.  Henry  Foltz  made  a  house-to-house  canvass 
with  the  result  that  by  May  30  the  sum  of  $1,080.60  had  been 
pledged.  The  first  annual  report  shows  that  a  total  of 
$1,170.76  had  been  subscribed  and  that,  in  addition,  $1,094.11 
in  cash  had  been  collected  and  $20  in  wood  and  merchandise. 

The  early  minutes  of  Associated  Charities  show  how  val- 
iantly the  small  group  of  women  bearing  the  burden  of  the 
town's  down-and-outs  tried  to  solve  the  questions  of  segrega- 
tion and  care  of  consumptives,  street  begging,  employment 
of  children  under  twelve  years  of  age  in  factories,  and 

The  following  excerpts  from  the  Book  of  Minutes  give  an 
idea  of  the  foundational  work  of  this  organization,  which  in 
time  led  to  present  day  city-county  welfare  agencies. 

June,  1907.  Mrs.  Moseley,  Miss  Mamie  Dwire,  and  Mrs. 

112         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Roddick  were  appointed  a  committee  to  look  into  the  ques- 
tion of  a  day  nursery  greatly  needed. 

December,  1909.  In  regard  to  the  girl  in  jail,  a  committee 
was  appointed  to  see  her  and  find  out  if  she  would  go  to  the 
Home  for  Girls  in  Asheville.  Mrs.  Manly  offered  to  pay  the 
expenses  of  some  good  woman  to  accompany  her. 

April  28,  19 10.  Mrs.  Andrew  Mickle  suggested  that  the 
Associated  Charities  try  to  find  a  home  for  the  consumptives 
(under  care  of  the  association)  where  they  could  all  be  cared 
for  together. 

February  28,  191 1.  Mrs.  James  K.  Norfleet,  Miss  Blackwell 
(Methodist  deaconess)  and  Miss  Grogan,  the  secretary,  were 
appointed  to  consult  with  Judge  Hastings  in  regard  to  the 
establishing  of  a  work  house  for  girls  and  women. 

A  big  item  in  the  early  reports  of  the  treasurer  is  that  of 
transportation— sending  back  to  the  country  and  to  various 
towns  those  who  had  moved  into  Winston  for  support.  The 
story  is  told  of  "Miss  Annie,"  as  the  secretary.  Miss  Annie 
Grogan,  was  affectionately  called  by  rich  and  poor,  that  at 
one  time  of  depression  she  advised  so  many  out-of-work 
people  to  move  into  the  country  that  a  prominent  business- 
man laughingly  remonstrated  with  her,  declaring,  "Why, 
Miss  Annie,  if  all  your  parishioners  follow  your  advice,  there 
will  be  so  many  people  in  the  country  you  can't  stir  them 
with  a  stick." 

On  January  30,  1908,  the  Y.W.C.A.  of  Winston-Salem  was 
organized  in  the  Presbyterian  Church  under  the  direction  of 
Miss  Anna  Castle  of  the  National  Y.W.C.A.  Board.  Mrs. 
E.  B.  Jones,  who  was  entertaining  Miss  Castle  in  her  home  and 
who  herself  was  greatly  interested  in  the  welfare  of  young 
business  girls,  was  elected  the  first  president  of  the  Y. 

While  this  was  the  formal  organization  of  the  local  associa- 
tion along  national  Hues,  for  two  or  more  years  a  small  group 
of  young  business  women  sponsored  by  various  groups  of 
church  women  had  been  carrying  on  a  Business  Woman's 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       113 

Club  suggested  by  Miss  Ada  Snow.  Miss  Flora  Leak,  who 
knew  personally  almost  every  business  girl  in  the  small  com- 
munity of  the  1900's,  and  her  mother,  Mrs.  Mattie  Leak,  be- 
came warm  friends  of  Miss  Snow,  and  one  evening  around 
the  supper  table  these  three  friends  and  a  new  friend.  Miss 
Caroline  Hawkins,  assistant  to  the  pastor  of  the  First  Presby- 
terian Church,  began  to  make  plans  for  a  club  where  working 
girls  living  in  boarding  houses  might  spend  their  off -hours. 

With  Miss  Hawkins  as  the  head,  the  movement  was  soon 
launched.  Dr.  Neal  Anderson,  pastor  of  the  First  Presbyterian 
Church,  and  Mr.  J.  M.  Rogers,  one  of  his  elders,  giving 
hearty  support  and  encouragement.  Mr.  Rogers  donated  the 
use  of  a  room  over  his  hardware  store— present  site  of  Kress— 
and  various  other  merchants  contributed  heavy  curtains  to 
divide  the  big  room  into  assembly  hall,  tiny  rest  room,  and 
kitchenette.  Interested  women  gave  furnishings  for  the  rooms, 
including  a  piano. 

On  the  evening  Miss  Castle  was  organizing  a  real 
Y.W.C.A.,  the  Brown-Rogers  store  caught  on  fire  and  the 
club  rooms  of  the  pioneer  Y  were  completely  destroyed  by 
fire  or  water. 

New  quarters  were  at  once  secured:  a  large  room  on  the 
second  floor  of  Gilmer  Brothers  on  South  Main  Street,  con- 
verted by  means  of  beaver-board  partitions  into  association 
room,  with  secretary's  oflice  in  one  corner,  a  reading  room, 
and  a  kitchen.  Miss  Anna  Shaw  of  Pittsburgh,  a  trained 
Y.W.C.A.  official,  was  employed  as  secretary. 

In  these  rooms  the  association  was  housed  until  the  late 
Mrs.  R.  J.  Reynolds  made  possible  the  handsome  and  pleasant 
Y  on  First  and  Church  streets. 

A  survey  of  Winston  during  the  last  decade  of  her  history 
as  a  separate  municipaHty  shows  the  business  life  of  the  town 
(the  population,  something  over  17,167),  centering  about 
Courthouse  Square,  some  distance  down  to  the  Union  Depot, 
up  Liberty  a  few  blocks,  down  Main  to  Second.  Cherry 

114         Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Street  south  from  Fourth,  upper  Liberty;  Fourth  and  Fifth 
streets  west  from  Cherry  were  residential  sections,  with  tree- 
lined  sidewalks,  broad  front  yards,  and  back-yard  vegetable 
gardens  surrounding  the  homes. 

There  were  no  sprawling  apartment  houses,  no  skyscrapers. 
The  tallest,  most  pretentious  buildings  were  the  seven-story 
Wachovia  Bank  and  Trust  Company  on  Third  and  Main; 
the  Masonic  Temple,  erected  in  1906,  on  Fourth  and  Trade; 
the  three-story  First  National  Bank  Building  on  Liberty, 
erected  in  1890;  the  Masten  Building,  Fourth  and  Main, 
erected  in  19 10;  the  Jones  Building,  North  Liberty  just  north 
of  Fifth  Street,  erected  in  1900;  and  the  three-story  O'Hanlon 
Building  (soon  after  this  period  destroyed  by  fire  and  re- 
placed by  the  present  tall,  handsome  structure). 

The  Post  Office,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Federal  Building 
but  much  smaller,  had  a  working  force  of  forty;  there  were 
fourteen  letter  carriers  and  four  substitute  carriers,  and  ten 
railway  mail  clerks  who  worked  in  and  out  of  the  town  and 
who  were  paid  through  the  local  office. 

The  Elks  Auditorium— now  the  State  Theatre— with  a 
seating  capacity  of  2,300  was  the  principal  auditorium  for  rec- 
reational and  cultural  purposes;  the  Amuzu,  the  Liberty,  and 
the  Rex,  which  was  for  Negroes  only,  were  small  moving 
picture  shows. 

In  191 3  the  great  foreign  trade  of  Winston  was  in  its  in- 
fancy. For  shipment  over  the  United  States  no  special  freight 
trains  were  necessary,  and  shipping  by  huge  trucks  was  un- 
thought  of. 

Few  farmers  used  automobiles  in  bringing  their  tobacco  to 
town;  during  great  tobacco  breaks,  the  covered  wagons 
double-parked  would  crowd  Trade  Street,  Main  near  Brown's 
Warehouse,  and  Fifth  as  far  west  as  Spruce  or  even  Poplar. 
Hundreds  of  farmers  would  sleep  on  the  floors  of  the  ware- 
houses or  camp  out  in  their  parked  wagons,  cooking  their 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       115 

supper  and  breakfast  by  the  light  of  the  lanterns  hung  on  at 
the  backs  of  their  wagons. 

When  Winston  voted  for  consolidation,  the  assessed  value 
of  property  was  $711  per  capita;  the  bonded  debt  of  the  town 
was  $61.20  per  capita. 

The  very  fact  that  during  the  years  preceding  consolida- 
tion the  women  of  Winston  were,  through  their  Women's 
Improvement  League,  waging  a  vigorous  campaign  for  the 
beautifying  and  upkeep  of  public  grounds  and  buildings,  the 
enforcement  of  sanitary  measures  in  keeping  the  town  clean, 
shows  not  only  that  women  were  awakening  to  their  respon- 
sibilities as  citizens  but  that  the  town  had  need  of  more  thor- 
ough official  oversight  of  streets  and  public  property. 

Among  the  measures  urged  by  the  Women's  Improvement 
League  were  the  regular  flushing  of  the  bithulithic  streets  and 
the  sweeping  and  sprinkling  of  the  unpaved  streets;  the  use 
of  tin  garbage  cans  in  place  of  old  barrels  and  boxes;  the  en- 
forcement of  law  against  "using  as  enlarged  cuspidors" 
the  inside  walks  and  public  buildings  such  as  the  Post  Office 
and  the  Union  Railroad  Station;  the  beautifying  and  improve- 
ment of  all  the  city  school  grounds,  especially  those  of  West 
End  School,  which  were  about  to  wash  away. 

The  minutes  of  the  Board  of  Aldermen  show  that  at  the 
turn  of  the  century  the  old  question  of  allowing  citizens  to 
raise  hogs  on  their  town  lots  was  still  a  matter  of  concern  to 
the  town  authorities.  Indeed,  the  question  of  Hogs  or  No 
Hogs  was  made  an  issue  in  certain  sections  of  Winston  in 
the  matter  of  consolidation  with  Salem. 

The  town  records  show  that,  in  the  months  preceding  the 
election  on  consolidation,  first  one  large  group  of  citizens  in 
one  section  of  the  town  and  then  another  group  in  another 
section  would  present  petitions  asking  to  be  allowed  to  con- 
tinue raising  hogs;  an  equally  large  group  of  property-owners 
would  promptly  petition  against  hog-raising.   It  became  a 

ii6        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

delicate  matter  for  the  aldermen  to  decide,  especially  when 
it  became  evident  that  the  vote  for  consolidation  would  be 
affected  by  the  decision  they  made.  Finally,  on  the  evening 
of  March  7,  191 3,  the  aldermen  cast  their  votes,  as  many  For 
as  Against;  the  Mayor  broke  the  tie,  casting  his  vote  for  the 

With  the  following  excerpts  from  the  minutes  of  the 
Winston  Board  of  Aldermen  concerning  the  consolidation 
with  Salem  these  glimpses  of  small-town  Winston  come  to  a 

"February  i,  191 3.  Whereas  an  Act  of  the  General  Assem- 
bly of  North  Carolina  was  duly  passed  and  ratified  27  th  day 
of  January  191 3  consoHdating  as  one  municipality  the  City 
of  Winston  and  the  Town  of  Salem  in  the  name  of  the  City 
of  W^inston-Salem,  in  accordance  with  the  provisions  con- 
tained in  said  Act,  providing  that  the  same  should  be  ratified 
by  the  voters  of  the  City  of  Winston  in  an  election  to  be 
held  in  the  City  of  Winston  and  by  the  voters  of  the  Town  of 
Salem  in  an  election  to  be  held  in  the  Town  of  Salem; 

"Whereas  if  a  majority  of  the  votes  cast  in  each  of  said 
elections  should  be  in  favor  of  the  said  consolidation  as  set 
forth  in  said  Act  of  the  General  Assembly, 

"Be  it  ordained:  that ...  an  election  shall  be  held  in  the 
three  wards  of  the  City  of  Winston  on  Tuesday  the  i8th  day 
of  March  191 3  ...  that  the  Mayor  shall  give  proper  and  legal 
notice  of  the  time  and  place  of  said  election  by  publishing  in 
some  newspaper  published  in  the  City  of  Winston  for  at  least 
30  days  prior  to  the  date  of  said  election. 

"May  18,  191 3.  The  returns  of  the  election  on  Consolida- 
tion held  March  18,  191 3  having  been  presented,  they  were 
approved.  The  votes  cast  were:  First  Ward  350  For,  ^6 
Against,  total  406;  Second  Ward  210  For,  96  Against,  total 
306;  Third  Ward  204  For,  108  Against,  total  312." 

On  May  6,  191 3,  the  election  of  the  official  board  for  the 
municipality  of  the  City  of  Winston-Salem  was  held,  and  the 

Glimpses  of  Small-Town  Winston       117 

following  men  were  elected:  mayor,  O.  B.  Eaton;  aldermen, 
first  ward  E.  D.  Vaughn,  C.  M.  Cain;  second  ward  G.  E. 
Webb,  P.  S.  Bailey;  third  ward  N.  D.  Dowdy,  G.  W.  Ed- 
wards; Salem  ward  H.  F.  Shaffner,  Fred  A.  Fogle. 

On  May  12,  191 3,  the  new  Board  met  in  the  Council  Cham- 
ber of  the  City  Hall  at  8:30  p.m.  and  took  their  oaths  of 




THERE  is  something  appealing  about  our  North  Caro- 
lina towns.  Isaac  Erwin  Avery  said  of  them,  "They 
are  the  most  charming  places  in  the  world,  where 
folks  send  you  good  things  to  eat  when  you  are 
sick  and  talk  about  you  when  you  are  well."  Forsyth  County 
is  blessed  with  its  share  of  the  smaller  units  of  population. 
They  contribute  to  the  social  development  of  the  people, 
although  they  do  not  shine  with  the  lustre  of  the  metropolis. 
No  attempt  is  here  made  to  present  their  full  history;  rather 
the  aim  is  to  tell  of  their  origin,  to  relate  interesting  details  in 
their  development,  and  to  list  some  of  their  representative 
family  names. 

Bethabara,  or  Old  Town 

On  a  November  day  in  1753,  the  first  settlers  reached 
Wachovia.  They  found  a  deserted  cabin,  formerly  occupied 
by  a  frontiersman  named  Hans  Wagner.  Crowded  into  this 
welcome  shelter,  they  celebrated  their  arrival  with  a  lovefeast 
and  sang  a  hymn  composed  for  the  occasion,  probably  the 
first  poem  on  record  composed  in  North  Carolina: 

"We  hold  arrival  lovefeast  here 
In  Carolina  land." 

The  hymn  was  sung  to  the  accompaniment  of  wolves  howl- 
ing in  the  wilderness. 

Next  day  all  of  the  colonists  were  at  work  building  their 
town,  "some  sharpening  their  axes  and  preparing  their  hoes, 
others  beginning  to  construct  a  bakeoven,  one  exploring  the 
country  to  find  a  mill  where  they  might  buy  some  com,  etc., 
whilst  three  brethren  were  busy  in  the  house,  preparing  a  kind 
of  garret  with  rough  boards,  where  they  could  store  their 

The  names  of  these  first  settlers  were  Bernhard  Adam 
Grube,  Jacob  Loesch,  Hans  Martin  Kalberlahn,  Hans  Peter- 

122        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

sen,  Christopher  Merkley,  Herman  Loesch,  Erich  Ingebret- 
sen,  Heinrich  Feldhausen,  Johannes  Lisher,  Jacob  Lung, 
Friedrich  Jacob  Pfeil,  and  Jacob  Beroth.  They  were  soon 
joined  by  other  pilgrims.  DweUing  houses,  a  grist  mill,  and  a 
meeting  house  were  erected.  In  1756  the  settlement  numbered 
sixty-five  inhabitants. 

The  village  attracted  travelers.  This  outpost  in  the  wilder- 
ness offered  hospitality.  On  the  ancient  trail  to  Virginia, 
Bethabara  was  visited  by  settlers  and  Indians.  Cherokee, 
Creek,  and  Catawba  Indians  halted  there,  and  more  than  five 
hundred  passed  through  the  settlement  in  1757  and  1758. 
They  described  Bethabara  as  a  place  "where  there  are  good 
people  and  much  bread." 

The  French  and  Indian  War,  begun  in  the  north  in  1754, 
spread  southward.  In  1756  a  palisade  was  erected  about  the 
settlement.  Guards  were  on  duty.  Settlers  for  a  hundred  miles 
around  fled  to  Bethabara  for  refuge.  They  came  from  as  far 
away  as  New  River  in  Virginia  and  Alamance  River  in  North 
Carolina.  Brother  Kapp,  the  miller,  tried  to  provide  meal  for 
all  the  refugees. 

Indians  surrounded  the  fort.  One  day  a  neighboring  settler 
staggered  into  it  with  two  arrows  in  his  body.  His  companions 
had  been  killed,  but  he  had  escaped,  wounded,  and  after  long 
wandering  reached  the  fort,  where  the  arrows,  one  of  which 
had  pierced  him  through,  were  extracted.  Fifteen  settlers  in 
the  neighborhood  were  slain  by  the  marauding  Indians. 

Suddenly  the  Indians  disappeared.  Later  the  settlers  learned 
that  they  had  been  frightened  away  by  the  ringing  of  the 
church  bell  and  the  blowing  of  the  trumpet  in  the  Httle  set- 

Frontier  guardsmen  who  patrolled  the  region  in  this  period 
of  danger  included  Daniel  Boone,  whose  home  was  on  the 
Yadkin  River. 

After  peace  was  restored,  more  settlers  arrived  in  Wacho- 
via. Bethabara  became  an  important  center  for  trade.  Neigh- 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  123 

bors  found  here  a  community  of  devout,  well-educated,  and 
cultured  inhabitants.  According  to  plan,  however,  Bethabara 
was  designed  to  be  only  a  place  of  passage.  Salem  was  estab- 
lished as  the  central  town  of  Wachovia  in  1766.  Gradually  the 
inhabitants  of  Bethabara  moved  thither.  But  there  were  still 
stirring  scenes  at  the  first  settlement.  Governor  Tryon  visited 
there,  and  his  troops  paraded  in  the  meadow  to  the  music  of 
the  Bethabara  band.  Lord  Cornwallis  marched  through  with 
his  army  in  1781. 

Today  it  is  a  small,  picturesque  community  seemingly  far 
removed  from  the  busy  industrial  city  of  Winston-Salem.  The 
ancient  church,  built  in  1788,  stands  as  a  monument  to  the 
pilgrims  who  found  their  way  into  the  wilderness  and  estab- 
lished themselves  as  the  first  settlers.  The  parsonage,  built  in 
1778,  is  across  the  street.  In  the  hilltop  burial  ground  are  the 
graves  of  the  pioneers. 

Bethabara  has  been  a  house  of  passage.  Without  Bethabara 
there  would  have  been  no  Salem  and  no  Winston-Salem. 


Among  the  refugees  who  assembled  in  Bethabara  during  the 
Indian  War  there  were  some  who  desired  to  unite  with  the 
Moravian  settlers,  and  there  were  also  certain  Moravians  who 
wished  to  establish  themselves  independently  instead  of  shar- 
ing in  the  closely-bound  co-operative  social  system  of  the 

To  accommodate  these  two  classes,  plans  were  made  for 
a  new  settlement  three  miles  west  of  Bethabara  in  a  valley 
location  known  as  Black  Walnut  Bottom.  Bishop  A.  G.  Span- 
genberg  led  the  pioneers  in  selecting  the  site  in  June,  1759. 
Surveyor  Renter  measured  off  thirty  town  lots,  two  tracts  of 
meadow  land,  several  acres  of  upland  for  gardens  and  or- 
chards, and  about  two  thousand  acres  of  land  set  apart  for  use 
of  the  inhabitants. 

124        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Moravian  settlers  who  were  assigned  lots  in  the  lower 
part  of  the  village  were  Gottfried  Grabs,  Balthasar  Hege, 
Charles  Opiz,  Christopher  Schmidt,  John  Beroth,  Adam 
Kremer,  Michael  Ranke,  and  Henry  Bieffel.  On  July  i8,  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Grabs  and  their  little  son  William  occupied  the  first 
cabin  erected.  The  comforting  Scripture  text  for  the  day  was, 
"I  will  fear  no  evil,  for  Thou  art  with  me."  Indeed,  there  was 
need  of  such  comfort,  for  the  dangers  of  Indian  warfare 
threatened  this  infant  colony.  Spangenberg  and  his  party  of 
town-builders  rode  their  horses  at  a  thundering  gallop  on  the 
road  from  Bethabara  to  the  new  town,  and  it  was  well  that 
they  did,  for  Indian  warriors  were  lurking  in  the  forest  along 
the  trail,  waiting  for  opportunity  to  attack. 

Neighbors  who  were  permitted  to  settle  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  new  town  were  Martin  Hauser  and  his  two  married 
sons,  George  and  Michael  Hauser,  Henry  Spoenhauer,  John 
Strup,  Philip  Shaus,  Frederick  Shore,  a  widower,  and  his  son 
Henry  Shore. 

In  the  year  1781,  when  the  inhabitants  of  Bethania  num- 
bered ninety-one,  the  quiet  village  was  again  brought  into  the 
theater  of  war.  The  army  of  Lord  Cornwallis,  pursuing  Gen- 
eral Greene,  was  forced  by  high  water  to  forego  crossing  the 
Yadkin  River  near  Salisbury,  and  marched  upstream  beyond 
the  west  bank  of  the  river  to  the  crossing  at  Shallow  Ford. 
The  British  army  of  five  thousand  Redcoats,  with  about  as 
many  camp-followers,  descended  upon  the  village  on  Feb- 
ruary 9.  Lord  Cornwallis  selected  as  headquarters  a  house  on 
Main  Street  north  of  the  church,  later  the  home  of  Professor 
A.  I.  Burner.  Soldiers  raided  the  neighborhood,  seizing  all  the 
ducks,  chickens,  hogs,  and  cattle  to  be  found  and  com- 
mandeering the  horses.  Fences  and  outbuildings  were  burned 
in  campfires.  Troopers  located  several  still-houses  in  the  re- 
gion outside  the  town.  A  commentator  has  stated  that  there 
was  so  much  drunkenness  that  five  hundred  Colonial  troops 
could  have  captured  the  entire  army. 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  125 

Bethania  has  from  the  beginning  enjoyed  cultural  advan- 
tages. Education  has  been  well  supported  and  the  community 
has  been  served  by  able  teachers.  A  distinctive  contribution 
to  higher  education  was  the  work  of  Miss  Emma  Lehman,  for 
many  years  a  teacher  at  Salem  College.  Old  Town  High 
School  serves  the  community  today. 

A  brick  church  built  in  1 809,  succeeding  the  first  house  of 
worship,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1942;  only  the  brick  walls 
were  left  standing.  In  the  fire  the  oldest  pipe  organ  then  in 
use  in  North  Carolina  was  reduced  to  ashes.  The  church  has 
since  been  rebuilt  and  is  very  nearly  like  the  former  building. 

Bethania  has  retained  its  old-world  appearance.  It  is  a  quiet, 
neighborly  village  that  attracts  many  visitors. 

Among  the  familiar  Bethania  names  not  already  mentioned 
are  Transou,  Oehman,  Chadwick,  Kapp,  and  Holder. 


A  year  after  the  first  settlers  arrived  at  Bethabara,  Adam 
Spach,  a  native  of  Alsace,  settled  in  the  valley  of  a  small  creek 
south  of  the  Wachovia  Tract.  For  safety  he  cut  a  road 
through  the  forest  from  his  home  to  Bethabara,  and  with  his 
family  he  fled  to  the  fort  during  the  Indian  War. 

Upon  his  urgent  invitation,  a  minister  visited  his  home  in 
1758  and  preached  to  eight  families  there  assembled.  This  was 
the  beginning  of  the  Friedberg  congregation. 

A  meeting  house  was  built  and  was  consecrated  in  1769. 
Fourteen  families  united  in  this  effort,  of  whom  the  men  were 
Valentine  Frey,  Christian  Frey,  George  Frey,  Peter  Frey, 
George  Hartman,  Adam  Hartman,  John  Mueller,  John 
Boeckel,  Frederick  Boeckel,  Jacob  Crater,  Martin  Walk, 
Peter  Foltz,  Adam  Spach,  and  Christian  Stauber.  Another 
member  later  associated  with  the  society  was  Marcus  Hoehns 
(Hanes) . 

Friedberg  Church  has  flourished,  growing  in  membership 

126        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

until  the  congregation  has  become  one  of  the  largest  among 
the  rural  churches  in  North  CaroHna. 

Adam  Spach,  the  Father  of  Friedberg,  built  a  residence  of 
stone,  known  widely  as  the  Rock  House.  It  was  located  over 
a  spring  and  had  a  large  basement  into  which  cattle  could  be 
driven  in  case  of  siege.  The  walls  were  provided  with  port- 

More  than  five  thousand  descendants  of  Adam  Spach  have 
been  recorded.  Other  famihar  names  among  the  early  settlers 
include  Ebert,  Fishel,  Fisher,  Rothrock,  Tesch,  Weisner, 
Zimmerman,  Reich,  Mendenhall,  and  Graver. 


Southwest  of  Bethabara,  between  the  present  Hanes  and 
Clemmons,  the  settlers  Christopher  Elrod  and  John  Douthit 
invited  Moravian  ministers  to  preach  in  the  neighborhood. 
These  settlers  sought  refuge  at  the  Bethabara  fort  in  the 
Indian  War.  Several  families  from  Carroll's  Manor  in  Mary- 
land moved  into  this  community.  A  meeting  house  was  begun 
in  1775  but  was  not  completed  until  1780.  The  congregation 
was  called  Hope. 

Early  residents  of  the  community  included  families  named 
Peddycord,  Padget,  Chitty,  Boner,  Goslen,  Hamilton,  Boyer, 
Markland,  Slater,  and  Riddle. 

Many  Moravians  migrated  to  the  Middle  West  early  in  the 
nineteenth  century  and  founded  a  town  in  Bartholomew 
County,  Indiana,  which  was  named  Hope  after  the  congrega- 
tion in  North  Carolina. 


Several  families  arrived  in  Wachovia  in  1769.  They  had 
first  begun  a  settlement  at  Broad  Bay,  Maine,  but  were  not 
pleased  with  the  location.  On  their  way  to  North  Carolina 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  127 

they  had  been  shipwrecked  off  the  coast  of  Virginia.  These 
settlers  were  assigned  land  southeast  of  Salem  and  there 
founded  Friedland.  The  names  of  early  members  were  John 
Peter  Green  (Kroehn),  Michael  Rominger,  Philip  Christoph 
Vogler,  Melchoir  Schneider,  Frederick  Kuenzel,  Michael 
Sides,  Jacob  Rominger,  Frederick  Miller,  Jacob  Hine,  Peter 
Schneider,  John  Lanius,  Peter  Fiedler,  George  Frederick 
Hahn,  and  Jacob  Reid.  Additional  names  associated  with  the 
neighborhood  are  Williard,  Swaim,  and  Smith. 

The  army  of  Lord  Cornwallis  on  the  march  in  178 1  camped 
for  the  night  in  the  vicinity  of  Friedland.  The  church  diary 
states:  "The  Friedland  people  living  near  the  camp  lost  nearly 
all  their  forage  and  cattle.  All  sorts  of  excesses  were  com- 
mitted by  wandering  parties  seeking  food." 

The  township  in  which  Friedland  is  located  is  known  as 
Broadbay,  in  memory  of  the  earlier  New  England  home  of 
the  first  settlers. 

Belews  Creek 

The  early  history  of  this  settlement  can  be  found  only  in 
fragments.  In  1753  the  survey  on  Belews  Creek  was  recorded 
of  200  acres  of  land  each  for  Thomas  Linville  (Linvall),  Sr., 
and  Thomas  Linville,  Jr.,  by  Lord  Granville's  "sworn  sur- 
veyor," William  Churton.  "Sworn  chain  carriers"  were  Wil- 
liam Barclay,  Thomas  and  William  Linville. 

In  1767  the  county  court  in  Salisbury  granted  three  public 
roads  from  Salem,  one  leading  to  "Beloe's  Creek."  Salem 
agreed  to  care  for  seven  miles  of  the  road  to  "Blewers  Creek." 
The  new  road  to  "Beloos  Creek"  was  opened  in  1773. 
Itinerant  Moravian  ministers  preached  at  Belews  Creek  in  1772 
and  later,  enjoying  the  hospitality  of  settlers  Fehr,  Say  lor 
(Seeler),  and  others.  Hoffman's  son,  from  "Bielus  Creek," 
was  employed  in  1774  as  hostler  at  the  Bethabara  tavern. 

A  military  company  from  Belews  Creek  passed  through 
Salem  in  1776.  The  Salem  diary  comments:  (1780)  "A  party 

128        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

of  soldiers  came  from  the  Belews  Creek  settlement  with  about 
thirteen  Tories,  and  they  asked  for  a  service."  (1781)  "The 
militia  company  from  Beloe's  Creek  were  to  muster  here 
today."  (1781)  "Forty  men  came  from  Below's  Creek,  and 
remained  here  over  night."  The  Bethania  diary:  (1781)  "The 
Captain,  Cummens  (Cummings)  by  name,  came  with  another 
man  who  asked  modestly  for  something  to  eat;  we  gave  it  to 
him  and  he  left  with  many  thanks." 

In  April,  1782,  Peter  Lewis  (Ludwig)  on  Belews  Creek 
brought  his  infant  son  to  Salem  to  be  baptized.  In  1786  there 
was  noted  the  funeral  of  George  Fulp  (Volp),  born  in  17 18. 
"The  Brethren  proclaimed  the  Gospel  several  times  in  his 
home."  Other  names  of  early  settlers  appearing  in  the  records 
from  time  to  time  are  Neal,  Preston,  Pegram,  Hester,  Dean, 
Brooks,  Strader,  and  McNally. 


Peter  Pfaif,  who  was  born  in  1727,  arrived  in  Wachovia 
in  1 77 1  and  settled  at  Friedberg.  His  son  Isaac  married  Mar- 
garet Fulk  (Margaretha  Volk)  in  Bethania;  they  made  their 
home  on  a  farm  west  of  the  town.  In  his  old  age  Peter  Pfaff 
moved  there  to  join  them. 

The  Bethania  diary  recorded  in  1801:  "A  very  severe 
storm  passed  near  us.  At  the  home  of  Isaac  Pfaff,  three  miles 
from  here,  lightning  struck  the  shed  and  killed  two  horses. 
Fortunately  it  was  a  cold  flash,  and  did  not  set  the  shed  on 
fire.  At  the  home  of  Joseph  Pfaff,  a  short  mile  from  there,  it 
struck  and  splintered  a  tree  about  forty  paces  from  the 

The  name  of  the  family  was  early  attached  to  the  commu- 
nity. In  selecting  a  preaching  place  in  the  outlying  neighbor- 
hood, the  Bethania  authorities  in  181 2  recommended  "the 
house  of  Bro.  Peter  Pfaff,  in  Pfafftown,  and  the  house  of  Br. 
Jacob  Krieger." 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  129 

Other  familiar  names  of  the  Pfafftown  community  are 
Stultz  and  Wilson. 


The  family  name  of  an  early  landowner  is  preserved  in 
Brookstown.  In  1793  Brooks  Ferry  on  the  Yadkin  River  was 
mentioned,  and  there  may  be  some  connection  between  this 
name  and  that  of  the  settlement. 

Bethania  records  of  1808  state  that  most  of  its  citizens 
"went  to  the  annual  election,  some  going  to  Salem,  some  to 
Germanton,  and  some  to  the  place  called  Bruxe's  Town,  three 
miles  from  here,  where  the  election  is  being  held  for  the  first 
time."  In  18 14,  however,  the  state  legislature  changed  the 
voting  place  from  "Brux's  Town"  to  Bethania,  where  several 
hundred  men  gathered  to  vote. 

A  Methodist  church  was  established  in  Brookstown  in  the 
early  years  of  the  settlement.  The  Negroes  of  the  community 
also  had  their  place  of  worship.  According  to  the  Bethania 
records  of  181 1,  "The  meeting  for  Negroes,  set  for  the  after- 
noon, could  not  be  held,  as  most  of  the  Negroes  had  gone  to 
Bruxe's  Town  to  hear  the  funeral  sermon  of  one  of  their  race 
who  had  died  there  some  time  ago." 

The  oldest  house  standing  in  the  community  was  built  by 
the  Conrad  family.  Other  familiar  Brookstown  names  are 
Dobb,  Mickle,  Hunt,  Hauser,  and  Rayle. 

Rural  Hall 

"Hermanns  (Harmon)  Miller  enters  one  hundred  acres  of 
land  in  Surry  County,  lying  on  a  Branch  of  Beaver  Dam 
Creek,  beginning  on  Jacob  Lash's  Line  ...  Jan.  3d,  1778." 
This  entry  introduces  Beaver  Dam,  the  name  first  given  to 
Nazareth  EvangeUcal  Lutheran  Church  of  Rural  Hall.  The 
church  records  state  that  the  congregation  was  organized  in 
1785  and  that  A.  Kiger  gave  the  land  for  the  school. 

130        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Since  there  was  a  scarcity  of  Lutheran  ministers,  from  1 796 
for  a  score  of  years  Moravian  ministers  served  the  congrega- 
tion by  request.  In  these  years  funerals  were  conducted  for 
deceased  members  of  the  families  of  Kreeger,  Petree,  Moser, 
and  Keiger.  A  funeral  service  for  Hermanns  Miller,  men- 
tioned above,  was  conducted  in  18 18.  In  that  year  the  commu- 
nity numbered  twenty  families. 

In  181 3  the  visiting  minister  commented  that  preaching 
was  held  once  a  month  and  on  the  other  Sundays  a  free  school 
was  conducted.  The  present  building  was  erected  in  1879. 

In  time  the  railway  lines  to  North  Wilkesboro  and  Mount 
Airy  converged  in  the  town,  and  the  name  Rural  Hall  was 
bestowed  upon  the  village.  A  thriving  industrial  and  trading 
center  has  developed,  and  a  county  high  school  serves  the 
comm.unity.  The  town  is  incorporated. 

Among  the  names  familiar  in  the  story  of  Rural  Hall  are 
Stauber,  Payne,  Helsabeck,  Flynt,  Westmoreland,  Wilson, 
Lash,  Tuttle,  and  Kiser. 


Clemmons  derives  its  name  from  Peter  Clemmons.  His  son, 
Edwin  Thomas  Clemmons,  who  was  born  in  the  neighbor- 
hood, was  a  prominent  operator  of  stage-coach  lines,  at  one 
time  having  six  stages  running  out  of  Salem.  The  last  surviving 
stage  coach  operated  by  him,  named  the  "Hattie  Butner"  in 
honor  of  his  wife,  ran  for  some  time  between  Salem  and  High 
Point.  Its  last  run  was  between  Old  Fort  and  Asheville.  This 
stage  coach  is  now  a  popular  exhibit  in  the  Hall  of  History  of 
the  Wachovia  Historical  Society. 

In  its  early  years  Clemmons  was  a  small  but  flourishing 
community.  It  drew  trade  from  the  river  plantations,  and 
tradition  says  that  when  customers  desired  the  latest  style  in 
ladies'  hats,  they  went  to  Clemmons  rather  than  to  Salem. 

The  old  brick  house  built  by  Philip  Hanes,  son  of  Marcus, 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets    131 

is  a  landmark  not  far  from  the  village.  T.  Holt  Haywood's 
Arden  Farm  is  located  on  Muddy  Creek  to  the  east.  Along  the 
Yadkin  River  are  the  estates  of  W.  N.  Reynolds  and  R.  E. 
Lasater.  Across  the  river  is  the  estate  of  S.  Clay  Williams. 

Familiar  names  in  the  earlier  history  of  the  community  are 
Johnson,  Griffith,  Blackburn,  Hall,  Sprinkle,  Hunter,  Hege, 
Strupe,  Cooper,  Jones,  Davis,  and  Fulton. 


The  largest  tow^  in  Forsyth  County,  next  to  Winston- 
Salem,  is  Kernersville.  Its  elevation  is  about  seventy-five  feet 
higher  than  its  city  neighbor  and  it  is  the  source  of  Haw 
River,  Deep  River,  Abbotts  Creek,  Salem  Creek,  and  Belews 

The  story  of  Kernersville  begins  with  the  coming  about 
1756  or  1760  of  Caleb  Story,  a  native  of  Ireland,  who  bought 
400  acres  of  land  near  the  Guilford  County  line  east  of  the 
AVachovia  Tract,  the  tradition  being  that  he  paid  for  it  with 
four  gallons  of  rum.  Story  sold  the  land  to  a  man  named  Dob- 
son,  and  for  many  years  the  name  Dobson's  Cross  Roads  was 
applied  to  this  locality.  President  George  Washington  in  1791 
halted  for  breakfast  at  Dobson's  Tavern,  then  located  at  the 

The  Dobson  land-holdings  increased  to  1,032  acres,  and 
were  sold  in  1 8 1 3  to  Gottlieb  Schober,  of  Salem.  Schober  trans- 
ferred the  property  to  his  son  Nathaniel,  who  in  18 17  sold  it 
to  Joseph  Kerner,  a  resident  of  the  Friedland  community.  The 
name  was  then  changed  to  Kerner's  Cross  Roads. 

Kerner  added  more  land,  and  at  his  death  in  1830  he  left 
1,100  acres  to  be  divided  among  three  heirs.  John  F.  Kerner 
received  the  portion  to  the  west  of  what  is  now  Main  Street; 
Philip  Kerner's  share  was  the  land  to  the  east  and  the  home- 
stead; the  daughter  Salome,  who  had  married  ApoUos  Har- 
mon, received  a  share  to  the  south. 

132        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Sale  of  lots  began  in  1 840  and  led  to  an  increasing  number 
of  residents.  The  thriving  town  of  Kernersville  developed  and 
was  incorporated  in  1869.  Joseph  Armstrong  was  elected  the 
first  mayor. 

Julius  Kerner,  a  descendant  of  Joseph,  was  a  widely  known 
painter  and  decorator  who  operated  under  the  professional 
name  of  Reuben  Rinck.  The  residence  that  he  built  on  Main 
Street  is  known  as  Kerner's  Folly,  because  of  its  strange 
architectural  designs,  with  all  the  windows  of  different  sizes 
and  doors  on  various  levels.  The  house  is  still  a  marvel  and  a 
delight  to  visitors. 

The  Southern  Railway  came  to  Kernersville  in  1873.  Indus- 
tries have  multiphed  and  there  is  brisk  trade.  Nine  churches 
serve  the  town. 

Among  the  familiar  names  in  Kernersville  history  are 
Beard,  Linville,  McCuiston,  Lindsay,  Lewis,  Davis,  Griffith, 
Leak,  Gentry,  Guyer,  Fulton,  Roberts,  Stewart,  Shore,  Staf- 
ford, Greenfield,  Henley,  Stockton,  Ring,  Vance,  Fulp, 
Plunkett,  Armfield,  Whittington,  Hooper,  Huie,  Ray,  Sapp, 
Rights,  Hendrix,  Lowery,  Pinnix,  and  Atkins. 


"Across  the  Town  Fork  Road  from  John  Armstrong, 
Robert  Walker  secured  400  acres,  formerly  'the  Douglas 
Place,'  his  grant  being  dated  1779."  This  tract  was  northeast 
of  Salem  and  appears  designated  on  a  map  of  1771,  "Robt. 

The  family  name  Walker  spread  throughout  the  vicinity  and 
it  is  probable  that  Walkertown  derives  its  name  from  this 

At  the  headwaters  of  Walker  Creek  a  tract  of  land  was 
listed  on  a  map  of  177 1  in  the  name  of  Sam  Wagner.  It  seems 
that  Wagner  was  involved  in  the  War  of  the  Regulators  and 
was  denied  pardon  by  Governor  Tryon.  At  any  rate,  the 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  133 

name  Wagner,  or  Wagoner,  or  Waggoner,  has  been  long 
familiar  in  the  Walkertown  neighborhood. 

Tradition  holds  that  the  Methodist  Church  was  organized 
in  1 79 1.  A  deed  of  1797  records  that  "Thos.  Tucker  &  Ann 
his  wife  transferred  to  James  Love,  Sr.,  Edmond  Jean,  Wil- 
liam Jean,  James  Love,  Jr.,  Edward  Cooley,  Robert  Fulton 
and  Archibald  Campbell,  Trustees"  one  acre  for  use  of  the 
Methodist  Church.  The  journal  of  Bishop  Francis  Asbury  has 
this  entry  for  Monday,  October  7,  1799:  "We  rode  through 
Stokes  County,  and  attended  a  meeting  at  Love's  Church, 
which  has  glass  windows  and  a  yard  fenced  in."  Love's 
Church  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1947.  Rebuilding  began  soon 
thereafter.  Morris  Chapel,  named  for  the  Morris  family,  is 
near  by. 

Today  Walkertown  is  on  the  Norfolk  &  Western  Railway, 
and  a  county  high  school  is  located  there. 

Among  other  familiar  names  in  the  Walkertown  commu- 
nity are  Sullivan,  Grubbs,  Young,  Idol,  Whicker,  Disher, 
Siewers,  Sell,  Crews,  Mecum,  Moir,  Van  Hoy,  Hester,  Ham- 
mack,  and  Jones. 


Lewis  Lagenauer,  a  descendant  of  the  Lagenauer  family 
that  came  to  Friedland  about  1773,  settled  in  western  Forsyth 
County  and  built  a  substantial  brick  house.  Tradition  has  it 
that  the  village  which  grew  up  about  this  home  was  called 
Lewisville  after  the  first  name  of  the  founder. 

Not  far  from  Lewisville  along  the  Yadkin  River  the  Wil- 
liams family  settled  before  the  Revolution,  and  the  plantation 
at  Panther  Creek  has  had  a  long  and  interesting  history.  Up- 
stream was  the  Martin  plantation. 

West  of  the  village  in  the  big  bend  of  the  river  is  West 
Bend,  a  small  settlement,  among  whose  familiar  names  are 
Black,  Jones,  McBride,  Hauser,  Dinkins,  and  Nading.  The 
land  in  the  bend  of  the  river  was  until  recent  years  a  part  of 

134        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Yadkin  County,  and  a  former  resident  of  West  Bend,  B. 
Franklin  Jones,  served  as  sheriff  of  Yadkin  County. 

A  county  high  school  is  located  in  Lewisville.  This  school 
suffered  the  loss  of  its  building  by  fire,  but  has  risen  again 
from  the  ashes.  Miss  Anna  Ogburn  has  opened  the  doors  of 
her  "Sunny  Acres"  farm  as  a  friendly  community  center. 

Among  the  familiar  Lewisville  names  are  Craft,  Wagoner, 
Dull,  Fulk,  and  Reynolds. 


Near  the  southeast  corner  of  the  county  is  Teaguetown, 
named  for  the  Teague  family.  It  has  no  church,  but  not  far 
away  are  Abbotts  Creek  Primitive  and  Missionary  Baptist 
churches  to  the  south.  Union  Cross  Moravian  to  the  north, 
and  Bunker  Hill  Baptist  and  Methodist  churches  to  the  east. 

Down  below  the  bend  in  the  road  is  the  location  of  the 
ghost  town  Browntown,  once  a  busy  place  where  circuses 
performed,  now  completely  deserted.  Along  Abbotts  Creek 
settled  Barnett  Idol,  whose  son  Jacob  was  a  soldier  in  the 
Continental  Army  during  the  Revolution.  Barnett  Idol's 
grandson  Barnett  married  Rachel  Chipman,  a  descendant  of 
John  Howland,  a  Pilgrim  of  the  Mayflower  voyage.  Farther 
down  the  creek  camped  the  armies  of  General  Greene  and 
Lord  Cornwallis,  and  there  are  stirring  legends  of  Colonel 
Spurgeon,  an  ardent  Tory,  and  of  his  wife  and  son,  who  were 
equally  zealous  for  the  cause  of  the  colonies.  Even  the  Indians 
contributed  by  burying  a  cache  of  chipped  stone  blades, 
which  were  plowed  up  on  the  Sell  farm  at  Teaguetown. 

Family  names  here  include  Raper,  Smith,  Hayworth,  Bo- 
denheimer,  Newsome,  Jones,  Charles,  and  Swaim. 

Union  Cross 

Union  Cross  is  located  at  the  junction  of  the  Kernersville 
and  High  Point  roads.  Store,  school,  and  church  serve  the 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  135 

community.  Among  familiar  names  in  this  section  are  Smith, 
Williard,  Weavil,  Bodenheimer,  and  Tucker. 


In  Salem  Chapel  township  is  the  flag-stop  on  the  Norfolk 
&  Western  Railway  known  as  Dennis.  John  D.  Waddill,  a 
resident  of  the  past  generation,  was  a  large  landowner  here. 
Because  of  his  extensive  property  he  was  known  throughout 
the  county  as  the  Earl  of  Dennis.  Other  family  names  in  the 
vicinity  include  Marshall  and  Fulp. 


Donnaha  is  located  under  the  hill  of  the  Old  Richmond 
Courthouse  site.  Although  located  along  the  Southern  Rail- 
way and  the  Yadkin  River,  it  never  grew  up.  Some  say  that 
the  name  is  derived  from  early  settlers;  others,  that  it  is  named 
for  an  Indian  chief.  Certainly  the  river  valley  at  Donnaha  was 
once  the  location  of  a  large  Indian  village.  Many  objects  of 
Indian  origin  have  been  found  at  this  site,  and  enough  of  them 
to  fill  a  large  show  case  are  now  in  the  Wachovia  Museum. 


Idols  is  just  a  flag-stop  on  the  Southern  Railway  at  the  end 
of  the  trestle  across  the  Yadkin  River  beyond  Clemmons.  It 
is  named  for  the  Idol  family.  It  has  the  distinction,  however, 
of  being  the  site  of  the  first  hydro-electric  plant  in  the  South 
for  transmission  of  electric  power  to  distant  communities. 
This  plant  was  built  in  1898  by  Henry  E.  Fries,  manager  of 
the  Fries  Manufacturing  and  Power  Company.  The  name 
Idols  replaced  the  older  one,  Douthit's  Ferry. 

136        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 


East  of  Rural  Hall  is  a  district  formerly  known  locally  as 
Bannertown.  Descendants  of  Henry  Banner,  the  first  settler 
in  the  neighborhood,  are  numerous  there. 

The  Banner  home  was  on  the  old  Virginia  Trail  south  of 
Germanton  and  was  the  scene  of  many  stirring  events  in 
colonial  days.  It  was  raided  fourteen  times  during  the  French 
and  Indian  War. 


West  of  Rural  Hall  is  the  small  settlement  of  Tobaccoville, 
the  only  location  in  the  state  bearing  the  name  of  the  famous 
weed  that  has  brought  so  much  wealth  to  Virginia  and  the 
Carolinas.  Familiar  family  names  of  the  Tobaccoville  neigh- 
borhood are  Long,  Wolf,  Speas,  Shamel,  and  Doub. 


The  traveler  on  Highway  421  finds  at  the  city  limits  of 
Winston-Salem  a  scene  of  great  beauty  as  he  journeys  west- 
ward. Here  is  a  three-lane  highway  bordered  by  maple  trees, 
gorgeously  colored  in  the  fall  of  the  year.  On  the  right  is 
Reynolda  Park,  one  of  the  most  beautiful  residential  areas  of 
the  city;  on  the  left  is  Graylyn  chateau,  erected  by  the  Gray 
family;  a  little  farther  on  is  the  ultra-modern  Summit  School. 

These  developments  have  come  through  the  original  devel- 
opment of  the  Reynolda  Estate,  the  home  of  the  late  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  R.  J.  Reynolds,  which  is  still  occupied  by  members  of 
the  family,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Charles  H.  Babcock. 

"Reynolda  House"  is  a  large,  rambling  structure  of  white 
plaster,  beautifully  designed  in  the  English  manner,  with 
spacious  grounds  and  gardens.  Rows  of  weeping  cherries, 
narcissi,  magnolias,  and  thousands  of  daffodils  extend  through- 
out the  wooded  section.  West  of  the  residence  lies  Reynolda 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  137 

Village,  with  its  English-type  cottages  and  other  buildings  of 
white  plaster,  including  the  quaint  blacksmith  shop,  postoffice, 
greenhouse,  and  the  charming  little  ivy-covered  Presbyterian 
Church,  which  was  dedicated  in  19 15,  and  is  the  center  of 
the  community. 

The  farm  purchased  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Reynolds  about  1909, 
had  only  an  old  farmhouse  and  the  fabulous  "Fourteen  Min- 
eral Springs"  (a  different  mineral  in  each!).  With  additional 
purchases  of  adjoining  lands,  it  has  grown  into  an  estate  of 
approximately  one  thousand  acres,  w^hich  includes  the  Old 
Town  Club  with  its  magnificent  golf  course,  and  some  three 
hundred  acres  donated  by  the  owners  to  become  the  future 
campus  of  Wake  Forest  College. 

The  Village  of  Hanes 

Pleasantly  situated  on  the  outskirts  of  Winston-Salem  is  the 
industrial  community  of  Hanes.  Its  history  is  woven  inex- 
tricably into  the  pattern  of  progress  of  the  southern  textile 
industry,  more  particularly  of  the  North  Carolina  textile 

In  19 10  and  191 1  the  Hanes  village  and  first  spinning  plant 
were  constructed.  The  plant  was  built  for  the  purpose  of 
manufacturing  high-grade  yarn  for  use  in  the  knitted  prod- 
ucts produced  at  the  P.  H.  Hanes  Knitting  Company's  plant 
in  Winston-Salem.  Beginning  with  15,000  spindles,  the  Hanes 
Spinning  Plant  has  kept  pace  with  the  growth  of  the  industry, 
and  in  order  to  meet  the  increasing  demand  for  Hanes  prod- 
ucts, which  have  become  known  throughout  the  nation  for 
their  quality  and  value,  the  number  of  spindles  has  increased 
until  today  they  are  more  than  three  times  their  original 

In  the  village  the  recent  construction  of  many  additional 
houses  of  the  most  modern  type  and  the  modernization  of 
others  have  provided  the  residents  with  the  means  for  whole- 

13  8        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

some  American  living  of  high  standard.  Free  garden  space  is 
furnished.  In  addition,  the  company  has  provided  the  resi- 
dents at  Hanes  with  churches,  a  school,  a  modern  cafeteria, 
paved  streets,  water  supply,  sewerage  system,  and  fire  protec- 
tion. A  volunteer  fire  department  is  equipped  with  a  modem 
truck  and  the  latest  in  fire-fighting  apparatus. 

Adjacent  to  the  village,  which,  incidentally,  has  its  own 
postofiice,  is  a  twenty-acre  recreation  area  for  use  by  the  em- 
ployees and  their  families.  It  contains  a  model  ball  park 
equipped  with  underground  sprinkler  system  and  grandstand, 
bleachers,  and  a  modern  field  house.  There  are  also  softball 
diamonds  and  a  large  wooded  area  in  which  are  located  a  rustic 
pavilion,  outdoor  ovens,  and  barbecue  pits,  where  employee 
picnics  and  other  social  events  may  be  held. 

Other  Communities 

North  of  the  city  is  the  Mineral  Springs  development.  Its 
county  high  school  was  destroyed  by  fire  and  has  been  re- 
placed by  a  beautiful  new  building.  Also  to  the  north  is 
Ogburn  Station.  Along  the  road  to  Walkertown  is  Daisy,  and 
along  the  Rural  Hall  Road  are  Marvin  Chapel  and  Stanley- 
ville. Tiretown  derives  its  name  from  the  automobile  tire 
factory  that  once  operated  in  the  vicinity. 

East  of  the  city,  on  a  long  ridge,  is  City  View,  and  beyond 
is  Guthrie,  its  school  long  abandoned.  West  of  the  city,  near 
Muddy  Creek,  is  the  Fraternity  community,  originally 
settled  by  members  of  the  Dunkard  Church. 

New  Eden  has  developed  out  of  Yontztown,  a  suburban 
settlement  along  the  Old  Lexington  Road.  Half  a  mile  south 
is  Union  Ridge.  A  recent  development  is  Weston,  bordering 
the  Winston-Salem  Southbound  Railway  and  Waughtown- 
Clemmons  Road.  South  of  the  city  Konnoak  Hills  was  de- 
veloped as  a  residential  community.  West  of  this  area,  border- 
ing the  Waughtown-Clemmons  Road,  Philip  W.  Mock  made 

Smaller  Towns,  Villages,  and  Hamlets  139 

a  subdivision  of  his  farm,  which  has  grown  up  into  the  Rose- 
mont  community. 

Centerville,  Sunnyside,  and  Waughtown  have  been  incor- 
porated into  the  city.  Centerville  was  so  called  because  it  was 
located  between  Salem  and  Waughtown.  Sunnyside  was 
named  for  the  plantation  of  E.  A.  Vogler  in  that  area.  Waugh- 
town was  first  called  Charlestown  or  Baggetown  for  its 
founder  Charles  Bagge.  Later  the  family  name  of  a  prominent 
resident  brought  the  change  to  Waughtown.  No  members  of 
the  Waugh  family  live  there  today. 

North  Winston  was  once  known  as  Liberty.  The  name 
was  given  by  a  Moravian  Brother  who  rebelled  against  the 
restrictions  of  Old  Salem  and  built  his  home  where  he  could 
enjoy  more  freedom.  Liberty  Street  perpetuates  the  name. 
South  Liberty  Street  was  first  called  Salt  Street  because  the 
salt  supply  of  the  town  of  Salem  was  kept  in  a  house  on  that 

Much  of  the  material  on  Forsyth's  smaller  communities  is 
fragmentary  and  much  of  it  will  pass  away  with  the  memories 
of  the  older  inhabitants.  Still  retained  are  the  names  of  the 
rural  districts  Dozier,  Seward  (home  of  the  well-known  base- 
ball player,  Rabbit  Whitman) ,  Vienna  with  its  county  school, 
and  Valley  View.  Gone  and  well-nigh  forgotten  are  such 
former  place  names  as  Jerusalem  Meadows,  Stumptown, 
Louse  Level,  and  Spanish  Grove. 




(  \ 





THE  first  people  to  penetrate  what  is  now  Forsyth 
County  probably  were  hunters,  enjoying  the  hunt- 
er's paradise  which  extended  throughout  all  of  this 
part  of  the  country.  Long  after  1700,  big  game 
could  be  found  throughout  most  of  North  Carolina.  Bears, 
deer,  and  other  choice  animals  persisted  until  well  up  into  the 
eighteenth  century. 

The  Forest  Primeval 

This  whole  area  was  largely  an  unbroken  forest.  Here  and 
there,  Indians  had  cleared  small  patches  to  grow  a  little  corn. 
But  for  the  greater  part,  a  perfect  stand  of  timber  awaited  any 
permanent  settler  who  came  to  claim  it.  What  we  have  left 
today  suggests  what  was  standing  when  the  first  settlers  came. 
Of  all  the  really  valuable  trees,  only  one  species  has  vanished 
from  the  scene— the  chestnut.  Until  as  late  as  the  first  quarter 
of  this  century,  chestnut  was  plentiful  over  all  this  part  of 
North  Carolina,  Forsyth  County  included.  Shortly  after  the 
turn  of  this  century,  the  chestnut  bHght  invaded  the  region 
and  within  a  space  of  twenty-five  years  destroyed  every 
chestnut  tree  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  East- 
ern divide. 

There  were  sections  of  the  United  States  where  heavier 
stands  of  timber  could  be  found  than  in  the  primeval  area  that 
is  now  Forsyth  County,  but  nowhere  was  the  quality  better. 
All  of  the  hard  woods  common  to  the  eastern  part  of  the 
United  States  were  found  here.  Pine  timber  flourished  every- 
where and  in  the  early  days  forest  pines  covered  most  of  the 
ridges  and  sometimes  extended  well  down  into  the  lowlands. 
Poplar,  one  of  the  soft  woods,  was  found  everywhere  and 
was  widely  used  in  furniture  in  the  early  days,  particularly  in 
lighter  articles;  black  walnut  was  largely  used  for  the  finer 
pieces  of  furniture. 

The  first  people  to  penetrate  this  section  were  attracted  by 
the  same  things  that  attracted  the  Moravian  colony.  Material 


144        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

out  of  which  to  build  their  homes  was  important.  But  the 
ground  beneath  the  trees  was  equally  important.  Nowhere  in 
the  county  was  there  a  barren  acre  of  land,  possibly  excepting 
swamp  land  along  some  of  the  larger  streams. 

It  is  probable  that  the  first  people  to  settle  permanently  in 
the  region  now  known  as  Forsyth  County  came  around  1 740, 
or  shortly  thereafter,  for  it  is  known  that  there  were  perma- 
nent settlements  in  Eastern  North  Carolina  as  early  as  1663. 

These  early  folks  had  just  two  ways  to  fill  their  larder— 
with  their  flint-lock  muskets  or  with  crude  farming  tools. 
They  soon  found  that  the  fertile  soil  lent  itself  to  gardening, 
and  gardens  were  their  first  permanent  sources  of  food.  Little 
by  httle,  the  frontiersmen  pushed  the  forests  back,  using  the 
logs  to  build  their  cabins  and  the  fields  that  were  cleared  to 
produce  crops.  Corn  was  already  the  staple  crop  in  all  of  this 
section  of  North  Carolina  by  the  time  the  first  permanent 
villages  were  established,  for  in  the  short  space  of  approxi- 
mately one  hundred  and  fifty  years  after  Sir  Walter  Raleigh's 
colonists  found  the  Indians  of  Eastern  North  Carolina  raising 
small  nubbins  on  the  sandy  tidewater  soil,  the  white  man  had 
developed  corn  to  the  place  where  it  yielded  well.  Even  be- 
fore the  Moravians  arrived,  a  little  wheat  and  a  little  rye  were 
being  reaped,  although  it  was  rather  late  that  bread,  other 
than  "corn  pone,"  became  a  standard  part  of  the  diet.  The 
earliest  recorded  data  show  that  cabbage,  potatoes,  and  field 
peas  came  in  with  the  settlers.  Early  records  refer  to  sallet,  by 
which  turnips  were  meant.  It  is  probable  that  a  few  fruit 
trees— apples,  peaches,  pears,  and  quinces— were  already  grow- 
ing here  by  1740. 

The  earliest  clothing  of  our  citizens  reflected  largely  what 
was  found  in  nature.  For  men  and  sometimes  for  women  the 
skins  of  animals  caught  in  the  chase  were  converted  into  cloth- 
ing. The  men  wore  buckskin  breeches,  buckskin  hunting 
shirts,  buckskin  leggings,  and  often,  in  the  very  earliest  days, 
moccasins  such  as  the  Indians  themselves  wore. 

Rural  Forsyth  145 

Flax  was  one  of  the  earliest  fibres  produced  in  the  colonies 
and,  naturally,  in  this  county.  Up  to  1800,  flax  was  the  cheap- 
est material  for  clothing  available.  Around  1 800,  flax  sold  for 

1  ^2  shillings  a  pound,  wool  for  2  shillings,  and  cotton  for 

2  ^2  shiUings.  It  was  felt  that  it  was  almost  necessary  to  have 
sheep  to  produce  woolen  clothes.  At  first,  sheep  raising  was 
effected  under  great  difficulties,  for  the  heavily  forested 
countryside  was  the  natural  sanctuary  for  bears,  panthers, 
wolves,  foxes,  and  a  great  many  other  predatory  animals.  It 
was  only  as  sizeable  openings  in  the  land  were  cleared  and 
substantial  barns  were  built  that  it  was  possible  to  raise  the 
kind  of  livestock  the  modern  farm  would  suggest. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  cotton  was  produced  with  great 
effort  up  to  the  time  of  the  invention  of  the  cotton  gin.  In 
fact,  it  was  not  until  early  in  the  nineteenth  century  that 
cotton  assumed  a  sizeable  place  in  the  economy  of  this  or  of 
any  other  Southern  county.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  eight- 
eenth century,  cotton  was  raised  in  the  gardens  along  with 
vegetables,  not  being  regarded  as  a  field  crop  at  all. 

In  short,  it  might  be  said  that  in  1740  and  for  a  quarter  of 
a  century  thereafter,  the  present  Forsyth  County  was  as  much 
a  part  of  the  frontier  as  any  of  the  counties  farther  west  were 
to  be  as  civilization  headed  toward  the  Pacific  Coast. 

Pioneer  Citizens 

Pioneer  citizens  of  Forsyth  County  naturally  sought  the 
best  land  in  the  county.  This  land  lay  along  the  Yadkin  River 
and  other  streams  which  watered  the  region.  The  large  planta- 
tions on  the  Yadkin  River  and  some  comparable  estates  on  the 
smaller  streams  lent  themselves,  in  many  instances,  to  the  use 
of  slaves.  Cotton  was  grown  in  some  degree,  and  corn  was 
universally  cultivated.  As  early  as  Revolutionary  War  days, 
a  few  rather  substantial  homes  dotted  what  is  now  Forsyth 
County  and  naturally  were  constructed  of  the  best  lumber 

146        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

virgin  forests  could  supply.  Every  decade  brought  its  new 
crop  of  homes,  each  a  little  better  than  the  rest,  until  the  early 
county  attained  a  degree  of  agricultural  splendor  comparable 
to  the  best  in  the  South. 

Each  of  these  ante-bellum  residences  marked  in  a  sense  the 
founding  of  a  family  whose  names  have  carried  with  them  a 
marked  degree  of  prestige  to  the  present  day;  and  the  ante- 
bellum farms  had  an  influence  on  agriculture  until  well  into 
the  present  century. 

Many  of  the  people  who  populated  the  rural  county  were 
individuals  who  went  out  from  the  Moravian  settlements. 
They  bore  names  which  indicated  their  origin  in  central 
Europe.  Others  came  who  were  independent  of  the  Moravian 
settlements,  with  origins  in  all  parts  of  continental  Europe  as 
well  as  the  British  Isles. 

Inasmuch  as  these  families  have  had  a  tremendous  influence 
upon  the  whole  history  of  the  county,  a  mention  of  a  number 
of  them  with  the  neighborhoods  where  they  resided  will  not 
be  out  of  place.  In  each  of  the  instances  cited  here,  the  resi- 
dence that  is  mentioned  continues  as  a  landmark  in  its 

The  Reverend  John  Alspaugh,  who  was  a  father  of  the 
Methodist  Church  in  Forsyth  and  adjoining  counties,  built  a 
home  near  Muddy  Creek,  about  a  mile  below  where  Mill 
Creek  flows  into  that  stream,  in  the  summer  of  1855. 

One  of  the  very  few  residences  financed  wholly  with  cur- 
rency of  the  Confederate  States  of  America  was  built  by  John 
Hastings  during  the  period  of  the  War  between  the  States, 
and  is  located  on  the  highway  between  Kernersville  and 
Union  Cross. 

Christian  Conrad  was  one  of  the  first  to  bringr  the  Conrad 
name  to  this  part  of  the  South.  He  came  from  Pennsylvania 
in  1765,  and  was  followed  shortly  by  his  brother,  Johann 
Conrad.  Finally  Isaac  Conrad  built  the  Conrad  residence 
which  now  stands  near  Vienna,  on  Highway  421.  The  Au- 

Rural  Forsyth  147 

gustus  Eugene  Conrad  home,  known  as  Hilltops  House, 
overlooking  the  Yadkin  River  a  mile  south  of  Highway  42 1 , 
now  owned  by  W.  J.  Conrad,  Jr.,  possibly  is  among  the  best 
examples  of  the  plantation  home  to  be  found  anywhere  on 
the  Yadkin  River.  Meanwhile,  the  Conrad  name  has  spread 
throughout  all  this  section. 

The  Elijah  B.  Teague  residence,  an  eleven-room  house  a 
few  miles  south  of  Kernersville,  was  a  local  political  center 
for  many  years  before  the  Civil  War.  Elijah  Teague  repre- 
sented the  county  many  times  in  the  General  Assembly.  His 
son.  Dr.  M.  E.  Teague,  was  sheriff  of  Forsyth  County  for  one 
term,  and  was  involved  in  what  was  perhaps  the  most  sensa- 
tional political  controversy  in  the  history  of  the  county.  He 
was  pitted  against  Jack  Boyer  in  his  race  for  sheriff.  The 
vote  was  exceedingly  close,  and  the  election  was  contested. 
No  decision  was  ever  reached  during  Dr.  Teague's  tenure  of 
office  as  sheriff.  The  litigation  was  so  costly  that  the  Teague 
fortune  was  practically  wiped  out.  Dr.  Teague  served  as 
sheriff,  although  it  was  never  settled  legally  whether  he  was 
elected,  and  he  did  not  run  for  re-election.  In  the  late  90's  he 
was  Chief  of  Police  in  Winston.  The  old  home  has  long  since 
passed  out  of  the  hands  of  the  family. 

Wesley  Raper  inherited  land  on  Abbotts  Creek  which  con- 
tinues among  the  best  in  the  county  today.  The  residence  he 
built,  partially  with  slave  labor,  still  reflects  the  conditions 
before  the  war— solid  comfort,  a  plentiful  larder,  and  an  ap- 
preciation of  the  luxury  of  leisure.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  R. 
Chamberlain  now  own  and  occupy  the  Raper  home. 

Many  people  tried  to  build  their  homes  on  North  Caro- 
lina's Main  Street,  the  Fayetteville  and  Western  Plank  Road. 
Jasper  Raper  was  one  of  these.  The  home  he  built  at  Union 
Cross  was  started  six  years  before  the  Civil  War. 

Dave  Smith,  according  to  family  tradition,  was  putting  the 
roof  on  his  home  near  Union  Cross  one  day  in  August,  1861, 
when  a  neighbor  brought  the  news  that  South  Carolina  had 

148        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

seceded  from  the  Union.  The  story  says  further  that  all  of 
the  workers  laid  down  their  tools  and  proceeded  to  discuss 
the  possible  consequences  of  this  sensational  action. 

John  Reich  acquired  the  land  on  Old  Salisbury  Road  just 
south  of  Lockland  Avenue  extended,  where  he  built  a  home 
about  1840  and  1841,  and  passed  still  another  family  name 
down  to  posterity. 

The  Theophilus  Kimel  residence  on  Ebert  Street  Extension 
was  built  in  1868  and  1869.  Hulon  Post  Office  was  operated 
in  this  residence  for  many  years  prior  to  about  1900. 

Miller  is  a  name  widely  scattered  through  the  county.  John 
Thomas  Miller  built  a  home  west  of  Rural  Hall  and  a  little 
south  of  Tobaccoville,  near  the  forks  of  the  Muddy  and 
Barker  creeks,  long  before  the  Civil  War. 

Dempsey  B.  Clinard  built  a  home  two  years  after  the  Civil 
War  near  Wallburg.  The  name,  like  the  house,  is  widely 
known  in  the  county. 

Six  generations  of  the  John  J.  Miller  family  have  occupied 
an  old  residence  this  pioneer  built  in  18 17  overlooking  the 
Yadkin  River.  It  was  a  stage-coach  stopover  for  many  years. 

This  was  not  far  removed  from  the  John  Wesley  Boner 
house.  John  Wesley  Boner  was  a  distant  cousin  of  John  Henry 
Boner,  the  widely  known  Moravian  poet,  who  is  buried  in  the 
Moravian  Graveyard  in  Salem. 

Dr.  x\lexander  Wharton  was  one  of  the  best-known  prac- 
ticing physicians  the  county  ever  had.  He  built  his  home  at 
Clemmons  one  year  before  the  beginning  of  the  war  with 
Mexico.  He  practiced  over  most  of  the  county,  and  his  kin 
are  scattered  throughout  this  section. 

Did  Peter  Clemmons  build  the  long,  rambling  house  that 
is  generally  recognized  as  the  oldest  residence  in  Clemmons? 
No  one  seems  to  know  definitely  now.  It  is  known  that  Peter 
Clemmons,  for  whom  Clemmons  is  named,  was  born  in  Del- 
aware in  1749,  and  that  he  married  twice  and  had  fourteen 
children.  Late  in  life  he  wrote  a  book  entitled  "Poor  Peter's 

Rural  Forsyth  149 

Call  to  His  Children."  It  is  a  clever  little  book  and  was  printed 
at  Salisbury.  Only  a  few  copies  of  it  are  now  extant.  The 
family  of  the  late  Colonel  W.  A.  Blair  and  Mrs.  J.  J.  Harris, 
a  kinsman  of  Peter  Clemmons,  own  copies,  the  only  ones 
known  to  be  still  in  existence. 

A  later  owner  of  the  Clemmons  House,  Benton  Douthit, 
operated  a  general  store  there  which  rivaled  all  other  mer- 
chandising businesses  in  this  part  of  the  state.  People  came 
from  several  counties  to  avail  themselves  of  the  unusual  goods 
the  proprietor  brought  down  from  Baltimore  and  New  York. 
It  is  related  that  Benton  Douthit  brought  to  Forsyth  County 
the  first  piece  of  carpet  ever  sold  which  was  not  produced  on 
a  hand  loom. 

While  Henry  Clay  and  John  Caldwell  Calhoun  were  still 
twin  giants  in  the  legislative  halls,  one  Harrison  Byerly  built 
a  pretentious  home  on  Mickey  Mill  Road.  The  Byerly  name 
and  this  old  residence  are  widely  known  in  the  county. 

In  northeast  Forsyth,  on  the  Walnut  Cove  Road,  the  Matt 
Marshall  residence  still  houses  a  part  of  a  distinguished  family 
whose  name  has  gone  out  across  the  countryside. 

Colonel  Henry  Shouse  was  one  of  the  venturesome  pio- 
neers who  recognized  the  merits  of  land  at  the  headwaters  of 
a  small  stream.  His  old  home,  built  about  1800,  is  just  a  few 
rods  across  the  road  south  of  the  Forsyth  County  Tuberculosis 

Julius  A.  Transou  built  a  home  at  Pfafftown  five  years 
before  the  Civil  War.  The  name  is  well  and  widely  known. 

These  are  a  few  of  the  rural  citizens  of  this  county  who 
came  into  prominence  during  the  first  half  of  the  last  century. 
In  most  instances  their  parents  had  laid  the  groundwork  in 
rural  Forsyth.  They  did  the  actual  building.  Their  sons  and 
daughters  and  grandsons  and  granddaughters  are  among  the 
best  citizens  we  now  have. 

In  the  following  section  something  will  be  said  about  a 
number  of  individuals  who  in  those  early  days  strode  con- 

150        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

fidently  across  the  stage  of  history  and  made  their  influence 
felt,  not  only  locally,  but  nationally. 

Some  Outstanding  Men 

With  so  many  people  of  good  blood  strains  coming  into 
the  county,  it  was  inevitable  that  some  of  them  should  become 
leaders  on  a  level  other  than  the  purely  local.  One  of  the  best 
examples  of  this  is  the  Williams  family,  many  members  of 
which  have  distinguished  themselves  in  Forsyth  or  wherever 
else  they  have  gone. 

Nathaniel  Williams,  a  native  of  Hanover  County,  Virginia, 
was  the  progenitor  of  the  Williams  family.  One  of  his  four 
sons,  Joseph,  emigrated  to  North  Carolina,  and  about  1750 
married  Rebecca  Lanier  of  Granville  County.  They  soon 
moved  to  what  was  then  Surry  County,  now  western  Forsyth 
County,  and  settled  about  three  miles  from  Shallow  Ford  on 
a  stream  called  Panther  Creek.  They  developed  a  splendid 
farm  during  the  next  two  decades  and  became  the  owners  of 
many  slaves.  Then  came  the  War  of  the  Revolution.  Joseph 
Williams  commanded  a  regiment  and  served  all  through  the 
war.  He  was  in  many  skirmishes  with  the  Tories  and,  in  the 
words  of  one  writer,  became  "very  obnoxious  to  the  Tories." 

On  one  occasion  when  he  was  away  fighting,  his  wife, 
being  forewarned  of  the  approach  of  Cornwallis  and  the  Brit- 
ish Regulars,  took  her  two-weeks-old  son,  Nathaniel,  and  a 
slave  woman,  and  hid  in  the  forest  until  Cornwallis  had 
crossed  the  Yadkin  River  at  Shallow  Ford  and  moved  on 
toward  the  northeast. 

When  she  returned  home,  she  found  that  the  enemy  had 
stripped  the  farm  of  everything  except  the  residence  itself  and 
the  slave  quarters.  She  hastily  made  such  provisions  as  she 
could  for  her  two  older  sons  and  for  the  slaves,  and  took 
her  young  baby  on  horseback  to  Granville  County,  where  her 

Rural  Forsyth  151 

relatives  lived.  Although  the  country  was  teeming  with  Tories 
and  was  made  up  largely  of  woodland,  she  arrived  safely  at 
the  end  of  her  journey,  herself  unharmed.  But  the  little  boy 
never  recovered  from  the  effects  of  his  exposure  in  the  more 
than  twenty  years  he  survived. 

This  distinguished  family  included  ten  sons  and  two  daugh- 
ters. The  two  daughters,  Rebecca  and  Fannie,  married  well. 
Except  for  the  invalid  son,  Nathaniel,  all  of  the  boys  likewise 
distinguished  themselves  on  a  local,  state,  or  national  level. 

Robert  was  the  oldest.  After  several  years  in  public  life, 
he  was  elected  to  Congress  and  served  from  1797  to  1803.  In 
1805  he  was  appointed  commissioner  of  land  titles  in  the 
Mississippi  Territory,  and  served  four  years.  He  then  took  up 
his  residence  in  Tennessee  and  later  moved  to  Louisiana, 
where  he  spent  the  closing  years  of  his  life.  Incidentally,  he 
was  grand  master  of  Masons  in  all  of  North  Carolina  and 

Joseph,  the  second  son,  while  spending  his  childhood  in  this 
area,  spent  most  of  his  adult  life  in  Yadkin  and  what  is  now 
Surry  County.  He  acquired  large  land  holdings  in  Yadkin 
County,  opposite  the  present  village  of  Rockford.  He  was 
clerk  of  Surry  Superior  Court  for  many  years. 

John,  the  third  son,  likewise  moved  away  from  Panther 
Creek  early  in  life,  going  to  Knoxville,  Tennessee,  where  he 
became  an  eminent  lawyer.  He  fought  with  distinction  in  the 
Seminole  War,  and  upon  his  return  found  the  commission  of 
Colonel  of  the  39th  Regiment  of  Infantry,  U.  S.  Army,  await- 
ing him.  He  was  ordered  to  the  Creek  Indian  Nation,  where, 
in  the  Battle  of  the  Horse  Shoe,  his  regiment  bore  the  brunt 
of  the  action.  General  Andrew  Jackson's  report  of  the  battle, 
which,  of  course,  was  an  overwhelming  victory  for  the  Army, 
did  not,  in  the  opinion  of  Colonel  Williams,  do  justice  to  his 
regiment.  This  led  to  a  lifelong  enmity  between  them. 

Colonel  Williams  was  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate 

152        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

and  served  from  18 15  to  1823.  In  1825  he  was  named  envoy  to 
the  Central  American  States.  He  died  at  Knoxville,  Tennessee, 
August  7,  1837. 

From  the  point  of  view  of  Forsyth  County  citizens,  Lewis 
Williams,  the  fifth  son,  was  most  distinguished  of  all  the 
family.  He  graduated  from  the  University  of  North  Carolina 
in  1808  and  entered  public  life  as  a  member  of  the  North 
Carolina  General  Assembly  in  18 13.  Following  his  second 
term  in  the  legislature,  he  was  elected  to  the  Lower  House  of 
Congress.  He  entered  Congress  in  1 8 1 5  and  served  as  a  mem- 
ber of  the  House  until  his  death,  February  23,  1842. 

It  is  said  of  him  that  he  was  greatly  esteemed  for  his  ster- 
ling independence  and  his  integrity.  His  abilities  were  such 
that  by  common  consent  he  was  styled  "the  Father  of  the 
House."  President  Adams  paid  him  a  splendid  oratorical  trib- 
ute after  his  death.  He  is  buried  in  the  family  graveyard  at 
Panther  Creek.  He  never  married. 

Thomas  Lanier  Williams,  twin  brother  of  Lewis  Williams, 
was  another  who  moved  westward  early  in  life.  He  w^as  long 
the  Chancellor  of  the  State  of  Tennessee.  His  descendants 
have  continued  to  be  prominent  citizens  of  Tennessee  down  to 
the  present  day. 

Dr.  Alexander  Williams  followed  his  other  brothers  west- 
ward and  became  a  widely  known  citizen  of  Greenville,  Ten- 
nessee. He  took  a  prominent  place  in  the  professional  and 
social  life  of  that  state. 

Nicholas  Lanier  Williams,  the  youngest  of  the  sons,  spent 
his  entire  life  at  Panther  Creek.  He  lived  to  be  a  very  old 
man.  He  was  a  member  of  North  Carohna's  Council  of  State 
and  a  Trustee  of  the  University.  It  is  said  of  him  that  he  dis- 
pensed a  most  lavish  hospitality  until  the  end  of  the  Civil 
War  brought  the  changes  that  broke  up  so  many  Southern 

Such  is  the  story  of  one  of  the  most  illustrious  families  this 
county  and  the  state  have  ever  had.  Descendants  of  these 

Rural  Forsyth  153 

twelve  men  and  women  are  scattered  up  and  down  the  coun- 
tryside under  the  WiUiams  name  and  the  names  introduced 
by  marriage.  And  it  is  interesting  to  note  that,  while  the 
family  underwent  the  ruin  incident  to  the  Civil  War,  its 
stability  was  such  that  the  pioneer  homestead  is  still  the 
property  of  members  of  the  family.  It  reflects  the  strength  of 
character  that  characterized  so  many  hundreds  of  families 
who  came  early  to  populate  this  section  of  the  state. 

It  would  be  unfair  to  leave  this  period  in  the  history  of 
Forsyth  County  and  not  mention  another  man  who  figured 
prominently  in  local,  state,  and  pubHc  affairs  for  a  protracted 
period,  for  he  spent  his  decHning  years  within  what  are  now 
the  corporate  limits  of  Winston-Salem.  This  man  was  Augus- 
tine Henry  Shepperd.  He  was  born  at  Rockford,  in  Surry 
County,  February  24,  1792.  For  a  time  he  practiced  law,  and 
then  entered  politics.  From  1822  to  1826  he  served  in  the 
lower  house  of  Congress.  Those  were  days  of  changing  polit- 
ical complexion  throughout  the  country.  It  is  noteworthy  that 
he  was  an  elector  for  the  Calhoun-Jackson  candidacies  in 
1824.  For  a  time  he  dropped  out  of  Congress,  apparently  hav- 
ing been  defeated  in  his  race  for  re-election,  but  he  served 
in  Congress  from  March  4,  1827,  through  March  3,  1839. 
He  was  beaten  in  his  race  for  membership  in  the  26th  Con- 
gress, but  he  was  elected  again  on  the  Whig  ticket  and 
returned  to  Congress  March  4,  1841.  He  was  an  elector  again, 
this  time  on  the  Whig  ticket  for  Clay  and  Frelinghuysen  in 
1844.  Girding  himself  anew,  he  campaigned  and  won  his  seat 
twice  more,  serving  in  the  30th  and  3  ist  Congresses,  terminat- 
ing his  stewardship  March  3,  1851.  He  had  declined  to  seek 
re-election  in  the  campaign  of  1850. 

The  point  that  gives  him  a  place  in  Forsyth  County  history 
is  that  in  October  of  1842  he  bought  forty-one  acres  of  land 
from  the  Moravian  Church,  obviously  the  site  for  a  future 
home.  This  land  lay  a  few  rods  east  of  what  are  now  Var- 
grave  and  Waughtown  streets  in  Winston-Salem.  One  of  the 

154        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

largest  springs  in  Forsyth  County  watered  this  property  and 
was  the  source  of  water  for  the  splendid  old  residence  which 
it  is  reasonably  certain  the  veteran  Congressman  built  on  the 
property.  Credence  is  lent  to  this  assumption  by  the  fact  that 
authenticated  records  indicate  that  Augustine  Henry  Shep- 
perd  "died  at  Good  Spring  in  Salem,  July  ii,  1864."  In  any 
event,  the  town  of  Salem  tapped  this  spring  and  used  it  as  a 
part  of  its  water  supply  for  a  long  time.  It  is  now  used  by  the 
R.  J.  Reynolds  Tobacco  Company  in  its  nicotine  plant  located 
near  by. 

In  this  connection,  the  name  of  another  distinguished  For- 
syth County  leader  comes  to  mind,  that  of  Charlie  A. 
Reynolds,  who  near  the  end  of  the  last  century  was  one  of 
the  most  important  political  figures  in  North  Carolina.  He 
was  born  November  10,  1848,  at  Madison  in  Rockingham 
County.  He  was  educated  at  Princeton  University.  He 
married  Miss  Carrie  Watkins  Fretwell  of  Rockingham 
County.  In  1884  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Reynolds  came  to  North 

Mr.  Reynolds  attended  Princeton  University  because  at 
the  time  when  he  normally  would  have  entered  college,  the 
University  of  North  Carolina  was  closed  temporarily  because 
of  the  aftermath  of  the  Civil  War. 

In  his  capacity  as  a  construction  engineer,  iMr.  Reynolds 
aided  H.  E.  Fries  of  Winston-Salem  in  the  construction  of 
the  hydro-electric  plant  on  the  Yadkin  River,  the  first  such 
plant  ever  built  in  this  state.  Power  from  that  plant  ran  street- 
cars in  Winston-Salem,  believed  to  be  the  second  city  in  the 
United  States  to  have  streetcars  powered  by  electricity.  Rich- 
mond, Virginia,  is  considered  the  first. 

Later,  he  repeated  this  achievement  at  Asheville.  He  engi- 
neered the  power  plant  on  the  Ivey  River  near  Asheville, 
which  was  the  first  plant  actually  to  supply  that  city  with 
sufficient  electricity  to  meet  its  needs.  The  dam  that  im- 
pounded the  water  for  that  plant  was  6^  feet  high. 

Rural  Forsyth  155 

Reynolds  witnessed  the  building  of  the  first  improved  roads 
in  North  Carolina.  Indeed,  he  constructed  the  first  macadam- 
ized road  in  Forsyth  County.  On  the  south  side  of  Salem 
Creek,  on  what  was  known  as  Centerville  Street,  now  Waugh- 
town  Street,  there  existed  such  an  impossible  barrier  of  mud 
that  Reynolds  went  to  the  county  commissioners  and  asked 
permission  to  use  convicts  to  break  stone  and  place  it  on  the 
road.  This  was  about  1890,  and  the  results  achieved  were  re- 
garded with  such  favor  that  the  county  later  built  much 
macadamized  road  mileage,  some  of  which  exists  today  as 
asphalt  treated  highways. 

Reynolds  held  only  minor  political  offices  down  to  the 
nineties.  He  was  appointed  United  States  deputy  collector 
and  held  that  position  at  Reidsville  for  about  five  years. 
In  1896  he  was  elected  lieutenant-governor  and  took  office  in 


Possibly  the  most  important  piece  of  legislation  that  came 
up  during  his  four-year  tenure  of  office  (during  which  of 
course  he  was  president  of  the  State  Senate),  was  defeated. 
Governor  Daniel  L.  Russell  pushed  a  bill  which  would  have 
made  the  lease  of  the  North  Carolina  Railroad  invalid.  The 
railroad  had  been  constructed  under  the  administration  of 
Governor  John  Motley  Morehead.  It  had  been  leased  under 
the  Governor  Ehas  Kerr  administration  to  the  Richmond  and 
Danville  Railway,  and  that  line  later  became  a  part  of  the 
Southern  Railway.  The  bill  was  passed  by  the  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives and  came  up  for  action  in  the  Senate.  It  was 
beaten  in  the  Senate  by  one  vote.  Thus  the  good  name  of  the 
state  was  saved.  North  Carolina  was  kept  from  repudiating  its 
own  action,  which  had  been  taken  a  few  years  before  in  good 

Although  Lieutenant-Governor  Reynolds  was  the  state's 
second  citizen  in  a  period  when  politics  was  in  a  state  of  great 
turmoil,  it  can  be  said  to  his  credit  that  he  consistently  de- 
clined to  involve  himself  in  acts  which  would  have  brought 

156        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

him  personal  shame  and  shame  upon  the  honor  of  the  state. 
Twice,  Hke  Caeser,  the  Forsyth  County  man  was  offered  the 
highest  position  in  the  state,  and  twice  he  decHned  it  because 
he  could  have  had  it  only  through  a  political  "trade"  which 
he  regarded  as  highly  dishonorable.  When  Russell  and  Rey- 
nolds went  in  as  governor  and  lieutenant-governor  respec- 
tively in  1897,  United  States  Senators  were  elected  by  the 
legislature.  Jeter  C.  Pritchard  had  been  elected  for  a  short 
term  of  two  years  in  1895.  Marion  Butler,  Sr.,  had  been  elected 
to  the  long  term  of  six  years. 

As  the  new  administration  took  ofHce  (the  result  of  a 
Fusion  Campaign),  it  found  the  Populist  element  eager  to 
elect  Judge  Clark  or  the  Governor  himself  to  the  senatorial 
vacancy  about  to  occur.  Of  course  the  Pritchard  supporters 
were  eager  to  return  him  to  office.  The  fight  was  a  political 
classic.  As  the  day  for  the  vote  drew  near,  events  took  a 
dramatic  turn.  Friends  of  Governor  Russell  approached  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Reynolds  and  suggested  that  he  withdraw 
his  support  from  Pritchard.  Had  he  done  this,  Russell  would 
have  been  elected  by  an  easy  margin.  Naturally  Russell  would 
have  resigned  the  governorship  at  once  to  become  United 
States  Senator.  According  to  the  law  of  the  state,  Reynolds 
would  have  become  governor.  But  Reynolds  refused  to  desert 
Pritchard,  threw  his  whole  support  to  him  and,  when  the  vote 
was  cast,  was  forced  to  break  the  tie  and  therefore  was 
charged  with  the  responsibility  of  electing  the  United  States 

The  second  and  even  more  dramatic  chance  that  Reynolds 
had  to  become  governor  of  North  Carolina  was  in  1899.  The 
chief  justiceship  of  the  State  Supreme  Court  was  vacant.  It 
was  necessary  to  appoint  a  man  to  the  office  immediately. 
Just  at  that  time  Lieutenant-Governor  Reynolds  received  a 
call  to  come  to  Washington. 

Taking  his  legal  counsel,  Judge  Spencer  B.  Adams,  with 
him,  Reynolds  went  to  Washington  and  sat  down  for  a  con- 

Rural  Forsyth  157 

ference  with  Senator  Pritchard,  Vice-President  A.  B.  An- 
drews of  the  Southern  Railway,  Judge  E.  W.  Timberlake, 
and  others.  This  time  it  was  suggested  that  he  "sit  tight," 
allow  Governor  Dan  Russell  to  resign,  and  then  accept  in  due 
course  of  law  the  governorship  of  the  state.  It  would  then  be 
easy  for  him  as  governor  to  appoint  Russell  to  the  chief  jus- 
ticeship. That  was  no  violation  of  legal  regulation.  It  could 
be  done  without  any  difficulty. 

Lieutenant-Governor  Reynolds  heard  them  through  and 
then  exploded  in  his  wrath.  "Gentlemen,  I  won't  do  it,"  he  is 
reported  to  have  said,  after  he  had  regained  his  composure. 
"What  would  it  mean  to  the  reputation  of  each  man  con- 
cerned? It  would  mean  the  ruination  of  every  person  im- 
plicated. I'll  have  nothing  to  do  with  it."  That  ended  the 
interview.  Governor  Russell  eventually  appointed  Charles  A. 
Cook,  of  Warren  County,  to  the  Supreme  Court  bench, 
advancing  D.  M.  Furches,  who  already  was  on  the  bench,  to 
the  position  of  chief  justice. 

How  was  the  name  of  Lieutenant-Governor  Reynolds 
connected  with  that  of  the  late  Congressman  Shepperd? 
Simply  in  this  fashion.  Within  a  few  years  after  the  death  of 
the  veteran  Congressman  Shepperd,  Air.  and  Mrs.  Reynolds 
acquired  the  old  residence  at  Good  Spring  and  spent  the 
remainder  of  their  lives  there  and  at  a  country  residence  a  few 
miles  south  of  Kernersville. 

The  political  complexion  of  the  state  changed  after  the 
Russell  administration,  and  the  fiery  old  Lieutenant-Governor 
returned  to  business  in  Forsyth  County.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  Draft  Board  in  Forsyth  County  during  World  War  I 
under  appointment  of  Governor  T.  W.  Bickett.  His  late 
years  were  taken  up  largely  with  the  management  of  his 
properties  here  in  the  county. 

Thus  we  see,  in  members  of  the  Williams,  Shepperd,  and 
Reynolds  families,  examples  of  the  varied  political  leadership 
which  has  sprung  from  the  vigorous  stock  which  populated 

158        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

this  county.  Many  others  could  be  mentioned  who  played 
major  roles  at  one  time  or  another,  but  none  from  the  strictly 
rural  sections  of  the  county  who  attained  to  such  heights. 

Agriculture  in  Forsyth  County 

The  changes  in  the  life  of  rural  Forsyth  County  people  as 
they  relate  to  politics,  education,  domestic  facilities,  com- 
munication, transportation  and  other  aspects,  have  been  in  the 
past  two  centuries  no  greater  than  the  changes  in  agriculture. 
The  county  has  advanced  from  the  age  of  the  bull- 
tongue  plow  through  the  era  of  the  Dixie  plow  and  the  one- 
bottom  turning  plow  down  to  the  age  of  hea\y  tractors  and 
rotary  tillers.  It  has  been  a  change  from  the  ox  and  the  skinny 
little  mule  to  heavy  gasoline-powered  machinery.  It  has  been 
a  change  from  an  all-row-crop  system  to  a  day  when  grass 
farming  is  coming  into  its  own. 

Our  agricultural  system  has  advanced  from  the  stage  where 
it  implied  all  labor  on  the  part  of  the  farmer,  through  a  stage 
when  slave  labor  held  a  major  place,  and  through  a  stage 
where  the  slave  system  was  banished.  It  went  through  a  period 
which  might  be  called  the  Dark  Ages  in  agriculture  as  far  as 
any  real  achievement  was  concerned.  In  the  days  immediately 
following  the  Civil  War  our  whole  economy  was  in  a  state 
of  collapse.  Bishop  Rondthaler  related  that  as  he  came  down 
from  Pennsylvania  in  1877  to  assume  the  pastorate  of  Salem 
congregation,  he  inquired  about  the  large  bundles  which  lay 
on  the  railway  platforms  in  Virginia  and  North  Carolina.  He 
learned  that  these  bundles  were  dried  blackberries  which  had 
been  picked  by  the  impoverished  people  to  be  shipped  to 
Northern  states  for  food  and  other  purposes.  These,  he  said, 
in  that  Dark  Age  constituted  some  of  the  most  considerable 
shipments  which  went  out  from  this  section. 

It  was  not  until  the  turn  of  the  century  that  rural  Forsyth 
began  to  benefit  under  the  slight  awakening  that  took  place. 

Rural  Forsyth  159 

Governor  Charles  Brantley  Aycock,  who  took  office  then, 
went  about  the  state  preaching  education  and  ultimately  died 
on  the  speaker's  platform  with  the  word  "education"  on 
his  lips.  With  education,  there  was  a  quickening  of  the  eco- 
nomic pulse.  Forsyth  County  had  its  share  of  "Farmer's  In- 
stitutes." And  then  in  the  early  teens,  the  Extension  Service 
came  into  existence.  Farm  agents  and  home  demonstration 
agents  began  to  teach  farmers  the  fundamental  principles  of 
field  and  animal  husbandry.  In  the  late  teens  and  early  twen- 
ties, there  was  an  industrial  renaissance.  Markets  began  to 
develop  and  with  the  first  crude  passenger  automobiles  and 
auto  trucks  pushing  their  way  into  the  hinterland  improved 
roads  were  in  demand.  At  first  macadamized  roads,  such  as  the 
ones  with  which  C.  A.  Reynolds  pioneered,  threaded  their 
way  across  the  country. 

The  period  from  1900  to  1949  was  a  period  of  great  awaken- 
ing. In  other  words,  the  second  half  of  our  first  century  as  a 
county  was  the  half  which  brought  more  development  than 
the  county  ever  had  seen  before.  This  was  as  true  in  Forsyth 
agriculture  as  in  the  urban  centers. 

True,  there  were  ambitious  early  beginnings  on  the  part  of 
men  and  women  with  perspective.  There  were  many  leaders 
far  ahead  of  their  day.  And  they  made  their  mark.  It  was  sig- 
nificant that  as  far  back  as  1882  and  1883,  H.  E.  Fries  and 
Dr.  H.  T.  Bahnson  had  farms  on  which  they  bred  registered 
Guernsey  cattle.  Mr.  Fries  and  Dr.  Bahnson  got  their  start 
with  Guernseys  from  W.  P.  Hazard  of  Chester,  Pennsylvania. 
This  was  just  before  the  beginning  of  the  North  Carolina 
Exposition  held  in  Raleigh  in  the  fall  of  1884,  promoted 
largely  by  Mr.  Fries,  its  secretary.  William  S.  Primrose, 
Raleigh,  w^as  president  of  the  Exposition. 

Because  of  the  close  friendship  between  Mr.  Fries  and  Mr. 
Primrose,  Mr.  Fries  named  his  dairy  Primrose  Farm.  This 
meant  that  some  of  the  outstanding  cattle  from  his  farm 
carried  the  name  "Primrose."  Down  to  the  present  day,  that 

i6o        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

name  continues  to  crop  up  among  pedigreed  cattle.  In  1946 
Quail  Roost  Farm,  owned  by  George  Watts  Hill  at  Rouge- 
mont,  sold  Quail  Roost  Noble  Primrose,  a  mature  cow,  for 
$17,000.00.  W.  W.  Fitzpatrick,  manager  of  Quail  Roost 
Farm,  at  the  request  of  Mr.  Fries  in  1948,  searched  the 
pedigree  of  Quail  Roost  Noble  Primrose  and  found  that  she 
was  descended  directly  from  animals  owned  on  Primrose 
Farm  nearly  seventy  years  ago. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  pedigreed  Guernsey  cattle, 
directly  descended  from  these  original  brood  animals  on  the 
Fries  farm,  are  being  bred  on  Arden  Farm  at  Clemmons, 
owned  by  Dr.  Bahnson's  daughter  and  her  husband,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  T.  Holt  Haywood. 

This  pioneer  work  in  cattle  breeding,  therefore,  was  not  a 
wholly  useless  venture.  It  bore  fruit,  even  though  it  took  more 
than  half  a  century  for  it  to  become  evident. 

There  were  pioneers  also  in  other  fields.  Luther  Strupe  of 
the  Tobaccoville  community  early  in  the  century  was  produc- 
ing seed  corn  that  was  considered  the  best  to  be  found  in  the 
South.  On  the  basis  of  his  seed-corn  production  and  other 
farming  practices,  he  was  named  a  Master  Farmer. 

In  those  years  between  the  turn  of  the  century  and  the 
early  30's,  too,  J.  M.  Jarvis  of  the  Clemmons  community,  was 
producing  Jarvis'  Golden  Prohfic  seed  corn,  which  was 
known  throughout  many  of  the  southeastern  states.  He  pur- 
sued the  breeding  of  corn  until  the  middle  thirties  when  he 
was  too  old  to  do  field  work  any  more,  but  he  never  gave  it 
up  until  his  name  was  synonymous  with  good  farming  prac- 
tices over  a  wide  territory. 

Meanwhile,  R.  F.  Linville,  who  resided  a  few  miles  east 
of  \A'inston-Salem,  between  the  two  highways  leading  from 
Winston-Salem  to  Kernersville,  engaged  in  corn  breeding  at 
great  length.  He  developed  some  of  the  seed  strains  which  Mr. 
Jarvis  had  used  to  an  even  greater  degree  than  Mr.  Jarvis  had 
reached.  Mr.  Linville  also  anticipated  by  more  than  a  quarter 

Rural  Forsyth  i6i 

of  a  century  the  present  merits  in  hybrid  seed  corn  over  open 
pollinated  corn.  As  early  as  the  middle  teens  and  early  twen- 
ties, Mr.  Linville  was  experimenting  with  the  principle  of 
hybrid  seed  production  and  made  it  work.  It  was  not  until  the 
principle  was  applied  on  a  wide  scale  in  the  western  states 
that  it  became  nationally  popular.  But  it  should  be  said  to  the 
credit  of  the  Forsyth  County  man  that  he  was  on  the  track  of 
a  great  discovery  and  appreciated  its  merits  although  he  never 
was  able  to  enlist  the  interest  of  any  considerable  number  of 
farmers  in  it.  This  progress  in  agriculture  in  Forsyth  County 
at  first  was  sporadic.  It  had  the  support  of  individuals  only 
here  and  there.  These  individuals  were  in  effect  lifting  them- 
selves by  their  bootstraps.  The  first  farm  demonstration  agents 
in  this  county  as  well  as  elsewhere  in  the  state  found  their 
work  largely  the  work  of  tutor  and  pupil. 

For  approximately  a  quarter  of  a  century,  R.  W.  Pou  did 
pioneer  work  as  farm  agent  in  Forsyth  County,  carrying  the 
extension  service  program  over  the  period  which  might 
almost  be  said  to  bridge  the  space  between  hand  tools  and 
complete  mechanization.  He  laid  down  his  reins  only  a  few 
years  ago  when  S.  R.  Mitchener,  the  incumbent  agent,  took 
over.  In  the  women's  field,  the  extension  service  program  has 
been  handled  largely  by  two  home  demonstration  agents  and 
their  assistants.  Through  the  twenties  and  up  to  193 1,  Miss 
Alice  McQueen  was  home  demonstration  agent.  Upon  her 
retirement,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Tuttle  took  over  and  has  continued 
on  the  job  since.  The  leadership  she  has  manifested  is  fully 
attested  by  the  fact  that  last  December  she  was  awarded  the 
certificate  of  distinguished  service  by  the  National  Associa- 
tion of  Home  Demonstration  Agents  at  their  annual  Conven- 
tion in  Chicago.  In  all  of  this  work  the  two  agents  have  been 
aided  materially  by  capable  assistants,  many  of  whom  each 
has  trained  for  ranking  positions  elsewhere  in  the  state. 

The  changes  in  agriculture  in  the  past  two  decades  have 
been  so  extreme  and  the  results  have  been  so  cumulative,  that 

i62        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

it  is  hard  to  predict  where  agriculture  will  be  even  ten  years 
hence.  Twenty  to  twenty-five  years  ago  the  system  of  agricul- 
ture in  Forsyth  County  was  largely  a  row-crop  system.  The 
small  beginnings  in  the  production  of  cattle  and  hogs  were 
indicative  of  what  was  to  come,  but  were  not  indicative  of 
how  great  that  program  was  to  be.  In  the  space  of  a  quarter 
of  a  century,  Forsyth  County  has  become  a  banner  county  in 
the  breeding  of  Guernsey  and  Holstein-Friesian  milk  cows 
and  in  the  breeding  of  Hereford  beef  cattle.  The  expansion 
in  the  breeding  of  beef  cattle  has  not  been  commensurate 
with  that  of  the  dairy  breeds,  but  within  the  past  four  or  five 
years  there  has  been  a  very  pronounced  quickening  of  interest. 

Meanwhile  for  many  years  the  county  has  produced  a  size- 
able number  of  hogs,  largely  Berkshires,  Poland  Chinas,  Duroc 
Jerseys,  Hampshires,  and  the  like.  Recently  the  Tamworth 
hog  has  gained  wide  favor  in  the  county  with  the  result  that 
for  the  past  two  years  large  shipments  of  hogs  have  gone  to 
Centerville,  Indiana,  to  the  annual  National  Tamworth  Swine 
Show  and  Sale.  In  1947  the  Forsyth  County  consignment  to 
the  Show  and  Sale  ran  far  ahead  of  any  other  state's  consign- 
ment in  the  average  price  paid  per  head. 

From  that  sale,  the  Forsyth  County  delegation  brought  back 
the  highest  ranking  Tamworth  boar  in  the  United  States  with 
which  to  build  up  the  Forsyth  County  herds.  In  the  1948  show 
and  sale,  the  Forsyth  County  consignment  made  an  equally 
good  showing,  and  again  the  Forsyth  County  breeders,  this' 
time  working  as  an  organization,  brought  back  the  top  ranking 
Tamworth  boar.  It  may  be  said,  therefore,  that  Forsyth 
County  is  at  this  writing  the  Tamworth  capital  of  the  world. 

Commensurate  with  the  development  of  the  cattle  industry 
in  Forsyth  County  has  been  the  development  of  the  poultry 
industry.  Forsyth  County  does  not  possess  any  poultry  breed- 
ing establishment  which  compares  in  size  with  such  establish- 
ments as  are  found  on  the  Maryland  and  Delaware  farms,  but 
the  poultry  breeders  who  operate  on  a  small  scale  make  up  an 

Rural  Forsyth  163 

aggregate  business  that  is  exceedingly  large.  The  New  Hamp- 
shire breed  and  New  Hampshire  Barred  Rock  Crosses  are 
favored  by  the  Forsyth  County  poultrymen.  Many  breeders 
in  the  Old  Richmond  community  are  producing  eggs  for 

It  is  significant  that  all  of  these  interests  centralize  their 
work  in  organizations.  The  Forsyth  Guernsey  Breeders  Asso- 
ciation and  the  Forsyth  Holstein-Friesian  Breeders  Association 
are  representative  of  the  organizations  through  which  the 
breeders  effect  group  action.  The  Hereford  breeders  set  up 
their  association  in  late  November  of  1 948  and  hope  to  enroll 
members  throughout  all  central  North  Carolina  not  already 

An  illustration  of  the  group  thinking  that  is  going  on  in 
Forsyth  County  agriculture  is  the  flourishing  Forsyth  Bee- 
keepers Association.  In  1947  these  Beekeepers  set  up  the 
Forsyth  County  unit  and  worked  with  such  sustained  interest 
that  they  w^ere  able  to  attract  the  State  Beekeepers  Associa- 
tion to  Winston-Salem  for  its  annual  meeting  in  1948.  For  two 
successive  years,  Forsyth  County  Beekeepers  have  swept  the 
top  prizes  at  the  North  Carolina  State  Fair. 

More  general  organization  of  the  farmers  and  farm  women 
of  the  county  is  effected  in  the  Forsyth  Pomona  Grange  and 
its  subordinate  granges  and  the  Forsyth  County  Farm  Bureau, 
which  works  as  a  county-wide  unit  rather  than  breaking  its 
membership  down  into  community  groups. 

One  would  think  that  the  agriculture  of  a  county  would 
change  but  little  through  the  years  as  relates  to  the  variety  of 
crops  produced.  Climate  and  rainfall  are  unchanging.  How- 
ever, crop  habits  have  been  characterized  by  extraordinary 
changes.  The  State  and  United  States  Departments  of  Agri- 
culture have  been  engaged  in  constant  study  from  the  time 
they  were  established,  seeking  new  outlets  for  the  crops 
farmers  produced  and  new  crops  suitable  for  the  various  sec- 
tions of  the  country.  As  greater  and  greater  acreages  of  land 

164        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

were  cleared,  and  as  the  stumps  and  rocks  were  removed  from 
land  already  cleared,  the  problem  of  erosion  presented  itself. 
Indeed,  Forsyth  along  with  the  rest  of  the  country  lost  fully 
one-third  of  its  soil  before  it  turned  seriously  to  the  control 
of  running  water.  One  of  the  first  natural  agents  that  came  to 
the  rescue  of  the  farmer  was  lespedeza.  It  came  to  this  section 
of  the  state  in  the  teens  and  early  twenties.  It  was  something 
the  poorest  farmer  could  grow  and  it  has  been  grown  in  enor- 
mous acreages  ever  since.  Wherever  it  elected  to  take  hold,  it 
arrested  erosion  immediately.  Many  leaders  in  agriculture 
regard  its  arrival  on  the  farm  scene  as  the  greatest  single  event 
in  a  hundred  years.  It  certainly  has  meant  that  much  to  the 
farmers  of  Forsyth  County. 

But  other  great  events  were  to  come,  some  of  them  very 
gradually.  Alfalfa  was  one  of  these  innovations.  While  alfalfa 
has  been  widely  grown  well  over  the  United  States  for  fifty 
years  or  more,  it  has  gained  favor  in  Forsyth  County  only 
slowly,  but  consistently.  In  1948  the  farmers  cut  hay  off 
about  3,000  acres  of  alfalfa. 

In  the  early  forties  a  smattering  of  farmers  obtained  a  small 
amount  of  Ladino  clover  seed.  By  1948  the  county  had  a  size- 
able acreage  in  this  splendid  pasture  crop.  At  first  it  was  em- 
ployed only  as  a  grazing  crop.  Later  farmers  began  to  learn 
that  it  also  was  a  good  hay  crop.  Around  1946  Suiter  grass 
(fescue)  began  to  attract  attention.  Ejcperiments  were  started 
with  it  because  it  gave  promise  of  being  a  winter  grazing  crop. 
Many  Forsyth  dairymen  over  a  period  of  a  half  decade  or 
more  had  proved  that  grazing  for  most  of  the  winter  months 
could  be  assured  by  sowing  a  mixture  of  a  variety  of  grasses 
and  small  grains  and  forcing  them  with  heavy  applications  of 
fertilizer.  It  is  claimed  that  Suiter  grass  is  a  nauiral  winter 
grazing  crop.  Forsyth  farmers  are  open  minded,  waiting  for 
this  crop  to  prove  itself. 

During  this  change  in  crop  system,  the  per  acre  yield  of 
field  crops  has  gone  up  and  up.  For  instance,  in   1935  the 

Rural  Forsyth  165 

average  yield  of  corn  for  the  state  was  under  20  bushels  per 
acre.  By  1950  in  Forsyth  County  it  is  expected  to  be  close  to 
50  bushels.  Before  the  tobacco  acreage  control  program  was 
instituted  in  the  middle  thirties,  the  average  yield  for  tobacco 
was  between  700  and  800  pounds  per  acre.  In  1948  it  was 
expected  to  run  close  to  1200  pounds. 

Whither  are  we  bound  in  Forsyth  County  agriculture? 

Only  time  can  answer  that  question.  But  it  cannot  be  denied 
that  tremendous  progress  has  been  made  between  the  end  of 
the  first  quarter  of  this  century  and  the  end  of  the  second,  not 
to  speak  of  all  the  progress  that  was  made  before  that  time. 
The  county  commissioners,  Mr.  James  G.  Hanes,  chairman; 
Mr.  Sam  Craft,  and  Dr.  D.  C.  Speas  made  a  move  that  was 
almost  unprecedented  in  county  government.  They  made  a 
direct  appeal  to  farmers  to  set  up  a  board  whose  business 
should  be  to  advise  the  county  commissioners  of  what  agri- 
culture needed  in  the  way  of  county  government. 

As  a  result,  this  county  agricultural  board  was  set  up.  It  is 
representative  of  every  township  in  the  county,  even  includ- 
ing Winston  township.  It  meets  monthly  or  on  call.  Through 
it  a  great  number  of  the  pointed  needs  of  agriculture  have 
been  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  county  commissioners  and 
have  received  sympathetic  action.  In  1946,  the  county  com- 
missioners placed  G.  W.  McClellan  in  charge  of  the  Forsyth 
County  Farm,  a  700-acre  tract.  The  change  in  the  intervening 
period  has  been  almost  miraculous.  This  writer  obtained  pic- 
tures of  cattle  grazing  on  the  County  Farm  on  the  6th  day  of 
January,  1948,  which  was  in  the  dead  of  winter.  These 
pictures  showed  the  40-cow  herd  of  Holsteins  up  to  their 
fetlocks  in  grass,  and  when  submitted  to  a  forum  of  several 
hundred  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  North  Carolina  Dairy 
Council,  even  the  experts  were  unable  to  distinguish  them 
from  pictures  made  in  midsummer.  Therefore  Forsyth  farmers 
have  gone  a  long  way  toward  controlling  even  the  seasons. 

Meanwhile  the  Forsyth  commissioners,  on  advice  of  the 

i66        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

farmers  through  their  advisory  board,  started  an  artificial 
insemination  program  in  the  spring  of  1946.  The  stud  included 
some  of  the  finest  Guernsey  and  Holstein  bulls  that  could  be 
obtained.  It  was  the  first  such  program  started  in  North  Caro- 
lina and  has  been  imitated  in  t^vo-thirds  of  the  counties  of  the 
state,  although  the  structure  is  slightly  different  in  some  other 

Furthermore,  on  the  advice  of  the  advisory  board,  the 
county  commissioners  purchased  a  heavy  duty  motor  grader 
with  which  to  supplement  and  complement  the  heavy  duty 
renovations  in  roads  and  terracing  on  the  farms  of  the  county. 
This  machine,  operated  by  an  expert  crew,  has  met  with 
universal  approval  as  it  has  gone  about  the  county. 

Countless  lesser  achievements  have  resulted  from  the  studies 
of  this  board  as  it  gradually  got  the  feel  of  county  agricultural 

Herein  is  climaxed  the  first  one  hundred  years  of  progress 
of  rural  Forsyth  citizens.  And  thus  auspiciously  begins  their 
second  century  of  achievement. 



THE  pioneers  of  Salem,  through  necessity,  had  cul- 
tivated an  inventive  and  productive  economy  that 
made  available  at  an  early  date  such  commodities  as 
paper,  pottery,  guns,  carriages,  wagons,  cloth,  and 
tinware.  With  the  first  gristmill  in  1755,  the  first  flax  loom 
in  1766,  the  first  wagon  works  in  1787,  and  the  first  paper  mill 
in  1 79 1,  we  find  a  development  that  had  an  humble  start  and 
gained  momentum  with  time  and  the  genius  of  the  pioneers. 
Manufacturing  started  on  a  one-man-power  scale  as  the  early 
citizens  began  experimenting  with  the  products  of  near-by 
farms.  Since  the  most  readily  available  raw  products  of  the 
Carolinas  were  tobacco,  cotton,  and  lumber,  it  was  natural 
that  the  largest  industries  should  center  around  their  manu- 
facture. It  was  a  case  of  local  ingenuity  utilizing  these  readily 
available  raw  materials  and  building  an  industrial  life  by  con- 
ception rather  than  by  adoption. 

The  past  century  has  brought  a  steady,  vigorous,  and  suc- 
cessful business  development  which  has  captured  for  the 
community  the  well-earned  title  of  "City  of  Industry."  Win- 
ston-Salem is  the  leading  industrial  city  of  the  Carolinas,  and 
the  third  city  of  the  South  in  the  value  of  manufactured  prod- 
ucts, with  only  Richmond  and  Baltimore  ranking  ahead. 

While  many  communities  can  claim  that  they  are  important 
manufacturing  centers,  few  can  claim  that  they  lead  the 
world  in  manufacture  of  one  or  more  products.  Winston- 
Salem  comes  in  this  latter  category.  The  city  is  the  world's 
largest  tobacco  manufacturing  center,  the  home  of  the  largest 
manufactory  of  knit  underwear,  and  the  home  of  the  largest 
circular  knit  hosiery  mill  in  the  world.  These  three  world 
leaders  had  their  beginning  in  the  county,  they  were  con- 
ceived by  industrially  minded  local  citizens,  and  they  were 
developed  by  local  ingenuity. 


lyo        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

The  Tobacco  Industry 

From  the  earliest  days  tobacco  was  raised  in  this  section- 
mostly  for  local  use  with  only  a  small  amount  sold  elsewhere. 
As  early  as  1755  reference  was  made  to  a  purchase  by  Mr. 
Loesch  from  Mr.  Banner  of  "a  couple  of  hundred  tobacco 

In  1858,  just  nine  years  after  the  founding  of  Winston,  the 
first  large  quantity  of  tobacco  was  cultivated  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  county.  The  experiment  was  successful  and  it  soon 
became  evident  that  a  very  superior  variety  of  tobacco  could 
be  raised  in  Forsyth  and  adjoining  counties.  The  soil  was 
found  to  yield  rich  returns  of  the  finest  "yellow  leaf"  tobacco, 
and  had  no  superior  "in  texture,  oil  or  aroma,  not  even  in  the 
famed  leather-wood  district  of  Henry  County,  Virginia."  In 
1870  there  were  not  quite  two  hundred  and  fifty  thousand 
pounds  raised  in  the  county.  It  soon  became  apparent  that  a 
local  market  was  needed  for  the  sale  of  tobacco  and  in  1872 
Mayor  T.  J.  Brown  opened  the  first  warehouse  in  the  county 
for  the  sale  of  leaf  tobacco.  An  old  frame  stable,  with  a  fancy 
skylight  added,  was  rented  and  here  the  sale  of  tobacco 

The  first  tobacco  factory  was  built  in  1872— a  frame  struc- 
ture fifty  feet  square,  in  which  a  score  of  employees  were 
housed.  During  the  next  year,  in  July,  1873,  ^^^  first  railroad 
connection  was  made  with  the  North  Western  Rail  Road  of 
North  Carolina,  and  Forsyth  County  was  afforded  an  outlet 
for  trade. 

The  following  years  brought  an  almost  unbelievable  devel- 
opment in  the  manufacturing  of  tobacco  products.  Within  a 
short  period  of  twenty-two  years  after  the  first  tobacco  fac- 
tory was  built,  we  find  thirty-seven  concerns  manufacturing 
tobacco  in  Winston  and  one  in  Salem.  Connorton's  Tobacco 
Brand  Directory  of  the  United  States  in  1894  contains  the 
following  list. 

A  Center  of  Industry  171 

Bailey  Bros.,  plug  Winston 

Beall,  Geo.  H.  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Bitting  &  Hay,  plug  Winston 

Blackburn,  Dalton  &  Co.,  plug  Winston 

Brown  Bros.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking  Winston 

Brown  &  Williamson,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Byerly,  S.  &  Son,  smoking  Winston 

Bynum,  Cotten  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Candler,  R.  L.  &  Co.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking  Winston 

Clary,  W.  S.  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Ebert,  Payne  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Ellis,  W.  B.  &  Co.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking  Winston 

Griffith  &  Bohannon,  plug  and  twist  Winston 
Hamlen,  Liipfert  &  Co.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking       Winston 

Hanes,  B.  F.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Hanes,  P.  H.  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Harvey  &  Rintels,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Hodgin  Bros.  &  Lunn,  plug  and  smoking  Winston 

Jones,  Cox  &  Co.,  plug  Winston 

Kerner,  Newton  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Leak,  T.  F.  Tob.  Co.,  smoking  Winston 

Lockett,  Vaughn  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Ogburn,  Hill  &  Co.,  plug  Winston 

Ogburn,  M.  L.,  plug  Winston 

Ogburn,  S.  A.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Reynolds  Bros.,  plug  Winston 

Reynolds,  H.  H.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking  Winston 

Reynolds,  R.  J.  Tob.  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Smith,  W.  F.  &  Son,  smoking  and  cigarettes  Winston 

Taylor  Bros.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking  Winston 

Vaughn,  T.  L.  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Walker  Bros.,  plug  Winston 

Whitaker,  W.  A.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking  Winston 

Williamson,  T.  F.  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Williamson  Tob.  Co.,  plug  Winston 

172        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Wilson,  N.  S.  &  T.  J.,  plug  Winston 

Wood,  W.  W.  &  Co.,  plug  and  twist  Winston 

Nissen,  J.  S.,  plug,  twist  and  smoking  Salem 

About  the  turn  of  the  century  many  of  these  concerns 
consolidated,  merged,  or  sold  their  plants  as  the  industry  con- 
centrated into  larger  units.  A  brief  description  of  the  present- 
day  manufacturers  follows. 

The  R.  J.  Reynolds  Tobacco  Company  was  started  in  1875 
by  Richard  J.  Reynolds,  who,  with  a  small  capital,  began  to 
manufacture  chewing  tobacco  products.  He  was  then  only 
twenty-five  years  old,  just  about  the  age  of  Winston  itself. 
At  first  the  plant  consisted  of  one  small  building,  erected  at 
a  cost  of  less  than  $2,500  including  the  machinery.  Originally 
the  products  were  marketed  in  only  a  few  of  the  near-by 
states,  but  the  business  prospered  and  additions  to  the  factory 
were  soon  begun.  For  thirteen  years  he  conducted  the  busi- 
ness individually,  but  in  1888  he  took  into  partnership  with 
him  other  men  and  continued  to  operate  as  a  partnership  until 
1890.  At  that  time  a  charter  of  incorporation  was  obtained 
from  the  State  of  North  Carolina  and  the  business  of  R.  J. 
Reynolds  &  Company  was  transferred  to  the  North  Carolina 
Corporation  known  as  R.  J.  Reynolds  Tobacco  Company. 
R.  J.  Reynolds  was  the  president  and  continued  in  this  capac- 
ity until  his  death  on  July  29,  19 18.  The  business  was  operated 
under  this  charter  until  1899  when  the  present  charter  was 
procured  from  the  State  of  New  Jersey  and  the  factories, 
business,  and  properties  were  transferred  to  the  New  Jersey 

The  company  began  business  as  a  manufacturer  of  chewing 
tobaccos  but  granulated  smoking  tobaccos  were  added  in  the 
1890's.  The  process  for  Prince  Albert  smoking  tobacco  was 
patented  on  July  30,  1907,  and  this  was  one  of  the  first  single 
tobacco  products  to  be  advertised  on  a  national  scale.  The 
first  Camel  Cigarettes  were  manufactured  on  October    19, 

A  Center  of  Industry  173 

191 3,  the  first  of  the  modern- type  blends.  Its  principal  brands, 
among  a  great  many  others,  are  Camel  Cigarettes,  Prince 
Albert  smoking  tobacco,  George  Washington  pipe  tobacco, 
and  Days  Work,  Browns  Mule,  and  Apple  Sun  Cured  chew- 
ing tobaccos. 

The  original  "little  red  factory,"  whose  base  was  at  first 
about  the  size  of  a  tennis  court,  has  been  multiplied  into  more 
than  140  large  factory  units  and  leaf  storage  warehouses.  More 
than  3000  of  over  12,000  employees  have  a  service  record 
with  the  Company  of  twenty  years  or  longer.  An  unusual 
feature  for  a  company  of  its  size  is  that  the  Board  of  Directors 
is  composed  of  men  who,  as  officers  or  heads  of  departments, 
are  closely  connected  with  the  actual  operation  of  the  busi- 
ness. From  a  modest,  one-man  beginning  this  company  now 
distributes  its  products  in  every  country  of  the  world. 

The  Brown  &  WiUiamson  Tobacco  Company  was  started 
in  1 894  as  a  partnership  between  George  T.  Brown  and  R.  L. 
Williamson.  At  that  time  they  purchased  the  factory  and 
machinery  formerly  owned  by  H.  H.  Reynolds  and  began  on 
a  small  scale,  with  an  operating  capital  of  about  $10,000.  In 
1906  the  business  had  grown  to  such  a  size  that  it  was  deemed 
best  to  incorporate,  the  first  meeting  of  the  incorporators 
being  held  in  January,  1906.  Capital  of  $400,000  was  au- 
thorized with  about  $70,000  paid  in. 

Up  to  that  time  the  company  had  manufactured  only  plug 
tobacco.  A  short  while  after  incorporation  it  was  decided  to 
go  into  the  manufacture  of  snuff  and  today  it  is  the  only 
manufacturer  of  snuff  in  the  state.  Its  principal  brands  are 
Tube  Rose  snuff,  and  Blood  Hound  and  Sun  Cured  chewing 

In  April,  1927,  the  company  was  purchased  by  the  British- 
American  Tobacco  Company,  Ltd.,  and  is  now  operated  as  a 
subsidiary  of  this  company.  From  the  small  start  of  thirty 
operators  in  1894,  the  business  has  grown  until  today  it  has 
between  500  and  600  employees. 

174        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

The  tobacco  firm  of  Taylor  Brothers  was  organized  in 
1883  by  WilHam  B.  Taylor  and  his  brother  Jacquelin  P. 
Taylor,  who  had  successfully  manufactured  tobacco  for 
several  years  before  this  time  in  V^irginia.  They  produced 
chewing  tobaccos,  both  plug  and  twist,  which  have  enjoyed 
widespread  sales.  The  business  was  conservatively  managed, 
and  growth,  while  slow,  was  steady.  The  original  factory  has 
been  enlarged  more  than  five  times.  In  192 1  the  business  was 
incorporated  under  the  name  of  Taylor  Bros.,  Inc.  Among 
its  many  brands  are  Rich  &  Ripe,  Bull  of  the  Woods,  Taylor 
Made,  and  Ripe  Peaches. 

The  fine  quality  of  leaf  tobacco  cultivated  in  this  area  has 
attracted  buyers  for  manufacturers  in  other  sections  of  the 
country.  Not  a  small  quantity  of  the  tobacco  sold  in  local 
warehouses  is  exported  for  use  in  foreign  countries.  A  large 
volume  of  this  business  is  carried  on  by  the  following  local 

The  Imperial  Tobacco  Company  (of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland)  Limited,  has  bought  tobacco  on  the  Winston-Salem 
market  since  1904.  A  branch  office  was  established  here  in 
1909  and  the  next  year  a  factory  was  built  and  machinery 
installed  to  prepare  their  leaf  for  shipment. 

The  Export  Leaf  Tobacco  Company  of  Richmond  began 
their  operation  of  buying  in  Winston-Salem  in  191 2.  The 
land  on  which  the  plant  is  located  was  purchased  in  19 14 
and  the  building  completed  the  same  year. 

The  Piedmont  Leaf  Tobacco  Company  had  its  beginning 
in  the  Wright-Hughes  Tobacco  Company  incorporated  in 
191 5.  The  present  name  was  assumed  in  1930  when  this  com- 
pany took  over  the  Wright-Hughes  plant.  The  business  con- 
sists of  buying,  redrying  and  stemming  leaf  tobacco  bought 
on  the  local  market. 

The  Winston  Leaf  Tobacco  &  Storage  Company  was  or- 
ganized in  192 1  for  the  purpose  of  buying,  redrying  and 
stemming  tobacco.  This  company  buys  tobacco  in  the  local 

A  Center  of  Industry  175 

warehouses  for  the  account  of  many  manufacturers  in  this 
and  foreign  countries. 

The  Textile  Industry 

The  early  settlers  began  their  experiments  in  processing 
flax  with  a  loom  set  up  in  1758.  Since  many  of  the  settlers 
were  raising  sheep,  with  no  accessible  market  for  their  clip- 
pings, an  effort  was  made  to  utilize  the  wool.  Zevely  brought 
in  the  first  wool  carding  machine  as  early  as  18 15.  Experi- 
ments were  being  made  with  the  cotton  grown  on  near-by 
farms,  and  in  1837  the  Salem  Cotton  Manufacturing  Com- 
pany was  oragnized.  Francis  Fries,  who  had  been  superin- 
tendent of  this  mill,  organized  the  F.  &  H.  Fries  wool  business 
in  1840.  As  an  outgrowth  of  this  company,  the  Arista  Mill 
was  built  in  1880,  separate  from  the  woolen  mill,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  spinning  cotton  and  weaving  cotton  cloth.  These 
early  plants  were  equipped  with  the  latest  machinery  and 
were  lighted  with  gas  from  the  gas  works  established  in  1858. 
However,  when  the  Arista  Mill  was  completed,  a  power  plant 
was  installed  and  for  the  first  time  in  the  South  electric  lights 
were  used  in  a  cotton  mill. 

The  Arista  Mills  Company  was  operated  under  the  part- 
nership of  F.  &  H.  Fries  until  1903  when  it  was  incorporated. 
The  company  has  had  a  long  and  successful  history,  manu- 
facturing cotton  cloth,  now  principally  chambray  which  is 
used  for  work  clothing. 

At  the  turn  of  the  century,  two  brothers,  P.  H.  Hanes  and 
J.  W.  Hanes,  who  had  been  successful  tobacconists  for  over 
twenty  years,  made  a  decision  which  later  placed  Forsyth 
County  high  in  the  textile  world.  In  1900  the  textile  business 
in  the  United  States  was  of  good  size.  Nevertheless,  these  two 
brothers  sold  their  tobacco  business  to  the  Reynolds  Com- 
pany and  went  their  separate  ways  to  success  in  the  textile 
business.  Their  decision  resulted  in  the  P.  H.  Hanes  Knitting 

176        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Co.  and  the  Hanes  Hosiery  Mills  Co.,  both  of  which  are  the 
largest  in  their  respective  fields. 

The  P.  H.  Hanes  Knitting  Company  was  organized  in  1 90 1 
and  incorporated  in  1903  for  the  purpose  of  manufacturing 
cotton  ribbed  winter-weight  underwear  for  men.  Some  years 
later  boys'  underwear  was  started  and  a  little  later  girls'  and 
children's  lines  were  added.  About  1920  the  now  famous 
Hanes  Athletic  Underwear  was  started.  The  line  now  in- 
cludes men's  and  boys'  sports  wear  as  wd\  as  children's  sleep- 
ing garments. 

The  village  of  Hanes,  situated  on  the  outskirts  of  Winston- 
Salem,  surrounds  the  spinning  mills.  This  is  a  model  mill 
town,  with  churches,  schools,  and  an  auditorium.  The  homes 
are  electric-lighted;  the  sidewalks  and  streets  are  paved;  there 
is  running  water  in  every  home.  The  knitting  mills  and  finish- 
ing plant  are  located  in  the  heart  of  Winston-Salem.  The 
plants  are  all  modern,  containing  up-to-date  conveniences  and 
equipped  with  the  best  and  most  modern  machinery  available. 

The  history  of  the  company  is  one  of  marvelous  growth. 
It  has  long  enjoyed  the  distinction  of  being  the  largest  manu- 
facturer of  men's  and  boys'  cotton  ribbed  underwear  in  the 
world.  Hanes  underwear  is  staple  in  every  state  in  the  Union 
and  is  exported  to  many  foreign  countries. 

The  Hanes  Hosiery  Mills  Company  had  its  start  in  1900 
when  J.  W.  Hanes  purchased  the  old  Hodgin  tobacco  plant 
located  on  Marshall  Street  near  Second.  Under  the  name  of 
Shamrock,  his  new  mill  was  producing  infants'  hose  and 
men's  socks  by  1902.  The  mill  was  renamed  Hanes  Hosiery 
at  the  time  it  was  incorporated  in  19 14.  By  1920,  the  Hanes 
Mill,  now  beginning  to  specialize  in  ladies'  hosiery,  had  out- 
grown the  original  plant.  In  1926  a  new  modern  plant  was 
completed  at  its  present  location  on  West  14th  Street,  and 
the  mill  was  moved.  In  the  past  ten  years  it  has  more  than 
doubled  in  size. 

The  history  of  this  mill  is  another  one  of  rapid  growth  in 

A  Center  of  Industry  177 

a  highly  competitive  market.  Hanes  seamless  hosiery  has  been 
out  in  front  in  the  race  from  cotton  to  rayon  to  silk  to  nylon. 
The  emphasis  has  been  placed  on  quality  and  the  product  of 
this  mill  is  found  in  the  nation's  finest  stores.  Today  it  is  the 
largest  circular  knit  hosiery  mill  in  the  world. 

The  Indera  Mills  Company,  located  and  organized  in  Win- 
ston-Salem in  19 14,  manufactures  ladies'  and  children's  knit 
underskirts,  underslips,  and  knee  warmers.  From  a  small 
beginning,  the  company  had  a  steady  demand  for  its  products 
and  in  1925  the  plant  was  enlarged  by  the  purchase  of  the 
old  Maline  Mills  property.  The  products  of  this  mill  are  na- 
tionally advertised  and  sold  in  every  state  in  the  Union. 

The  Hanes  Dye  &  Finishing  Company  was  organized  in 
1924  by  Ralph  P.  Hanes,  who  has  continued  as  its  active  head 
and  president.  This  company  operates  a  service  industry  by 
bleaching,  dyeing,  and  finishing  cotton  piece  goods  for  con- 
verters located  in  the  eastern  United  States.  The  plant  has 
recently  been  enlarged  and  today  covers  approximately 
180,000  square  feet. 

Starting  with  one  slasher  and  four  looms,  John  A.  Kester 
organized  the  Carolina  Narrow  Fabrics  Company  in  1928. 
The  company  manufactures  cotton  insulating  tape  and  web- 
bing used  by  the  electric  motor  producers.  In  1940  a  closely 
affiliated  company  was  organized  to  dye,  glaze  and  wind 
insulating  yarn  for  the  use  of  wire  and  cable  producers.  The 
two  companies  today  occupy  approximately  75,000  square 
feet  of  floor  space  and  employ  over  200  people. 

In  January,  1942,  the  Duplan  Corporation  of  New  York 
established  a  division  and  began  operation  in  Winston-Salem. 
In  May,  1947,  a  second  division  of  this  large  corporation, 
known  as  the  Forsyth  Division,  was  established  here.  The 
latter  division  was  housed  in  a  new  modern  plant  the  outside 
of  which  is  finished  in  sheet  aluminum.  This  company  re- 
ceives nylon  yam  and  prepares  it  on  a  commission  basis  for 
the  knitting  and  weaving  trade.  The  process  is  known  as 

178        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

throwing.  The  yarn  is  twisted  and  coated  (sized),  after  which 
it  is  used  in  the  production  of  hosiery  and  dress  fabrics. 

The  Adams-MilHs  Corporation  has  a  branch  in  Kemers- 
ville,  where  a  large  volume  of  women's  and  children's  anklets 
are  manufactured.  In  the  same  location  the  Southern  Silk 
Mills  has  a  rayon  piece  goods  mill,  and  the  Vance  &  Ring 
Company  manufactures  children's  vat  dyed  socks.  There  are 
several  other  small  textile  manufacturers  in  the  county. 

The  Woodworking  Industry 

Early  settlers  were  known  for  their  craftsmanship  in  wood 
and  some  of  their  products  are  still  being  used  in  homes  of 
the  community.  The  oldest  existing  woodworking  industry 
in  the  county  today  is  the  Unique  Furniture  Makers  which 
dates  back  to  the  organization  of  the  J.  C.  Spach  Wagon 
Works  in  1854.  It  originated  as  a  maker  of  wagons  which  for 
many  years  were  known  throughout  the  South.  During  the 
early  years  the  company  is  reported  to  have  produced  can- 
non trucks  for  the  Confederacy.  About  ru^enty-five  years 
ago  they  entered  the  furniture  business  and  now  produce 
dining  room,  bedroom,  breakfast  room,  and  dinette  furniture 
which  is  sold  in  practically  all  parts  of  the  country.  The 
company  has  a  record  of  continuous  operation  by  one  family 
since  its  beginning  in  1854. 

Fogle  Brothers  Company  is  another  one  of  the  oldest  con- 
cerns in  the  county,  having  been  organized  in  1871  as  a 
partnership  between  Christian  H.  and  Charles  A.  Fogle. 
These  brothers  were  sons  of  Augustus  Fogle,  who  was  Sheriff 
of  Forsyth  County  for  many  years  and  later  Mayor  of  Salem. 
They  engaged  in  general  millwork,  sash,  doors,  etc.,  and  for 
several  years  manufactured  tobacco  boxes  for  the  local  to- 
bacco factories.  In  1892  Charles  A.  Fogle  withdrew  from  the 
business  on  account  of  health  and  his  brother  continued  as 
sole  proprietor  until  his  death  in  1898.  The  business  has  been 

A  Center  of  Industry  179 

continued  by  his  family  and  today  manufactures  lumber, 
principally  flooring,  and  sells  building  material. 

The  B.  F.  Huntley  Furniture  Company  had  its  origin  in 
the  Oakland  Furniture  Company,  which  began  business  in 
1898.  B.  F.  Huntley  was  in  the  employment  of  the  Oakland 
Furniture  Company  for  some  time  before  he  organized  the 
B.  F.  Huntley  Furniture  Company  in  1906.  Later  the  Oak- 
land Furniture  Company  was  taken  over  by  the  B.  F.  Huntley 
Furniture  Company  and  today  the  site  of  the  first  Oakland 
factory  is  occupied  by  the  plant  of  the  B.  F.  Huntley  Furni- 
ture Company.  The  plant  has  over  six  acres  of  floor  space  and 
manufactures  bedroom  furniture  exclusively.  This  product 
is  advertised  nationally  and  is  sold  all  over  the  United  States. 

In  191 3  the  Mengle  Company  of  Louisville,  Kentucky, 
established  a  plant  in  Winston-Salem  for  the  manufacture  of 
wooden  boxes,  used  primarily  as  shipping  containers.  The 
business  has  grown  steadily,  and  in  1933  another  division  was 
established  to  manufacture  corrugated  shipping  containers. 
In  addition  to  a  large  production  of  shipping  containers,  this 
concern  produces  store  fixtures,  wall  cabinets,  and  closets. 

The  Fogle  Furniture  Company  was  organized  as  a  corpo- 
ration in  January,  1923,  with  F.  A.  Fogle  as  president,  for  the 
production  of  handwoven  fibre  furniture.  In  1928  the  manu- 
facture of  matched  living  room  furniture  was  started.  The 
sale  of  the  new  product  was  so  successful  that  the  original 
line  of  fibre  furniture  was  discontinued  in  1936,  and  the 
entire  production  of  the  plant  is  now  devoted  to  living  room 

There  are  about  fifteen  other  plants  in  the  county  today 
operating  in  the  woodworking  industry. 

Miscellaneous  Industries 

It  would  be  impossible  to  mention  all  of  the  various  indus- 
trial establishments  now  operating  in  Forsyth  County.  There 

i8o        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

are  several  establishments,  however,  which  deserve  special 
mention  although  they  cannot  be  classified  in  either  of  the 
foregoing  categories.  Some  of  these  concerns  have  a  long  his- 
tory of  operation  and  some  of  them,  while  relatively  new, 
have  had  an  important  effect  on  the  business  development  of 
the  county. 

In  1884,  J.  A.  Vance  began  the  manufacture  of  wood 
planers  and  sawmills.  The  business  w^as  operated  as  a  pro- 
prietorship until  19 19  when  a  partnership  was  formed  with 
two  of  his  sons.  Ten  years  later  it  was  incorporated.  In  1936 
the  production  of  metal  stampings  was  added,  and  a  new  plant 
was  constructed  for  this  department  in  1948.  The  products 
of  this  new  department  are  used  largely  in  the  woodworking 
industry.  Machine  parts  are  also  manufactured  and  castings 
are  made  in  the  foundry  for  various  industrial  customers. 
The  planers  and  sawmills  of  J.  A.  Vance  Company  have  been 
well  known  for  years  and  many  of  these  machines  have  been 
exported  to  South  and  Central  America,  Mexico,  Africa,  and 
the  Orient.  The  business  is  operated  by  the  son  of  the 

The  Briggs-Shaffner  Company  was  started  in  1897  by 
William  C.  Briggs  and  W.  F.  Shaffner,  who  had  perfected  a 
cigarette  machine  in  the  plant  of  J.  A.  Vance  during  the 
preceding  six  years.  The  company  was  organized  to  operate 
as  a  general  machine  shop  with  a  foundry,  and  to  specialize 
in  the  production  of  the  cigarette  machine.  In  the  interest  of 
the  sale  of  this  machine,  W.  F.  Shaffner  spent  the  next  two 
years  in  Mexico.  In  the  summer  of  1909  the  company  was 
incorporated  with  W.  F.  Shaffner,  president,  WiUiam  C. 
Briggs,  vice-president,  and  M.  H.  Willis,  secretary  and 
treasurer.  E.  N.  Shaffner  became  associated  with  the  com- 
pany in  1943  and  later  that  year  was  elected  president.  Today 
this  company  not  only  makes  metal  castings  but  produces  a 
line  of  gift  ware  made  from  anodized  aluminum. 

The  Bahnson  Company  had  its  beginning  in   191 5  under 

A  Center  of  Industry  i8i 

the  name  of  the  Normalair  Company  for  the  production  of 
a  centrifugal  humidifier  which  had  been  invented  and  patented 
by  J.  W.  Fries.  The  company  was  started  by  A.  H.  Bahnson, 
F.  F.  Bahnson,  and  J.  A.  Gray.  A  few  years  later  the  name 
was  changed  to  The  Bahnson  Humidifier  Company.  In  1929 
the  company  was  incorporated  and  became  The  Bahnson 
Company  with  A.  H.  Bahnson  as  president.  In  1940  F.  F. 
Bahnson  retired;  and  in  1946  A.  H.  Bahnson,  Jr.,  became 
president.  The  company  manufactures  and  installs  industrial 
air  conditioning  equipment  which  is  well  known  in  the  textile 
industry  both  in  this  country  and  in  several  foreign  countries. 
Recently  the  plant  was  expanded  to  a  total  of  96,000  square 

In  1927  the  Salem  Steel  Company  was  organized  for  the 
fabrication  of  structural  steel.  The  business  was  incorporated 
in  1933  and  has  grown  rapidly.  This  plant  is  now  one  of  the 
best  equipped  and  most  modern  steel  fabrication  plants  in  the 
South.  Their  product  is  used  in  residential  and  industrial  con- 
struction and  bridges. 

Southern  Steel  Stampings  Company  was  granted  a  charter 
in  1929.  This  company  was  organized  by  F.  F.  Bahnson  for 
the  production  of  stampings  used  largely  in  the  furniture 
industry  and  machine  parts  used  by  the  textile  industry.  The 
son  of  the  founder  now  operates  the  business,  the  plant  of 
which  occupies  over  40,000  square  feet. 

In  1944,  The  Bassick  Company,  a  subsidiary  of  Stewart- 
Warner  Company,  selected  Winston-Salem  as  the  site  for 
their  Bassick-Sack  Division.  The  latter  part  of  the  following 
year  operations  started.  This  company  manufactures  furni- 
ture hardware,  known  as  decorative  metal  trim,  which  is  used 
by  the  furniture  manufacturing  industry.  The  plant  covers  an 
area  of  58,000  square  feet. 

One  of  the  largest  recent  additions  to  our  industrial  scene 
came  as  a  result  of  the  selection  of  this  community  by  the 
Western  Electric  Company  for  the  location  of  their  Radio 

i82        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Shops.  In  1946  operations  were  started  in  the  old  Chatham 
Manufacturing  plant.  Additional  plants  were  leased  as  the 
operations  expanded.  Today  this  company  occupies  over 
800,000  square  feet  of  manufacturing  space.  Land  has  been 
purchased  for  the  development  of  a  new  plant  site  with 
modern  building  and  equipment.  The  company  manufactures 
electrical  apparatus  and  supplies,  for  use  by  the  Bell  Tele- 
phone system. 

It  is  interesting  to  know  the  wide  scale  of  diversification  of 
Winston-Salem  industry.  In  addition  to  the  products  of  the 
industries  described  on  the  preceding  pages,  the  following 
partial  list  will  dispel  any  idea  that  the  City  of  Industry  is 
limited  in  the  variety  of  its  products. 

These  include  Awnings,  Tents,  Canvas  Covers  and  Bags, 
Automobile  Springs,  Batteries,  Beverages,  Bread  and  other 
Bakery  Products,  Brick,  Coffins,  Caskets,  Clothing  (work), 
Fertilizer,  Foods,  Harness  and  Saddlery,  Insulating  Yam, 
Lumber,  Machinery,  Mattresses  and  Box  Springs,  Medicines, 
Sheet  Metal,  Mirrors,  Printing  and  Publishing,  Rugs,  Sewer 
Pipe,  Signs,  Stone,  Tin  Foil,  Upholstering  and  Veneer. 

Financial  Institutions 

As  early  as  181 5  the  Bank  of  Cape  Fear,  Wilmington,  N.  C, 
appointed  agents  in  Salem.  Two  years  before  the  founding 
of  Winston,  the  formal  business  of  banking  was  launched  in 
Salem  with  the  establishment  of  a  branqh  of  the  same  Bank. 
Israel  G.  Loesch,  or  Lash,  was  the  first  banker.  The  bank 
was  housed  in  a  brick  building  located  at  what  is  now  the 
southwest  corner  of  Bank  and  Main  streets.  This  branch 
bank  seems  to  have  prospered  until  it  went  down  in  the  gen- 
eral financial  crash  of  the  Civil  War.  In  1866,  Lash  opened  a 
bank  of  his  own,  the  First  National  Bank  of  Salem,  using 
the  same  building  which  had  sheltered  the  branch  of  the  Bank 
of  Cape  Fear.  Following  the  death  of  Israel  Lash  in  1879,  the 

A  Center  of  Industry  183 

bank  closed  its  doors  and  the  banking  center  of  the  commu- 
nity moved  into  the  new  village  of  Winston. 

The  Wachovia  Bank  &  Trust  Company  dates  back  to  the 
establishment  of  the  Wachovia  National  Bank  in  June,  1879. 
This  institution  had  as  its  president  Wyatt  F.  Bowman,  E. 
Belo  as  vice-president,  W.  A.  Lemly  (formerly  associated 
with  Israel  Lash  in  Salem)  as  cashier,  and  James  A.  Gray  as 
assistant  cashier.  Lemly  was  president  of  this  flourishing 
institution  from  1882  to  1906  and  James  A.  Gray  from  the 
latter  date  to  191 1.  The  bank  started  business  with  a  capital 
of  $100,000  and  in  about  two  months  it  was  increased  to 
$150,000.  In  1888  the  bank  was  moved  from  its  original  build- 
ing on  Main  Street  to  the  corner  of  Main  and  Third  streets, 
where  it  occupied  a  three-story  building  on  the  present 
site  of  the  Main  office  of  the  Wachovia  Bank  and  Trust 

In  1893,  the  Wachovia  Loan  and  Trust  Company  was 
organized  by  F.  H.  Fries  and  his  nephew,  H.  F.  Shaifner.  Its 
first  home  was  in  a  modest  one-story  wooden  building  on  the 
east  side  of  Main  Street  between  Second  and  Third  in  Win- 
ston. The  directors  were  James  A.  Gray,  J.  E.  Gihner,  C.  H. 
Fogle,  J.  C.  Buxton,  J.  H.  Millis,  T.  L.  Vaughn  and  R.  J. 
Reynolds.  Two  of  these  directors,  Messrs.  Gray  and  Buxton, 
were  closely  identified  with  the  Wachovia  National  Bank! 
Gray  was  elected  a  vice-president  of  the  Trust  Company  at 
the  beginning  but  was  not  active  until  later. 

Branch  offices  were  opened  by  the  bank  as  it  continued  to 
grow.  The  Asheville  office  was  established  in  1902,  and  the 
High  Point  and  Salisbury  offices  in  1903.  The  bank  ceased  to 
be  a  purely  local  enterprise,  its  business  assumed  state-wide 
proportions  and  national  reputation. 

The  year  191 1  saw  another  decisive  step  in  the  financial 
history  of  Winston-Salem.  On  January  ist,  the  Wachovia 
National  Bank  (1879)  was  consolidated  with  the  Wachovia 
Loan  and  Trust  Company  (1893)  under  the  name  of  Wacho- 

184        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

via  Bank  and  Trust  Company.  Growth  continued  with  the 
opening  of  the  Trade  Street  office  in  19 19,  and  the  Raleigh 
office  in  1922.  The  Forsyth  Savings  and  Trust  Company  was 
taken  over  at  the  request  of  the  directors  of  the  Negro  insti- 
tution in  1930  and  is  now  operated  as  the  Third  Street 
Branch.  In  1939  an  office  was  estabhshed  in  Charlotte,  which 
brings  the  total  to  eight  offices  in  six  cities. 

The  Wachovia  has  grown  with  the  community  and  the 
state.  With  total  assets  of  $280,000,000,  it  is  the  largest  bank 
between  Washington  and  Atlanta.  It  has  the  largest  combined 
capital  and  surplus  of  the  banks  in  the  Southeast. 

The  City  National  Bank  is  the  outgrowth  of  the  Morris 
Plan  Bank  which  was  established  in  191 7  by  George  W.  Coan 
and  George  W.  Coan,  Jr.  The  bank  enlarged  the  scope  of 
its  services  in  1940,  when  it  received  a  national  charter  and 
assumed  its  present  name.  Its  original  capital  in  19 17 
amounted  to  $40,000.  Today  the  total  assets  exceed 

The  Hood  System  Industrial  Bank  was  founded  in  1925 
with  a  capital  of  $225,000  by  Gurney  P.  Hood,  and  Nick 
Mitchell,  who  was  elected  the  first  president.  The  bank  has 
specialized  in  installment  personal  loans  and  has  grown  con- 
sistently until  today  its  total  assets  amount  to  $1,400,000. 

The  Federal  Home  Loan  Bank  of  Winston-Salem  was 
opened  for  business  on  October  15,  1932,  to  serve  as  a  redis- 
count bank  for  building  and  loan  associations  and  savings 
and  loan  associations.  The  district  served  by  this  bank  in- 
cludes eight  southeastern  states. 

The  First  National  Bank  arose  from  one  of  the  most  tragic 
depressions  in  banking  history.  It  was  organized  May  16, 
1934,  with  capital,  surplus,  and  undivided  profits  of  $250,000. 
Officers  were  Charles  M.  Norfleet,  president,  Guy  R. 
Dudley,  vice-president,  Gilmer  Wolfe,  cashier.  In  its  four- 
teen years  this  bank  has  grown  steadily  and  total  assets  exceed 

A  Center  of  Industry  185 

In  addition  to  its  commercial  and  industrial  banks,  Win- 
ston-Salem has  two  building  and  loan  associations  and  two 
federal  savings  and  loan  associations.  The  oldest  of  these  is 
the  Winston-Salem  Building  and  Loan  Association,  which 
was  established  in  1889  and  now  has  total  assets  of  over 
$6,000,000.  The  Piedmont  Federal  Savings  and  Loan  Associa- 
tion was  started  in  1903  under  a  State  Charter  which  was 
changed  to  a  Federal  Charter  in  1935.  This  is  the  largest  of 
the  group,  with  assets  of  over  $10,000,000.  The  Standard 
Building  and  Loan  Association  was  organized  in  1908  and 
total  assets  now  exceed  $4,000,000.  The  First  Federal  Savings 
and  Loan  Association  was  organized  originally  under  a  Fed- 
eral Charter  in  1934  and  today  has  total  assets  in  excess  of 

The  Security  Life  and  Trust  Company  had  its  beginning 
in  March,  1920.  George  A.  Grimsley  and  Collins  Taylor, 
both  of  whom  had  many  years  of  Hfe  insurance  experience, 
organized  the  company  in  Greensboro,  N.  C.  Civic-m.inded 
local  citizens,  realizing  the  value  of  such  an  institution  to  a 
community,  arranged  for  the  company  to  move  to  Winston- 
Salem  in  1923.  The  company  has  had  a  remarkable  growth 
with  assets  now  over  $20,000,000  and  insurance  in  force 
exceeding  $185,000,000. 

Retail  Trade 

From  the  earhest  days,  this  settlement  has  been  a  center 
of  trade  for  a  wide  area.  To  supply  the  needs  of  the  two 
towns  and  of  farmers  for  fifty  miles  or  more  around,  there 
were  in  1885  about  a  dozen  stores  in  Winston  that  were  de- 
scribed as  "large."  Among  these  were  the  general  merchants, 
Hodgin  and  SuUivan,  Pfohl  and  Stockton,  Hinshaw  and 
Bynum,  J.  E.  Gilmer,  Jacob  Tise,  Clark  and  Ford,  and  H.  D. 
Poindexter;  two  hardware  stores,  Brown-Rogers  &  Company 
and  S.  E.  Allen;  two  drug  stores,  one  owned  by  Dr.  V.  O. 

i86        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Thompson  and  the  other  owned  by  Sam  Smith;  one  clothing 
store,  and  a  jewelry  store  owned  by  WilHam  T.  Vogler.  In 
addition  to  the  above  large  stores,  a  souvenir  pamphlet  issued 
in  1890  carried  the  advertisements  of  these  merchants,  some 
of  whom  were  located  in  Salem:  Fries,  Giersh  and  Sense- 
man,  H.  W.  Shore,  J.  F.  Shaffner,  D.  D.  Schouler,  W.  O. 
Senseman  &  Company,  W.  P.  Ormsby,  F.  C.  Meinung,  and 
Rosenbacher  Bros. 

In  the  five  years  from  1880  to  1885  the  population  of  Win- 
ston had  more  than  doubled,  and  in  comparison  with  other 
communities  in  the  state,  Winston  was  regarded  as  an  impor- 
tant center.  The  two  towns  in  1890  had  a  combined  popula- 
tion of  10,729,  out  of  a  total  population  for  Forsyth  County 
of  28,434.  The  population  growth  of  Winston-Salem  from 
13,650  in  1900  to  79,815  in  1940  resulted  in  its  growth  in 
importance  as  a  center  of  trade  and  industry.  In  1940  Win- 
ston-Salem retail  sales  per  capita  were  $310.00.  This  was 
$40.00  above  the  national  average  and  $  1 64.00  above  the  state 
average.  The  total  retail  trade  in  Forsyth  County  amounted 
to  $32,655,000  at  this  time. 

The  general  trading  area  of  Winston-Salem  may  be  de- 
scribed as  a  circle  beginning  fifteen  miles  east  to  include 
Kernersville,  and  to  the  north  where  it  goes  into  Virginia  at 
a  distance  of  about  fifty  miles  to  include  Stuart,  Martinsville, 
and  Galax.  It  then  comes  back  into  North  Carolina  at  a  dis- 
tance of  about  fifty  miles  west  to  include  Elkin  and  North 
Wilkesboro.  Completing  the  circle,  the  distance  decreases 
because  of  the  pull  of  other  markets;  however,  the  line 
skirts  Statesville  and  Salisbury  and  takes  in  Lexington, 
Thomasville,  and  High  Point.  This  area  covers  a  population 
of  over  500,000  people. 

This  trading  area  developed  retail  sales  in  1947,  according 
to  Sales  Managements  Survey,  which  is  generally  accepted  as 
rehable,  of  $264,087,000.  Forsyth  County  alone  accounted 

A  Center  of  Industry  187 

for  $1 13,147,000,  which  was  an  increase  of  246  per  cent  over 
the  1940  census  figure  and  a  44  per  cent  increase  over  1946. 
The  same  survey  placed  Winston-Salem  as  the  second  largest 
city  in  retail  sales  in  North  Carolina  for  the  year  1947  with 
a  total  of  $101,493,000.  The  wholesale  sales  reported  by  the 
same  survey  for  1947  placed  Winston-Salem  third  in  North 
Carolina  with  $125,061,000. 

The  community  continues  to  grow  as  a  center  of  trade 
with  more  than  a  thousand  stores  from  which  to  select  one's 
purchases.  They  range  from  conveniently  located  neighbor- 
hood grocery  and  drug  stores  to  the  adequately  and  thor- 
oughly modem  concerns  that  line  the  business  streets. 
Visitors  have  given  us  credit  for  the  most  diversified  and 
well-equipped  specialty  shops  to  be  found  between  Washing- 
ton and  Atlanta.  New  stores  are  under  construction  and  many 
other  stores  are  expanding. 

Agricultural  Development 

Although  Forsyth  is  primarily  an  industrial  county,  it  does 
not  lag  far  behind  as  an  agricultural  county.  Our  citizens  rec- 
ognize that  a  secure  foundation  for  prosperity  must  include 
the  products  of  the  land.  In  1920  we  had  2,849  farms  in  the 
county  for  an  increase  during  the  previous  decade  of  7.6  per 
cent  in  number.  In  1945  there  were  3,370  farm  operations  in 
the  county.  Farm  ownership  is  gradually  increasing,  for  the 
number  of  farms  operated  by  tenants  has  increased  by  only 
98,  while  the  total  number  of  farms  has  increased  by  521 
during  the  last  twenty-five  years.  The  average  number  of 
acres  to  the  farm  is  57.4  with  an  average  of  26.3  acres  under 
cultivation.  The  county  contains  271,360  acres  of  which 
193,560  were  in  farms  in  1945. 

In  19 10  our  total  farm  property  was  valued  at  $8,203,133 
whereas  in  1940  it  had  increased  to  $16,224,085.  In  1945  our 

i88        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

farm  property  was  valued  at  $21,037,418  for  an  average  of 
$6,243  per  farm,  which  placed  us  second  highest  in  the  state. 
We  ranked  first  in  number  of  farms  having  electricity  and 

Forsyth's  crop-yielding  power  in  1944  was  as  follows: 
value  of  crops  harvested,  $5,869,585;  value  of  crops  sold, 
$3,217,561;  value  of  livestock  and  livestock  products  sold, 

Forsyth  ranked  35th  in  the  state  in  1945  in  the  value  of  the 
eleven  principal  crops  produced  with  a  total  of  $6,869,490. 
Of  this  total  the  tobacco  crop  brought  $4,701,700,  the  next 
highest  was  hay  which  brought  $910,420,  followed  by  corn 
which  brought  $647,700.  This  is  big  business  and  its  future 
development  is  of  interest  to  the  entire  county. 

The  following  comparison  will  be  of  value  since  it  is  based 
on  units  of  comparison  which  do  not  fluctuate.  No  allow- 
ance need  be  made  for  the  value  of  the  currency  in  i860,  the 
top  prices  of  1920,  or  parity  prices  of  1944. 

Forsyth  County 

Crops  and  Livestock  i860  1920  1944 

Corn,  bushels  317^890  388,854  483,100 

Hay,  tons  5,489  1 9^595  20,600 

Wheat,  bushels  187,836  i99A^^  172,330 

Oats,  bushels  60,934  3^^372  143,600 

Sweet  potatoes,  bushels  21,001  4^.53 '^  71400 

Irish  potatoes,  bushels  11,869  25,143  31,960 

Tobacco,   pounds  55^ A^^  4,049,428  7,151,600 

Butter,  pounds  sold  74i68i  520,242  164,378 

Horses  2,275  2,533  ^^78 

Mules  318  2,065  2,097 

Cattle  6,180  8,013  8,861 

Sheep  6,386  418  89 

Swine  18,942  9^127  7,648 

A  Center  of  Industry  189 

A  safely  balanced  farm  system  means,  first  of  all,  food 
crops  enough  to  feed  the  farmer,  the  farmer's  family,  and  the 
farm  animals,  at  least  as  far  as  staple  farm  supplies  are  con- 
cerned; second,  it  means  farm  animals  to  furnish  horsepower 
where  machines  are  not  used,  and  all  the  meat,  milk,  butter, 
and  eggs  needed  for  home  consumption;  third,  it  means,  in 
Forsyth,  tobacco  as  the  surest  ready  cash  crop.  It  would  be 
folly  for  a  farmer  in  our  tobacco  areas  not  to  raise  tobacco 
unless  he  can  substitute  for  it  another  cash  crop  of  equal  or 
greater  value;  and  it  would  be  equally  foolish  for  him  to 
raise  tobacco  unless  his  barns  and  bins,  cribs  and  smoke- 
houses are  filled  with  home-raised  food  and  feed.  Farmers 
should  be  self-financing  as  well  as  self-feeding,  and  Forsyth 
County  can  provide  this  balance. 

General  Facts  on  County  Development 

History  relates  the  series  of  inventions  in  the  latter  half  of 
the  eighteenth  century  in  England  which  revolutionized  the 
industries  of  that  country.  The  most  important  of  these  were 
the  spinning  jenny,  the  water  frame,  the  power  loom,  and 
the  steam  engine.  Of  no  little  importance  in  hastening  the 
change  that  took  place  were  various  improved  processes  for 
the  production  of  iron  and  steel  which  were  introduced  dur- 
ing this  period.  The  inventions  of  the  locomotive  and  the 
steamboat  were  equally  significant.  Stephenson  constructed  a 
practical  locomotive  in  18 14,  and  Rve  years  later  the  first 
steamboat  crossed  the  Atlantic  and  ushered  in  the  era  of  fast 
ocean  transportation. 

Changes  were  soon  noticed  in  the  rest  of  Europe  and  in 
the  United  States.  In  the  early  days  of  the  American  colonies 
manufactures  were  almost  unknown,  and  such  manufactured 
goods  as  were  needed  had  to  be  imported.  Manufacturing 
began  to  develop  in  New  England  before  the  Revolutionary 
War,  and  after  the  United  States  became  independent  there 

190       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

was  rapid  expansion.  Great  cities  grew  up  along  the  harbors, 
such  as  New  York  and  Philadelphia.  The  period  from  1830 
to  almost  the  end  of  the  century  was  one  of  railway  building 
and  general  industrial  expansion,  which  rapidly  transformed 
the  United  States  into  a  great  manufacturing  and  commercial 
nation.  Meanwhile,  agriculture  became  much  more  produc- 
tive, because  of  improved  methods.  Thus  was  the  modern 
system  of  industry  born  in  America. 

The  same  development  transformed  this  community  from 
a  frontier  agricultural  settlement  to  a  great  industrial  county, 
just  as  it  did  other  communities  which  had  many  more  advan- 
tages. The  rapidity  with  which  the  development  took  place 
in  our  history  is  even  more  remarkable  when  we  realize  that 
our  early  settlement  was  two  hundred  miles  from  the  nearest 
harbor  and  roads  were  only  trails.  During  the  period  from 
1830  up  until  1873,  when  the  first  direct  railroad  connection 
was  made,  our  pioneers  established  a  cotton  manufacturing 
company,  a  wool  mill,  a  wagon  works,  a  power-driven  wood- 
working plant,  and  a  tobacco  factory.  Electricity  was  used  to 
light  a  cotton  mill  by  1881.  Tobacco  had  been  "rolled"  down 
the  trail  to  distant  markets  in  the  earlier  days  but  by  1885  the 
first  tobacco  was  being  shipped  from  this  section  directly  to 

Necessity  called  for  invention  and,  coupled  with  an  ambi- 
tion for  progress,  drove  the  pioneers  to  give  us  an  early  devel- 
opment which  has  gained  momentum  with  succeeding 
generations.  The  isolation  of  the  settlement  one  hundred 
years  ago  did  not  prevent  these  men  from  utilizing  the  avail- 
able products  of  the  soil.  The  climate  was  advantageous  to 
the  cultivation  of  tobacco  and  cotton  and  invigorating  to  the 
health.  The  vast  forests  yielded  lumber  as  well  as  food.  Indus- 
try developed  from  within,  and  the  community  prospered. 
The  scarce  means  of  production  were  directed  toward  the 
satisfaction  of  human  wants. 

The  story  of  our  industry  is  the  story  of  industrious  men. 

A  Center  of  Industry  191 

Some  of  the  results  of  their  genius  are  the  visible,  tangible 
assets  which  have  already  been  described  as  our  largest  or 
oldest  establishments.  Yet  an  appraisal  of  Winston-Salem 
business  today  must  take  into  account  the  numerous  indus- 
tries and  business  concerns  v^hich  may  not  rank  with  the 
oldest  or  the  largest,  but  which  do  play  their  important  part 
in  the  economic  life  of  the  community.  The  translation  of 
the  complete  story  is  revealed  by  certain  facts  which  measure 
business  and  industrial  life. 

The  increase  in  population  since  1890  is  shown  by  the 
United  States  census,  as  follows: 



Forsyth  County 



















Forsyth  is  one  of  the  smallest  counties  in  the  state,  there 
being  only  thirty  counties  having  less  area,  yet  it  is  one  of 
the  most  populous.  The  density  of  population  is  298.3  per 
square  mile,  nearly  four  times  the  state  average.  Of  the  county 
total,  63  per  cent  reside  in  Winston-Salem,  and  of  the  remain- 
ing rural  population  22.8  per  cent  are  classified  as  non-farm. 
Many  of  the  people  classified  as  rural  dwellers  make  their 
living  by  working  in  the  factories.  There  are  many  factories 
and  business  concerns  in  Forsyth  County  which  are  not  in- 
cluded in  any  incorporated  town,  and  most  of  their  em- 
ployees are  classified  as  rural  dwellers.  Also  there  are  a  great 
number  of  people  living  outside  of  incorporated  towns  who 
are  employed  in  the  towns. 

The  large  number  of  Negro  laborers  found  in  Forsyth 
County  is  due  to  the  nature  of  the  industries.  The  tobacco 

192        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

industry  offers  to  the  unskilled  Negro  the  most  attractive  of 
jobs;  consequently  Forsyth  County  has  a  great  number  of  un- 
skilled Negro  laborers.  It  is  estimated  that  32.5  per  cent  of 
our  population  are  Negroes,  while  in  1920  we  had  34.2  per 
cent,  and  in  1930,  33.3  per  cent.  Of  the  total  population  of 
Winston-Salem,  36,018  were  Negro  in  the  1940  census. 

Almost  86  per  cent  of  our  population  is  engaged  in  indus- 
try, business,  and  the  professions.  From  a  survey  conducted 
by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  in  1947,  we  learn  that  over 
half  of  this  group  is  engaged  in  the  manufacturing  industry. 
The  results  of  this  survey  show  the  percentages  according  to 
type  of  work. 

58  per  cent  engaged  in  manufacturing 
23  per  cent  engaged  in  retailing  and  wholesaling 
14  per  cent  engaged  in  various  trades  and  services 
5  per  cent  in  government  and  the  professions 

The  manufactured  products  of  97  establishments  in  For- 
syth in  1937  had  a  value  of  $349,196,894,  of  which  amount 
$84,844,398  was  added  by  the  manufacturing  process.  Our 
latest  survey  indicates  that  this  value  will  reach  one  billion 
dollars  for  the  year  1947.  Winston-Salem  ranks  first  south  of 
Richmond  and  east  of  the  Mississippi  in  value  of  manufac- 
tured products,  and  produces  seven  times  that  of  any  other 
city  in  the  Carolinas. 

An  excellent  indication  of  business  activity  is  shown  by  the 
annual  total  of  bank  clearings  in  the  city.  The  total  for  1946 
increased  35  per  cent  over  the  previous  year  and  doubled  that 
of  1940.  In  1947  total  bank  clearings  were  $1,412,985,000 
for  an  increase  of  18  per  cent  over  1946,  while  the  gain  for 
the  Fifth  Federal  Reserve  District  was  1 1  per  cent.  Total 
bank  assets  September  30,  1948,  were  over  $318,000,000  with 
deposits  of  over  $294,000,000. 

Winston-Salem  is  the  market  place  for  eighteen  tobacco- 
growing  counties  and  their  98,771  acres  of  tobacco  allotted 

A  Center  of  Industry  193 

for  the  1 947 -1 948  season.  Buyers  come  to  our  fourteen 
tobacco  warehouses  to  buy  leaf  for  manufacture  into  finished 
products  not  only  in  the  United  States  but  in  many  foreign 
countries.  The  volume  of  sales  in  the  local  market  in  ten  year 
intervals  over  the  past  forty-seven  years  follows: 

Season  Pounds 

1900-1901  21,380,012 

1910-1911  22,912,890 

1920-192 1  60,580,994 

1930-1931  65,152,950 

1940-1941  47,369,170 

1947-1948  61,743,308 

The  value  and  the  volume  of  the  crop  has  varied  over  this 
period  and  any  comparison  should  take  into  consideration 
the  effect  of  Federal  legislation,  first  instituted  in  1933.  This 
has  resulted  in  varying  degrees  of  government  price  support 
and  also  an  allotment  system  which  limits  the  acreage  planted 
in  tobacco.  However,  the  local  market  sales  for  the  1947- 
1948  season  brought  the  growers  $23,595,280,  much  of  which 
was  spent  in  the  city. 

In  1 90 1  the  assessed  value  of  all  taxable  property  in  Forsyth 
amounted  to  $8,402,308.  The  entire  state  at  that  time  had  less 
than  $300,000,000  on  the  tax  books.  Today  Forsyth  valuation 
exceeds  by  20  per  cent  the  valuation  for  the  entire  state  in 
1 90 1. 

Forsyth  exhibits  a  marvelous  increase  in  taxable  wealth 
during  the  last  fifty  years.  While  these  amounts  are  available 
for  each  year  of  our  history,  it  is  sufficient  to  show  the  last 
few  years  in  order  to  give  an  impression  of  our  recent 
growth.  The  last  revaluation  of  real  property  was  made  in 
1941,  but  the  basis  for  taxation  was  increased  in  1947  from 
70  per  cent  to  80  per  cent  of  fair  cash  value.  These  assessed 
values  are  shown  as  follows: 

194        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 


Forsyth  County  $  47,808,069 

Winston-Salem  99,849,774 

Total  $147,657,843 


Forsyth  County  $  61,200,147 

Winston-Salem  99,514,603 

Total  $160,714,750 

Forsyth  County  $  83,250,905 

Winston-Salem  100,571,945 

Total  $183,822,850 


Forsyth  County  $208,558,414 

Winston-Salem  153,097,345 

Total  $361,655,759 

Our  rank  in  the  state  on  the  basis  of  assessed  valuation  can 
be  shown  for  the  year  1945. 

I  St 

Forsyth  County 



Guilford  County 



Mecklenburg  County 



Durham  County 



Wake  County 


This  amazing  increase  in  taxable  wealth  signifies  a  pros- 
perous and  thrifty  community  which  has  reached  these  values 
not  over  night  but  over  a  period  of  many  years  of  toil  and 
energy.  Such  figures  show  that  the  county  has  resources 
which  surpassed  even  the  fondest  dreams  of  the  early  found- 

A  Center  of  Industry  195 

ers,  and  they  also  give  good  reason  to  believe  that  these 
resources  are  far  from  exhausted. 

Equally  impressive  would  be  the  amounts  of  income  tax 
paid  to  the  state  and  federal  government  by  the  residents  of 
the  county,  if  they  v^ere  readily  available.  We  have  been 
referred  to  as  "North  Carolina's  largest  tax  paying  unit." 
Sales  tax  payments  to  the  state  in  1944  reached  $910,317  and 
state  income  tax  payments  the  same  year  amounted  to 

Because  of  the  heavy  imports  incident  to  the  tobacco 
industry  a  Port  of  Entry  was  established  here  through  Act 
of  Congress  on  June  16,  19 16.  The  duty  paid  on  goods  im- 
ported into  Winston-Salem  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1948 
amounted  to  $4,988,269.34.  This  placed  us  in  the  rank  of 
sixteenth  city  in  the  United  States  as  a  source  of  customs 

From  the  foregoing  description  of  our  economic  back- 
ground, it  is  conclusive  that  the  foundation  of  Forsyth 
County  rests  on  its  industry.  The  growth  has  been  from 
within,  with  local  men  and  local  capital  furnishing  the  lead- 
ing role.  There  has  been  no  abnormality  in  this  development; 
it  has  been  steady,  healthy,  and  consistent,  and  this  is  due  in 
a  large  measure  to  the  type  of  products  manufactured.  To- 
bacco from  the  fields  can  be  delivered  to  the  factories  which 
finish  the  process  required  to  prepare  it  for  use  by  the  ulti- 
mate consumer.  Cotton  from  the  farms  can  be  sold  to  the 
plant  which  completes  the  process  of  manufacturing  the 
garment  which  the  consumer  wears.  The  rough  lumber  can 
be  delivered  to  the  mill  which  ships  furniture  prepared  for 
use  in  the  home.  Other  local  industries  may  depend  on  sup- 
plementary processing,  but  the  vast  majority  of  their 
products  are  definitely  consumer  goods.  Such  industry  is  not 
readily  affected  by  economic  extremes. 

There  is  a  tempo  in  our  business  life  not  found  in  every 
community.  We  are  proud  of  having  what  is  sometimes  called 

196        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

a  working  man's  town.  The  energetic  way  in  which  our 
affairs  are  conducted  speaks  well  for  the  future  growth  of 
the  entire  county.  The  unity  of  purpose  found  in  our  citi- 
zenry had  its  beginning  in  the  men  who  established  the  com- 
munity and  gives  true  meaning  to  the  motto,  "A  City 
Founded  upon  Co-operation." 






Two  small  towns  suddenly  found  themselves  a 
young  city  when  in  191 3  Winston  and  Salem  were 
officially  linked  by  the  consolidation  and  magically 
made  one  by  the  connecting  hyphen.  Winston-Salem 
has  grown  from  a  small  town  of  22,600  in  191 3  to  a  city  with 
a  population  approaching  100,000  in  1948.  Its  achievements 
in  industry,  in  cultural  and  educational  advancement,  and  in 
wholesome  community  life  have  made  it  one  of  the  foremost 
cities  of  the  South.  The  thirty-five  years  from  the  consolida- 
tion until  now  have  seen  Wlnston-Salem  and  the  nation 
pass  through  two  wars  and  a  major  depression  and  through 
periods  of  prosperity  and  rapid  growth. 

The  consoHdation  had  little  effect  upon  the  life  of  the  city, 
for  Winston  and  Salem  had  long  been  united  in  spirit  and  in 
purpose.  Business  in  the  First  World  War  years  felt  the  dis- 
turbed conditions  of  the  time,  but  the  community's  co-opera- 
tive spirit  helped  it  meet  abnormal  circumstances.  In  19 17  a 
municipal  wood  yard  was  organized  to  help  with  fuel  dif- 
ficulties, and  in  191 8  a  milk  pool  was  started  to  alleviate  a 
milk  shortage.  In  the  fall  of  19 18,  two  severe  influenza 
epidemics  occurred;  this  year  was  also  marred  by  a  riot  and 
an  attempted  lynching  on  November  17,  in  which  Rvc  men 
were  killed.  Race  and  labor  conditions  were  unsettled  until 
about  1923,  when  the  city  went  into  a  great  building  era, 
later  stopped  by  the  depression  of  1929  and  1930. 

In  1932  the  city  held  a  pageant  in  celebration  of  the  two 
hundredth  anniversary  of  George  Washington's  birth,  the 
pageant  stressing  President  Washington's  visit  to  Salem  in 
1 79 1.  In  the  same  year  began  a  back-to-the-farm  movement, 
designed  as  a  relief  measure,  in  which  235  families  were  placed 
on  farms.  In  1933,  2,500  families  were  on  relief  and  a  com- 
munity club  was  organized  to  conserve  food. 

By  1939  and  1940  Winston-Salem  rapidly  shook  off  the 
depression  and  was  building  again.  Business  adapted  itself  to 
defense  work  and  later  to  war  production.  Several  military 


200       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

and  governmental  agencies  and  war  industries  were  added  to 
the  city,  and  Winston-Salem  again  sent  its  men— and  its 
women— to  war. 

The  total  registration  of  men  for  the  armed  services  from 
Winston-Salem  and  Forsyth  County  in  the  First  W^orld  W^ar 
was  15,695.  Of  this  number,  2,117  were  accepted  for  service, 
and  68  were  killed  in  service.  In  the  Second  World  War, 
Selective  Service  registered  45,614  men  in  Forsyth  County. 
The  1948  estimated  veteran  population  of  the  county  is 

Winston-Salem  in  the  1920's  underw^ent  a  period  of  rapid 
growth— in  these  years  the  city  hospital  was  expanded,  the 
water  system  made  more  nearly  adequate,  the  city's  school 
plant  greatly  enlarged,  new  suburbs  started,  city  limits  pushed 
back.  The  city  officials  and  the  community's  leaders  felt  they 
had  built  for  many,  many  years  to  come. 

But  now  again,  a  depression  and  a  war  later,  the  city  is 
feehng  growing  pains  as  it  expands  beyond  the  carefully- 
planned  facilities  of  the  20's.  City  hospital  extension,  a  more 
adequate  water  system,  school  supplements  and  school  build- 
ings, city  limits  expansion,  city  planning,  and  traffic  are  again 
topics  of  conversation  as  the  city  increases  its  plant  and  its 
facilities  to  meet  the  demands  of  its  growing  population. 

The  development  of  Winston-Salem  from  a  small  town  to 
a  large  city  in  thirty-five  well-filled  years  can  best  be  under- 
stood through  a  closer  examination  of  these  factors  which 
have  contributed  to  and  become  a  part  of  the  city's  expan- 
sion—its schools,  churches,  city  government,  transportation 
facilities,  social  agencies  and  civic  organizations,  and  its  busi- 
ness and  residential  areas. 

Physical  Expansion 

Winston-Salem's  population  growth  from  191 3  to  1920 
was  phenomenal.  The  slogan  of  civic  leaders  was  "50-15," 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  201 

or  50,000  by  191 5.  The  1920  Census  listed  Winston-Salem's 
population  as  48,375,  or  a  growth  of  1 13  per  cent  since  1910, 
and  Winston-Salem  reigned  until  the  1930  Census  as  the  larg- 
est city  in  the  state.  With  this  population  expansion,  a  move- 
ment to  the  suburbs  began. 

Following  the  major  trend  of  suburban  developments  in 
the  United  States,  Winston-Salem  built  westward,  and  most 
of  its  suburbs  are  on  elevations  overlooking  the  city.  Sporadic 
individual  home-building  began  early  in  Southside,  but  the 
general  movement  to  suburbs  began  in  19 14. 

Ardmore,  the  namesake  of  a  well-known  Philadelphia 
suburb,  was  started  in  19 14  to  provide  for  citizens  overflow- 
ing the  city  limits.  For  twenty-two  years,  Ardmore  made  a 
record  of  erecting  a  new  home  a  week.  Today  the  section  is 
a  large,  well-developed  part  of  the  city.  It  has  its  own  elemen- 
tary school  and  its  own  fire  station,  as  well  as  its  own 
churches.  The  Ardmore  Methodist  Church  was  built  in  1924, 
followed  by  the  Ardmore  Baptist,  Moravian,  and  Congrega- 
tional Christian  churches. 

Other  developments  were  also  beginning  to  the  west  of  the 
city.  Reynolda  Village  grew  up  around  the  Reynolda  estate, 
started  in  19 15.  The  Granville  section  was  started  in  191 5,  a 
Crafton  Heights  section  and  a  Melrose  section  were  started 
adjoining  Ardmore.  In  1919  West  Highlands  was  begun, 
followed  by  Buena  Vista  and  later  Westover,  Westview, 
Reynolda  Park,  and  finally  the  Country  Club  Estates  in  1927.' 
Building  restrictions  in  these  later  areas  confined  them  to 
larger  houses,  and  today  they  contain  many  beautiful  homes. 

The  city  built  some  to  the  north.  In  1920  Montview  was 
started,  and  was  followed  by  Forest  Hills  and  Whiteview. 
Bon  Air,  clinging  to  the  side  of  a  hill  north  of  town,  was 
begun  in  1923.  Anderleigh  in  1928  and  Konnoak  Hills  in 
1929  were  developed  south  of  town.  Alta  Vista,  a  restricted 
suburb  exclusively  for  Negroes,  was  begun  in  1929;  it  was 
the  first  restricted  Negro  suburb  in  the  South. 

202       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Meanwhile,  the  city  was  not  unmindful  of  these  new  sec- 
tions rapidly  filling  up  with  potential  citizens  outside  of  the 
corporate  limits,  and  Winston-Salem  began  gulping  the  new 
suburbs  into  its  limits  in  huge  bites.  About  1919,  the  city 
limits  were  extended  to  include  a  part  of  Ardmore  and  Graf- 
ton Heights;  in  1923,  large  sections  of  Ardmore  and  Grafton 
Heights,  West  Highlands,  Waughtown,  South  Salem,  and 
the  Kimberly  Park  and  14th  Street  School  areas  were  an- 
nexed. In  1925  some  scattered  outlying  sections  w^ere  added, 
in  1926  Buena  Vista  and  some  more  of  Ardmore,  and  in  1927 
another  Ardmore  section  and  Yountztown. 

Following  the  development  of  the  suburbs  in  the  1920's 
came  the  apartment  house  growth.  The  William  and  Mary 
Apartments,  built  in  1922,  were  the  first  of  the  modern  apart- 
ment houses;  the  Graycourt  Apartments,  built  in  1929,  were 
the  first  of  the  large  houses.  These  were  followed  by  a  num- 
ber of  apartment  houses  throughout  town,  including  the  large 
Twin  Gastles  Apartments  in  1938. 

Major  suburban  developments  ceased  after  about  1929 
until  the  last  two  years  or  so  following  the  Second  W^orld 
War,  and  the  majority  of  these  post-war  developments  have 
been  in  the  form  of  huge  housing  projects  to  help  correct  a 
current  housing  shortage.  Among  these  developments  are  the 
Gloverdale  Apartments,  Gollege  Village,  Weston  Homes, 
Brookwood,  and  the  Konnoak  Hills  expansion. 

The  citizens  of  Winston-Salem,  on  September  21,  1948, 
again  voted  to  expand  their  city  limits,  the  first  extension 
since  1927.  The  new  extension  takes  in,  as  of  January  i,  1949, 
sections  around  the  fairground  and  sections  in  Konnoak  Hills, 
Ardmore,  and  Buena  Vista. 

Winston-Salem  built  upward  as  well  as  outward,  and  by 
1929  had  completed  its  skyline.  The  Winston  business  district 
had  become,  before  the  consolidation,  the  commercial  and 
financial  section  of  the  city.  The  Salem  business  section  re- 
mained a  quiet  row  of  a  few  little  businesses  and  shops. 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  203 

In  191 3,  the  tallest  building  in  Winston-Salem  was  the 
Wachovia  Bank  Building  at  the  corner  of  Third  and  Main 
streets,  seven  stories  high,  erected  in  191 1.  In  191 5  the  O'Han- 
lon  Building  was  built,  the  first  of  Winston-Salem's  sky- 
scrapers. It  remained  the  tallest  building  until  19 18,  when  the 
Wachovia  Bank  Building  added  another  story  and  caught  up 
with  it. 

The  next  tall  building  was  the  Hotel  Robert  E.  Lee,  twelve 
stories,  completed  in  192 1.  In  1926,  W.  M.  Nissen  purchased 
the  old  Y.  M.  C.  A.  lot  at  Cherry  and  Fourth  streets,  and 
completed  the  Nissen  Building,  eighteen  stories,  in  1927.  In 
1928,  the  Reynolds  Office  Building  was  begun  on  the  comer 
of  Fourth  and  Main  streets  on  the  lot  formerly  occupied  by 
the  first  city  hall  of  Winston;  this  high-towered  city  hall,  built 
in  1893  at  a  cost  of  $65,000,  housed  the  city  offices,  the  market, 
the  armory,  and  the  jail.  The  Reynolds  Office  Building's 
twenty-two  stories  were  completed  in  1929,  and  it  still  remains 
the  tallest  building  in  North  Carolina.  Also  finished  in  1929 
was  the  Carolina  Apartments  building,  later  the  Carolina 

Meanwhile,  up  and  down  West  Fourth  Street,  on  Fifth,  on 
Cherry,  the  homes  of  the  fathers  were  making  way  for  the 
sons'  and  grandsons'  businesses  as  the  city  expanded  its  com- 
mercial district.  The  Emory  Gray  residence  site  is  now  the 
Carolina  Hotel  and  Theater;  the  Union  Bus  Terminal  replaced 
the  Hinshaw  and  Masten  homes  on  Cherry.  On  the  Major  T.  J. 
Brown  home  site,  the  Hotel  Robert  E.  Lee  was  built,  and  the 
Whitaker  home  on  Fifth  was  replaced  by  a  service  station,  as 
was  the  John  W.  Hanes  home  at  Fifth  and  Cherry.  The  P.  H. 
Hanes  home  on  Cherry  was  recently  torn  down  and  the  site 
is  now  a  parking  lot. 

The  present  city  hall  replaced  the  Starbuck  home  on  Main 
Street,  and  the  lot  where  the  R.  J.  Reynolds  home  stood  on 
Fifth  Street  is  now  a  playground  beside  Centenary  Methodist 
Church.  The  First  Presbyterian  Church  on  Cherry  added  to 

204       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

its  property  the  site  of  the  old  Winston-Salem  High  School, 
and  the  Chatham  Building  on  the  northwest  corner  of  Cherry 
and  Fourth  replaced  the  second  St.  Paul's  Episcopal  Church 
building.  Walgreen's  Drug  Store  was  built  on  the  iMasonic 
Temple  site. 

Government  buildings  were  keeping  pace  with  private 
developments.  The  present  City  Hall  was  erected  in  1926  on 
Main  Street  just  north  of  the  original  dividing  line  between 
Winston  and  Salem.  The  second  Post  Office  Building  was  built 
in  19 14,  replacing,  in  its  site  on  the  corner  of  Fifth  and 
Liberty,  the  first  Public  Government  Building,  erected  in 
1906.  The  19 14  Post  Office  Building  was  enlarged  and  com- 
pletely remodeled  as  it  now  stands  in  1937.  The  third  Forsyth 
County  Courthouse  was  completed  in  1926  on  the  original 
Courthouse  Square  where  the  other  two  courthouses  had  also 
stood.  The  first  courthouse  had  been  built  in  1850  and  had 
been  replaced  in  1 897  by  the  second  building. 

From  the  early  days  of  the  consolidation,  the  need  for  an 
orderly,  functional  plan  for  the  physical  expansion  of  the  city 
of  Winston-Salem  was  discussed  in  Chamber  of  Commerce 
meetings  and  by  civic  leaders.  In  the  1920's,  the  first  city  plan 
was  promoted  and  was  instrumental  in  the  establishment  of  the 
first  through  streets  and  in  the  adoption  of  a  zoning  ordinance 
in  1930. 

However,  although  a  good  deal  of  money  was  spent  in  set- 
ting up  this  first  plan,  it  was  never  carried  through.  Constant 
work  in  the  1940's  resulted  in  the  establishment  in  1946  of  a 
temporary  Cit\^-County  Planning  Commission;  the  city  and 
county  governments  voted  to  undertake  a  joint  planning 
program.  A  city  planner  was  employed  and  he  with  his  staff 
began  work  on  a  master  plan  for  the  city  and  county's  future 
growth  and  development. 

In  March,  1948,  a  permanent  City-County  Planning  Board, 
made  up  of  the  Mayor,  the  Chairman  of  the  County  Board  of 
Commissioners,  and  seven  citizens,  was  named  to  work  with 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  205 

the  city-county  planning  staff.  The  plans  of  the  Board  will  be 
submitted  to  the  Board  of  Aldermen  for  approval  as  work  is 

City  Government 

Winston-Salem  city  government  was  set  up  at  the  time  of 
the  consolidation  in  1 9 1 3  as  the  mayor-alderman  form  of  gov- 
ernment, with  a  mayor  and  eight  aldermen.  The  general  make- 
up of  the  city  government  was  changed  little  until  November 
4,  1947,  when  the  citizens  of  the  city  voted  to  adopt  the 
council-manager  or  city  manager  form  of  government.  Win- 
ston-Salem's first  mayor  was  O.  B.  Eaton;  its  first  city  manager 
is  C.  E.  Perkins. 

A  comparison  of  the  first  journal  entry  in  the  books  of  the 
new  city  of  Winston-Salem  with  the  city's  present  capital 
assets  gives  a  clear  idea  of  the  physical  expansion  since  191 3— 
in  191 3,  the  total  capital  assets  were  $1,314,392;  in  1948,  the 
assets  were  $28,527,008. 

The  separate  water  systems  of  the  two  towns  remained 
adequate  for  several  years  after  the  consolidation.  In  19 17, 
however,  the  aldermen  felt  the  city  needed  a  larger  water 
supply  and  purchased  a  i,ooo-acre  tract  of  land  near  the  old 
Salem  water  station  for  an  impounding  reservoir.  A  new  dam 
and  lake  were  built  and  electric  pumps  and  filters  installed; 
the  present  filter  plant  was  built  in  1925  and  the  pumping  sta- 
tion enlarged  then.  In  193 1,  the  dam  was  raised  Rve  and  one- 
half  feet  and  strengthened,  and  it  was  estimated  that  the  city's 
water  system  was  adequate  until  about  1955.  However,  a 
greatly  increased  population  and  a  greatly  decreased  amount 
of  rain  in  the  summer  of  1947  practically  caused  a  water  short- 
age in  Winston-Salem,  and  the  citizens  in  November,  1947, 
voted  a  four-million-dollar  bond  issue  to  expand  and  improve 
the  water  system.  Plans  are  being  laid  for  this  new  expansion. 

A  sewage  disposal  plant  was  started  in  191 5;  the  present 
plant  was  built  in  1926.  Winston-Salem  today  has  280  miles 

2o6       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

of  sewerage  lines  covering  95  per  cent  of  the  city.  The  city 
market  was  built  in  1925,  the  incinerator  plant  in  1930,  and 
the  city  abattoir  in  1935.  The  city  today  operates  a  large  fire 
department  with  six  stations  located  strategically  throughout 
the  city.  The  municipal  police  department  has  four  divisions, 
Patrol,  Traffic,  Detective,  and  Records  and  Identification. 

In  the  fall  of  1945,  the  Committee  of  100,  a  body  of  some 
100  representative  citizens,  was  organized  at  a  joint  meeting 
of  the  town's  civic  clubs.  The  Committee  studies  problems  of 
local  municipal  government  and  makes  recommendations  to 
the  public  and  to  the  Board  of  Aldermen.  It  attempts  to  bridge 
the  gap  between  the  pubhc  and  the  City  Hall. 


At  the  time  of  the  consolidation,  Winston-Salem  had  seven 
schools  valued  with  their  lots  and  furnishings  at  $316,000. 
After  the  two  school  systems  were  merged,  the  pubhc  school 
system  developed  in  a  network  throughout  the  city.  In  1948 
Winston-Salem  operated  twenty  public  schools  valued  at 
$5,313,640.  In  191 3  the  annual  school  budget  was  $65,000, 
with  150  officers  and  teachers  and  5,000  pupils;  in  1948,  the 
annual  school  budget  was  $725,000  with  465  teachers  and  a 
total  enrollment  of  15,457  pupils. 

Most  of  Winston-Salem's  school  building  was  done  in  the 
1920's,  when  6^  per  cent  of  the  school  system's  buildings  were 
built.  The  oldest  part  of  a  school  building  in  use  today  was 
built  in  19 10;  the  newest  addition  was  built  in  1939.  When 
the  Winston-Salem  High  School  on  Cherry  Street,  built  in 
1909,  burned  in  1923,  it  was  replaced  by  the  Richard  J.  Rey- 
nolds High  School,  built  in  the  west  section  of  town  overlook- 
ing Hanes  Park.  Mrs.  R.  J.  Reynolds,  in  memory  of  her 
husband,  built  a  handsome  auditorium  adjoining  the  high 
school  and  presented  it  to  the  city  as  the  Reynolds  Memorial 
Auditorium;  it  was  finished  in  1924.  In  1930  the  North  and 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  207 

South  Junior  High  Schools  were  built;  these  later  became  the 
John  W.  Hanes  High  School  and  the  James  A.  Gray  High 
School  when  the  junior  high  school  system  was  dropped. 
Atkins  High  School  for  Negroes  was  built  in  193 1. 

Since  the  opening  of  the  first  public  school  in  1884,  Win- 
ston-Salem citizens  have  been  generous  supporters  of  their 
public  schools.  Several  bond  issues  were  voted  for  public 
schools  before  1933-34,  when  the  State  of  North  Carolina 
took  over  the  entire  support  of  the  public  schools.  After  two 
years  under  state  support,  the  people  of  Winston-Salem  saw 
that  they  could  not  maintain  their  schools  at  a  high  level  on 
the  basis  of  the  state  minimum  program.  Citizens  again  voted 
to  tax  themselves  with  school  supplement  taxes  to  provide  for 
good  schools.  The  most  recent  school  supplement  was  voted 
in  May,  1948. 

In  the  private  school  field,  Salem  Academy  had  been  con- 
tinued, offering  grades  nine  through  twelve  for  girls.  The 
Academy  was  given  a  new  plant  in  1929  when  the  Patterson- 
Bahnson-Shaifner  famihes  gave  three  new  buildings  for  the 
school.  Summit  School,  a  private  school  offering  two  years 
kindergarten  and  grades  one  through  eight,  was  started  in  1933 
on  Summit  Street;  in  September,  1946,  it  moved  into  a  new 
and  completely  modern  building  and  playground  on  Reynolda 

Meanwhile,  higher  education  was  keeping  pace.  A  $640,000 
endowment  was  completed  for  Salem  College  in  1920.  The 
college  had  then  twelve  buildings;  today  it  has  twenty,  and 
plans  are  under  way  for  further  expansion.  The  college  at 
present  has  some  600  students. 

Slater  State  Normal  School  for  Negroes  had  its  name 
changed  in  1925  to  the  Winston-Salem  Teachers  College  and 
two  more  years  of  college  work  added,  making  it  a  four-year 
accredited  institution.  The  school  at  present  has  a  62 -acre 
campus,  472  students,  and  eleven  buildings. 

In  1 94 1,  the  medical  school  of  Wake  Forest  College  was 

2o8       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

separated  from  the  other  college  departments  and  moved  to 
Winston-Salem;  the  move  was  made  as  a  result  of  gifts  from 
the  Bowman  Gray  family  and  in  order  to  co-ordinate  the 
school's  work  more  closely  with  the  North  Carolina  Baptist 
Hospital  in  Winston-Salem.  A  new  plant  was  built  for  the 
school  adjoining  the  Baptist  Hospital,  and  the  Bowman  Gray 
School  of  Medicine  of  Wake  Forest  College  opened  in  Sep- 
tember of  1 94 1.  It  is  rated  as  one  of  the  finest  medical  schools 
in  the  South;  students  in  the  fall  of  1948  numbered  184. 

In  the  spring  of  1946,  the  trustees  of  the  Z.  Smith  Reynolds 
Foundation  offered  a  $10,750,000  endowment  to  Wake  Forest 
College,  a  Baptist  co-educational  institution  founded  in  1834. 
The  offer  was  made  on  condition  that  the  institution  be  moved 
within  about  five  years  from  its  site  seventeen  miles  northeast 
of  Raleigh  to  a  new  college  campus  in  Winston-Salem. 

On  July  30,  1946,  the  North  Carolina  Baptist  State  Conven- 
tion met  in  Greenboro  in  special  session  for  the  first  time 
since  its  founding  and  voted  to  accept  the  Foundation  offer 
and  move  the  college  to  Winston-Salem.  The  offer  was  ac- 
cepted with  the  provision  that  the  college  name  would  not  be 
changed  and  that  control  of  the  college  would  remain  with  a 
Board  of  Trustees  appointed  by  the  Baptist  State  Convention. 

A  300-acre  tract  of  land,  part  of  the  Reynolds  family  estate 
just  west  of  Wlnston-Salem,  was  given  to  the  college  for  a  site, 
and  the  Baptists  of  the  state  went  to  work  to  raise  the  money 
necessary  to  build  a  new  college  adequate  for  a  student  body 
of  not  less  than  2,000.  Forsyth  County  and  Winston-Salem,  in 
a  campaign  in  May  of  1948,  gave  approximately  $1,600,000 
toward  the  building  fund  goal  of  $6,000,000.  The  remainder 
of  the  money  for  building  the  college  will  come  from  the 
Baptist  churches  throughout  North  Carolina,  from  the  alumni 
and  friends  of  the  college,  and  from  the  accumulated  income 
of  the  Reynolds  Foundation  over  the  five-year  period. 

The  decision  to  move  Wake  Forest  College  to  \\lnston- 
Salem  was  heralded  as  a  great  step  in  the  city's  development 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  209 

as  well  as  a  tremendous  advancement  for  education  in  North- 
western North  Carolina,  for  the  western  section  of  the  state 
at  present  has  no  large  college  or  university.  Besides  the  com- 
mercial advantages  of  having  a  large  college  in  the  city,  Wake 
Forest  will  give  to  industrialized  Winston-Salem  a  more  well- 
rounded  community  life  and  cultural  program.  The  large 
faculty  and  student  body  that  Wake  Forest  College  will  bring 
to  the  city  will  help  round  out  the  city's  middle-income  and 
professional  group. 

In  June  of  1946  "Graylyn,"  the  large  estate  of  the  Bowman 
Gray  family,  was  given  to  the  Bowman  Gray  School  of  Medi- 
cine and  is  operated  now  as  a  rehabilitation  and  convalescent 
center.  As  "Graylyn"  lies  just  across  the  road  from  the  Rey- 
nolda  site  of  the  future  Wake  Forest  College,  plans  are  under 
consideration  to  establish  the  medical  school  and  a  new  medical 
center  on  the  Graylyn  site. 

Growth  of  the  Churches 

Winston-Salem,  founded  as  it  was  by  a  religious  group,  has 
always  been  dominated  by  a  deep  religious  atmosphere  and  a 
sincere  interest  in  the  church.  Today  there  are  in  the  city  some 
150  churches  representing  about  twenty  denominations. 
Baptist  churches  lead  the  list  in  number,  with  Methodist, 
Moravian,  and  Presbyterian  following  in  the  order  listed. 

Neighborhood  churches  are  scattered  so  thickly  throughout 
the  city  that  Winston-Salem  has  sometimes  been  called  the 
"City  of  Churches."  The  two  largest  of  the  uptown  churches 
have  memberships  of  around  3,000.  Of  the  large  uptow^n 
churches.  First  Baptist  was  built  in  1925,  and  Calvary  Mora- 
vian in  1926;  Augsburg  Lutheran  was  built  in  1928,  St.  Paul's 
Episcopal  in  1929,  and  Centenary  Methodist  in  193 1.  First 
Presbyterian  expanded  its  plant  considerably  in  1932. 

Today  the  religious  life  of  the  community  still  looks  to  the 
leadership   and   influence   of  the   historic   Home    Moravian 

2IO       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Church,  built  in  1800  in  Old  Salem,  and  Winston-Salem's 
most  cherished  traditions  center  around  the  beautiful  relio^ious 
services  and  customs  of  the  Moravian  Church.  Predominant 
among  these  services  are  the  Love  Feasts  and  Christmas  Candle 
Service,  the  New  Year's  Eve  Memorabilia  and  Watch  Night, 
and  the  famous  early  Easter  morning  service. 

The  Easter  service,  held  in  Old  Salem  since  1773,  first  began 
to  attract  large  crowds  of  worshippers  from  all  over  the  state 
and  country  in  the  1920's  after  the  service  had  received  na- 
tional publicity.  Now  some  50,000  people  annually  witness 
the  simple,  impressive  service  and  join  in  the  happiness  of  a 
Salem  Easter.  The  Easter  service  has  been  broadcast  locally 
since  1930.  Since  1941  it  has  been  broadcast  nationally  over 
the  Columbia  Network  and  sent  by  shortwave  radio  around 
the  world.  During  the  war,  through  the  Office  of  War  In- 
formation, it  was  sent  by  shortwave  to  boys  overseas.  It  is  the 
largest  religious  broadcast  in  the  history  of  radio. 

Transportation  and  Communication 

Good  means  of  transportation  and  communication  facilities 
have  often  been  the  cause  of  the  development  and  growth  of 
cities— for  example,  a  town  grows  up  where  two  main  roads 
cross,  a  village  is  begun  at  a  railroad  terminal,  or  a  city  grad- 
ually comes  into  being  around  a  good  river  harbor.  But 
Winston-Salem,  founded  for  religious  and  government  pur- 
poses, had  to  build  carefully  with  the  hands  and  brains  of  its 
citizens  a  dependable  network  of  railroads,  highways,  and 

Seeing  that  transportation  arteries  could  be  Winston-Salem's 
starvation  or  salvation,  businessmen  put  much  stress  on  their 
development.  Winston-Salem's  three  railroads  had  already 
been  established  by  191 3.  The  Southern  came  into  the  city  in 
1873,  the  Norfolk  and  Western  in  1889,  and  Winston-Salem 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  211 

Southbound  in  19 lo.  Many  of  the  roads  were  bulk  by  local 
enterprise  and  capital.  The  railroads  began  extensive  expan- 
sion of  their  lines  and  stations  after  191 3.  Southbound  Railway 
opened  an  office  for  freight  traffic;  in  19 16  the  Norfolk  and 
Western  built  a  new  freight  station.  Union  Station  was  com- 
pleted in  1926  and  Southern  completed  a  new  freight  depot.  In 
1927-28,  Southern  Railway  and  Norfolk  and  Western  built 
new  yards  at  an  expenditure  of  $3,000,000. 

Because  of  the  vast  amount  of  freight  generated  in  Winston- 
Salem,  "oif-hne"  railways  began  opening  offices  in  the  city 
in  1929.  Today  there  are  thirty-three  "off-line"  offices  in  the 
city  representing  6^  per  cent  of  the  nation's  first-class  railway 

Highways,  too,  were  built  the  hard  way,  with  local  enter- 
prise and  local  energy.  Wise  planning  of  the  Forsyth  County 
commissioners  laid  into  Winston-Salem  a  network  of  high- 
ways, often  subsidized  locally,  which  is  second  to  none  in 
North  Carolina.  In  1920  the  road  to  Walkertown  was  the 
city's  longest  highway;  today  Winston-Salem  has  leading  into 
it  more  hard-surfaced  roads  than  any  other  city  or  center  in 
North  Carolina. 

With  the  highway  development  came  the  buses.  In  19 12 
3  5 -horsepower.  Model  T  Ford  engine  buses,  carrying  a  maxi- 
mum of  seven  to  sixteen  passengers,  took  travelers  from  Win- 
ston-Salem to  High  Point.  About  191 5  bus  travel  through  the 
city  equalled  around  fifty  passengers  a  day.  Now  enormous 
240-horsepower  buses  carry  a  maximum  of  thirty-seven  pas- 
sengers each  to  any  point  or  connection  in  the  country.  Some 
three  thousand  bus  travelers  pass  through  the  city  daily. 

Before  1926  a  number  of  small  bus  companies  operated  in 
Winston-Salem.  John  L.  Gilmer  formed  the  Camel  City  Coach 
Company  in  1926,  bought  up  a  number  of  smaller  lines,  and 
began  operation  with  six  21 -passenger  buses.  In  1930,  the 
Camel  City  Coach  Company  merged  with  the  Blue  and  Gray 

212        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Lines  of  Charleston,  West  Virginia,  to  become  the  Atlantic 
Greyhound  Lines.  Winston-Salem  is  now  the  center  for  the 
southern  division  of  the  Greyhound  Lines. 

The  first  bus  station  adjoining  the  Zinzendorf  Hotel  had  a 
waiting  room  to  accommodate  twenty  people  and  an  office. 
The  Union  Bus  Station  of  today  is  one  of  the  most  modern 
and  largest  in  the  nation;  it  was  built  in  1942  at  a  cost  of 
around  $200,000  and  can  handle  twenty-four  buses  at  once 
and  240  people  in  its  waiting  rooms. 

Motor  express  transportation  grew  also  with  the  highway 
development.  Today  about  forty  motor  lines  operate  out  of 
the  city. 

Winston-Salem  dedicated  its  first  airport  on  December  5, 
1 9 19,  the  old  iMaynard  Field,  the  first  airport  in  the  South 
apart  from  national  defense  needs.  Some  years  later,  in  the 
1920's,  Winston-Salem  used  with  Greensboro  and  High  Point 
the  old  Friendship  Airport. 

W^hen  it  became  obvious  that  the  Friendship  Airport  would 
not  serve  the  city's  needs  and  that  the  iMaynard  Field  was  out- 
moded, citizens  began  making  plans  for  a  new  field.  A  timely 
visit  from  Colonel  Charles  A.  Lindbergh  gave  impetus  to  these 
plans,  and  on  October  14,  1927,  the  Miller  Airport,  built  on 
the  old  county  farm  lands  just  outside  the  city,  was  officially 
opened.  That  same  day  the  field  was  given  to  the  city  by  a 
public-spirited  citizen,  R.  E.  Lasater,  and  placed  under  the 
Winston-Salem  Foundation. 

In  the  early  1930's,  the  field  received  some  appropriations 
under  the  Federal  Work  Relief  Program  for  grading  and 
improvement.  In  1935  citizens  in  Winston-Salem  learned  that 
the  old  Friendship  Airport  was  being  condemned  for  landings 
by  Eastern  Air  Lines.  The  Miller  Airport  was  put  into  shape 
to  meet  government  and  air  line  requirements  and  on  April  2, 
1935,  Eastern  Air  Lines  began  the  first  commercial  air  service 
Winston-Salem  had  ever  had.  Eight  months  later,  the  service 
was  discontinued  because  of  insufficient  facilities  at  the  airport. 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  213 

On  June  14,  194 1,  Eastern  Air  Lines  again  established  reg- 
ular commercial  air  service-direct  air  mail,  passenger,  and 
express  service-for  Winston-Salem.  In  June,  1942,  the  new 
terminal,  made  possible  by  a  family  gift,  was  finished,  and  the 
Smith  Reynolds  Airport  officially  opened.  This  is  today  one 
of  the  finest  and  newest  airport  terminals  in  the  South;  the 
field  has  class-five  facilities  (class  six  being  the  highest).  Capital 
Airlines  began  service  through  the  city  in  June,  1947.  Pied- 
mont Aviation,  Inc.,  opened  its  home  offices  in  Winston-Salem 
and  began  operation  in  February  of  1948. 

A  "Romance  of  Transportation"  pageant  on  December  29, 
1936,  sponsored  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  marked  fare- 
well to  the  electric  streetcar  system  and  the  city  changed  to 
buses  for  its  intra-city  transportation.  Six  taxi-cab  companies 
also  furnish  city  transportation. 

One  summer  night  in  191 3,  the  members  of  the  Winston- 
Salem  Chamber  of  Commerce  very  heatedly  discussed  a  pro- 
posed "white  way"  for  the  city.  The  proposition  was  to  light 
and  pave  West  Fourth  Street  from  Liberty  to  and  including 
Grace  Court;  object  of  said  proposal  was  to  make  "an  evening 
thoroughfare  for  public  enjoyment  and  an  attractive  advertise^ 
ment  to  outsiders  coming  to  the  city."  Among  objections  to 
the  project  were  the  expense  and  the  thought  that  the  "daz- 
zling illumination"  would  be  a  discomfort  to  the  residents  of 
Fourth  Street. 

The  Retail  Merchants  Association  installed  a  "white  way" 
in  191 3  after  futile  attempts  to  get  the  city  to  do  so;  a  perma- 
nent lighting  system  was  later  installed  by  the  city  because 
this  first  attempt  met  with  such  favor. 

Cobblestone  paving  had  been  used  in  Salem  for  many  years, 
but  the  first  modern  street  paving  project  began  in  1890  with 
the  laying  of  Belgian  blocks  along  Main  Street.  Belgian  blocks 
were  used  on  the  streets  as  late  as  19 19  and  constituted  a  prin- 
cipal paving  material.  Brick  for  streets  was  little  used  in  the 
city;  a  short  section  of  West  First  Street  was  laid  in  brick  as  an 

214        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

experiment.  In  191 5  the  city  had  12.22  miles  of  paved  streets 
within  the  city  Hmits.  In  1923  an  extensive  street  building 
program  was  begun  and  today  there  are  145  miles  of  paved 
streets  within  the  city.  In  1928  a  city  planner  had  West  Fourth 
Street  widened  and  wanted  to  make  it  even  wider  but  people 
called  him  crazy;  today  five-o'clock  traffic  fighters  wish  the 
street  had  a  few  hundred  feet  added  to  it. 

In  191 3  Winston-Salem  had  1,842  telephones;  in  Novem- 
ber, 1948,  the  city  had  28,814.  The  Southern  Bell  Telephone 
and  Telegraph  Company,  Inc.,  which  has  been  established  in 
the  city  since  1891,  moved  into  its  building  on  West  Fifth 
Street  in  193 1.  Today  extensive  additions  are  being  made  in 
the  building  and  to  the  city's  telephone  system. 

Means  of  Public  Information 

Winston-Salem's  present  two  daily  newspapers  had  varied 
fortunes  and  titles  before  they  acquired  their  present  names 
and  forms.  In  191 8,  a  newly-incorporated  firm,  the  Sentinel 
Printing  and  Publishing  Company,  bought  both  the  Ticin 
City  Daily  Sentinel  (an  afternoon  paper  established  in  1885), 
as  well  as  the  Sentinel  Building  w^hich  had  been  erected  in 
1909  at  241  North  Liberty  Street.  The  company  continued 
operation  until  August,  1926,  when  the  entire  property  was 
sold  to  the  newly-organized  Winston-Salem  Sentinel,  Inc., 
a  corporation  owned  chiefly  by  Frank  A.  Gannett  of  Roches- 
ter, New  York.  The  semi-weekly  Western  Sentinel  was 
merged  at  this  time  with  the  Tucin  City  Sentinel.  Mr.  Gannett 
maintained  his  interest  in  the  Sentinel  for  less  than  a  year. 

In  the  meantime,  a  morning  paper,  the  Daily  Journal 
(established  in  1897),  had  been  bought  by  Owen  Moon,  who 
became  publisher  and  owner  of  the  Winston-Salem  Journal 
Company.  In  February,  1927,  Mr.  Moon  bought  out  the 
stock  of  the  Winston-Salem  Sentinel,  Inc.,  and  combined  the 
two  papers  under  one  roof.  Before  the  two  papers  were  con- 

Winston-Salcm  Up  to  Date  215 

solidated,  there  had  been  stiff  competition  between  the 
Journal  and  the  Sentinel;  the  SentinePs  main  object  on  Satur- 
day night  was  always  to  get  out  as  big  a  paper  as  possible  with 
all  the  news  in  it  because  the  Journal  got  out  the  Sunday 
paper.  Mr.  Moon  in  1928  moved  his  two  newspapers  and  his 
company  into  a  new  building  built  for  them  on  Marshall 
Street,  the  Journal-Sentinel  Building. 

In  1937,  the  Piedmont  Publishing  Company  was  formed 
with  Gordan  Gray  as  president.  The  company  acquired  from 
Owen  Moon  the  two  newspapers,  the  building,  and  the 
equipment,  and  today  publishes  the  Tiviji  City  Sentinel 
(afternoon),  the  Winston-Salem  Journal  (morning),  and  the 
Journal  and  Sentinel  (Sunday). 

The  two  newspapers  today  have  a  combined  circulation  of 
84,700  and  a  staff  of  240.  This  is  a  far  cry  from  the  first  Salem 
newspaper.  The  Weekly  Gleaner^  published  in  1829  on  a 
hand  press  with  a  staff  of  two.  However,  the  Journal  and 
Sentinel  represent  119  years  of  development  through  a  con- 
tinuous succession  of  newspapers,  each  a  vital  force  in  the 

The  Southern  Tobacco  Journal,  founded  in  1886,  has  been 
published  continuously  from  Winston-Salem  since  1932.  It 
became  a  monthly  magazine  in  1934  and  is  published  by  the 
Carmichael  Printing  Company.  Blum^s  Almanac,  now  in  its 
i2oth  year  of  continuous  publication,  is  still  a  best  seller  in 
the  city.  The  almanac  is  now  published  by  the  Goslen  Pub- 
lishing Company. 

Winston-Salem's  first  radio  station,  WSJS,  was  formally 
opened  on  April  17,  1930.  A  religious  program  was  the  first 
to  be  broadcast  out  of  Winston-Salem.  The  late  Right  Rev- 
erend Edward  Rondthaler,  bishop  of  the  Moravian  Church, 
offered  the  dedicatory  prayer  and  the  St.  Paul's  Episcopal 
Church  choir  took  part  on  the  program.  On  June  4,  1930,  the 
station  had  its  first  network  program  and  is  now  a  full-time 
member  of  the  National  Broadcasting  System.  WSJS  opened 

2i6        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

and  still  operates  as  a  department  of  the  Piedmont  Publishing 
Company;  in  1941  the  station  moved  into  its  own  building 
on  North  Spruce  Street. 

Radio  Station  \\'AIR  began  operation  in  1937  as  an  Amer- 
ican Broadcasting  Company  affiliate.  Station  A\^TOB  opened 
in  1947  as  an  affiliate  of  the  Mutual  Broadcasting  Company. 
Both  Stations  AVSJS  and  WAIR  operate  frequency  modula- 
tion stations. 

Health  and  Hospital  Facilities 

The  Winston-Salem  Health  Department  was  organized  in 
19 1 6  with  offices  in  the  City  Hall.  In  December,  1938,  the 
department  moved  into  the  Health  Center  on  North  A\^ood- 
lawn  Avenue.  In  July,  1945,  the  department  w^as  consolidated 
with  the  County  Health  Department,  making  the  City- 
County  Health  Department  whose  duty  it  is  to  guard  the 
health  of  the  city  and  county  today. 

In  1 9 14  the  City  Hospital  was  built,  and  in  19 15  a  nurses' 
home  was  built  by  the  ladies  of  the  T\\'in-City  Hospital  As- 
sociation from  proceeds  of  the  sale  of  the  old  hospital  plant 
on  Brookstown  Avenue.  Later,  $240,000  w^as  bequeathed  to 
the  city  by  R.  J.  Reynolds  for  building  two  additions  to  the 
hospital;  in  1922  the  North  Reynolds  wing  for  colored  patients 
was  completed,  and  in  1924,  the  South  Reynolds  wing  was 
completed.  The  Sterling  Smith  annex  was  added  later,  and  the 
name  changed  to  City  Memorial  Hospital.  A  new  home  for 
student  nurses  was  built  in  1930.  In  1941  a  strip  of  property 
in  front  of  the  hospital  was  given  to  the  hospital  for  nurses' 
homes  and  parking  space. 

The  Baptist  State  Convention  decided  to  establish  a  hospital 
in  Winston-Salem  and  in  192 1  citizens  of  A\'inston-Salem  in  a 
city  campaign  gave  $140,000  toward  building  the  hospital. 
In  1923,  the  North  Carolina  Baptist  Hospital  was  completed 
on  South  Hawthorne  Road. 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  217 

There  developed  a  great  need  for  hospital  facilities  for 
Negroes  more  adequate  than  the  North  wing  of  the  City 
Memorial  Hospital.  In  1938  a  modern  hospital  for  Negroes, 
the  Kate  Bitting  Reynolds  Memorial,  was  built,  made  possible 
by  a  gift  of  $200,000  from  Mr.  and  Mrs.  W.  N.  Reynolds  and 
$125,000  from  the  Duke  Endowment  Fund. 

In  191 7  the  first  tuberculosis  sanatorium  was  opened  just 
outside  of  Winston-Salem;  it  was  the  first  county  sanatorium 
m  North  Carolina.  In  1930  a  modern  tuberculosis  sanatorium, 
the  Forsyth  County  Sanatorium  for  Tuberculosis,  opened  on 
Rural  Hall  Road.  In  1937  a  new  building  was  built  for  Negro 
patients.  The  sanatorium  at  present  can  care  for  eighty-eight 
Negro  and  sixty  white  patients. 

The  city  functions  in  the  field  of  public  welfare  by  con- 
tributing funds  to  the  county  welfare  department;  there  is 
no  city  welfare  department. 

Private  Health,  Welfare,  and  Social  Agencies 

The  Associated  Charities,  Winston-Salem's  first  venture  in 
organized,  private  charity,  was  started  in  1905  in  keeping 
with  similar  movements  throughout  the  world.  Miss  Annie 
Grogan  was  appointed  the  secretary  and  served  until  her 
retirement  in  1936.  ''Miss  Annie"  with  her  horse  and  buggy, 
and  later  her  roadster,  was  a  familiar  sight  on  the  street^of 
Winston-Salem  as  she  made  her  calls  in  the  interest  of  char- 
ity; she  became  known  as  Winston-Salem's  "mother  of 

The  Associated  Charities  became  the  pivot  around  which 
other  agencies  developed.  The  Y.M.C.A.,  which  had  been 
formed  in  1888,  built  its  first  home  in  1908  on  the  site  where 
the  Nissen  Building  now  stands.  In  1927,  a  new  building  was 
erected  on  Marshall  Street  at  a  cost  of  about  a  half  million 
dollars;  the  new  building  was  made  possible  through  pubHc 
contributions  and  through  the  sale  of  the  old  building  site. 

2i8        Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

A  Negro  branch  of  the  Y.Al.C.A.  had  been  opened  in  191 1. 

The  Y.W.C.A.,  organized  in  1908,  erected  its  first  home 
in  1 9 1 6  on  the  corner  of  First  and  Church  streets,  where  ran 
the  original  dividing  Hne  between  Winston  and  Salem.  The 
activities  of  the  Y.W.C.A.  gradually  outgrew  the  building, 
and  in  1942  a  most  attractive  brick  building  was  built  on 
Glade  Street.  The  Chestnut  Street  Branch  of  the  Y.W.C.A. 
was  organized  for  Negro  girls  in  19 18  as  an  outgrowth  of  a 
Negro  girls'  club. 

The  Boy  Scout  movement  had  begun  in  Winston-Salem  in 
191 1  with  the  organization  of  the  first  troop.  Today  there  are 
sixty-eight  troops  in  the  city  and  county.  The  first  Girl 
Scout  troop  was  organized  in  December,  1923,  at  Reynolds 
High  School.  Today  there  are  fifty-eight  troops  in  the  city. 

The  Winston-Salem  Chapter  of  the  American  Red  Cross 
was  organized  during  the  war  in  19 17.  Other  organizations, 
such  as  the  Forsyth  County  Tuberculosis  and  Health  Associa- 
tion, came  later. 

Contemporary  with  the  movement  in  the  United  States  to 
consolidate  fund-raising  solicitations,  the  Community  Chest 
of  Forsyth  County  was  organized  in  1923.  Today  the  Chest 
federates  the  finances  and  has  charge  of  the  distribution  of 
the  finances  of  twenty  local  health  and  welfare  organizations, 
raising  the  money  in  one  campaign  and  distributing  it  accord- 
ing to  need  among  its  member  organizations.  The  first  Chest 
goal  was  $28,000,  but  $36,000  was  actually  subscribed.  The 
1948  goal  was  $262,000,  and  approximately  $275,000  was 
subscribed.  Each  year  since  organization  of  the  Community 
Chest,  its  goal  has  been  oversubscribed. 

In  1938,  the  Winston-Salem  Council  of  Social  Agencies 
was  formed  to  co-ordinate  the  community  social  welfare 
program.  This  organization  functions  today  as  the  Commu- 
nity Council,  made  up  of  representatives  from  over  forty 
public  and  private  health,  welfare,  and  recreation  agencies 
and  civic  groups. 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  219 

In  1940,  the  Associated  Charities,  which  had  functioned  so 
well  in  the  field  of  private  welfare,  had  part  of  its  functions 
absorbed  by  the  County  Department  of  Public  Welfare;  the 
Family  and  Child  Service  Agency  carry  on  the  remaining 

Winston-Salem  has  two  institutions  for  the  care  of  chil- 
dren. The  Methodist  Children's  Home  on  Reynolda  Road, 
which  opened  September  7,  1909,  serves  Western  North 
Carolina;  the  Memorial  Industrial  School  for  Negroes  on 
North  Main  Street,  opened  in  1923,  provides  a  home  for 
underprivileged  Negro  children. 

The  Winston-Salem  Foundation,  a  non-profit  organization 
established  in  1919,  manages  numbers  of  civic  enterprises  and 
works  in  all  fields  for  community  betterment.  The  Founda- 
tion's funds  are  derived  from  the  contributions  of  Winston- 
Salem  citizens.  The  Foundation  aids  the  community  in  many 
ways,  such  as  in  providing  camping  for  needy  boys  and  girls 
and  in  helping  young  men  and  women  obtain  college 

In  an  attempt  to  find  some  solution  to  the  problem  of  the 
increasing  number  of  fund-raising  campaigns,  the  Chamber 
of  Commerce  and  the  Retail  Merchants  Association  organized 
in  the  summer  of  1946  the  Forsyth  County  Committee  on 
Public  Solicitation.  The  committee  acts  as  a  central  agency 
through  which  clear  all  proposals  for  community- wide  fund- 
raising  campaigns;  the  committee  reviews  fund-raising 
solicitations  to  determine  their  worthiness,  necessity,  and 
efficiency,  and  reports  the  findings  of  its  review  to  the  general 
public.  The  committee  was  reorganized  and  enlarged  in  the 
fall  of  1948. 

Recreational  Facilities 

Community-wide  recreation  services  for  Winston-Salem 
began  in  19 18  when  the  Board  of  Aldermen  appropriated 

220       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

$6,000  for  park  and  playground  services  and  authorized  the 
opening  and  equipping  of  five  playgrounds.  In  1934  the 
Public  Recreation  Commission  was  organized.  Today  the  city 
has  twenty-six  parks  and  playgrounds,  with  a  total  of 
536  acres;  these  parks  have  athletic  fields,  picnic  areas,  and 
special  amusement  features.  The  largest  park  is  Reynolds,  one 
of  the  South's  finest  municipal  recreational  centers,  opened 
in  1940.  The  city  has  an  average  of  more  than  ten  acres  of 
playground  for  each  public  school. 

Dollar  train  excursions.  Fourth  of  July  celebrations,  sum- 
mer band  concerts  on  the  Courthouse  Square,  and  picnics  in 
Nissen  Park  were  Winston-Salem's  idea  of  having  fun  in  the 
early  days  of  the  consolidation.  Commercialized  recreation 
began  to  develop  with  the  expansion  of  the  motion  picture 

Today  the  city  has  six  motion  picture  theaters,  two  com- 
mercial and  nine  membership  or  free  swimming  pools,  bowl- 
ing alleys,  and  stables  and  riding  academies.  Two  commercial 
and  two  membership  golf  courses  succeed  the  original  Twin 
City  Golf  Club,  North  Carolina's  first  golf  club,  formed  in 
Winston-Salem  in  1897. 

The  Forsyth  Country  Club  was  organized  in  19 10  and 
today  has  a  clubhouse,  swimming  pool,  and  golf  course  in 
the  west  section  of  town.  The  Old  Town  Club,  formed  in 
1938,  also  has  its  own  clubhouse,  golf  course,  and  swimming 
pool.  The  Twin  City  Club  for  men,  organized  in  1884,  is 
still  quite  active. 

The  Bowman  Gray  Memorial  Stadium,  dedicated  on 
October  22,  1939,  with  the  annual  football  game  between 
Duke  University  and  Wake  Forest  College,  was  built  as  a 
WPA  project.  Private  funds,  matching  those  of  the  \\TA, 
were  furnished  by  the  Bowman  Gray  family;  the  stadium 
cost  around  $200,000.  The  stadium,  with  a  seating  capacity 
of  12,000,  is  owned  by  the  city  and  is  used  for  large  athletic 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  221 

In  May  of  1946,  a  million-dollar  fund  was  raised  to  build 
a  Memorial  Coliseum,  designed  to  seat  9,000.  The  fund  is  now 
being  held  in  trust  and  the  Coliseum  will  be  built  when  the 
current  building  materials  shortage  is  over. 

Growth  of  Business  and  Service  Organizations 

The  Chamber  of  Commerce  of  Winston  and  Salem,  or- 
ganized in  1885,  became  at  the  time  of  the  consolidation  the 
Winston-Salem  Chamber  of  Commerce,  and  through  all  of 
the  rapid  development  of  the  city  it  has  continued  its  leader- 
ship in  building  the  economic,  cultural,  and  educational 
growth  of  the  community.  The  Winston-Salem  Junior 
Chamber  of  Commerce  was  formed  in  1929  to  organize  the 
leadership  of  the  young  men.  The  Winston-Salem  Retail 
Merchants  Association,  formed  in  1889  as  the  Winston- 
Salem  Merchants  and  Traders'  Union,  continues  its  services 
to  the  merchants  of  the  city;  it  is  the  oldest  organization  of 
its  kind  in  North  Carolina. 

The  Winston-Salem  Real  Estate  Exchange  was  organized 
in  191 5;  in  191 7,  the  group  joined  the  national  organization 
and  became  the  Winston-Salem  Chapter,  National  Real 
Estate  Board.  The  Winston-Salem  Automobile  Club,  or- 
ganized in  1 9 II ,  is  today  the  oldest  in  the  Carolinas  and  one 
of  the  oldest  in  the  South.  The  Winston  Tobacco  Board  of 
Trade,  organized  in  1869,  continues  today  its  promotion  and 
organization  of  the  Winston-Salem  market. 

When  Winston  and  Salem  were  young  and  small,  business- 
men could  gather  on  the  street  corners  and  in  the  shops  to 
discuss  the  news  of  the  day  and  to  exchange  ideas.  As  the  city 
grew,  however,  businessmen  felt  the  need  for  a  better  means 
of  getting  acquainted  with  fellow  citizens,  of  exchanging 
ideas,  and  of  perhaps  promoting  community  projects.  So, 
soon  after  the  consolidation,  the  civic  luncheon  club  move- 
ment began,  following  a  similar  pattern  of  development  in 

222       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

other  cities.  In  19 15,  the  Rotary  Club  was  formed  as  the  first, 
followed  by  Kiwanis  in  19 19;  Business  and  Professional 
Women's  Club,  19 19;  Civitan,  192 1;  Lions,  1922;  Altrusa 
(for  women),  1924;  Pilot  Club  (for  women),  1934;  Ex- 
change Club,  1935;  American  Business  Club,  1940;  Credit 
Women's  Breakfast  Club,  1941;  Cooperative  Club,  1947;  and 
the  Optimist  Club,  1948. 

Within  the  last  few  years,  there  has  been  in  the  city  and 
county  a  movement  to  organize  neighborhood  civic  clubs  for 
the  promotion  of  fellow^ship  and  neighborhood  projects  and 
improvements.  Among  these  are  the  Sun-Waugh  Civic  Club, 
the  North  Winston  Men's  Community  Club,  the  North 
Winston  Men's  Brotherhood,  the  Clemmons  Civic  Club, 
Lewisville  Civic  Club,  the  Old  Town  Civic  Club,  the  Ard- 
more  Civic  Club,  Walkertown  Men's  Club,  Mineral  Springs 
Civic  Club,  Rural  Hall  Civic  Club,  City  View  Men's  Club, 
Konnoak  Hills  Club,  South  Fork  Civic  Club,  and  the  \A'est 
Salem  Civic  Club. 

Women's  service  and  social  organizations  formed  as  rap- 
idly as  did  the  men's.  A  Woman's  Club  was  organized  in 
1919,  followed  by  a  Junior  Woman's  Club.  A  Junior  League 
was  formed  in  1923,  the  first  in  North  Carolina.  The  Twin 
City  Garden  Club  was  organized  in  1925  as  the  pioneer  of 
the  Winston-Salem  garden  clubs;  it  sponsored  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  North  Carolina  Federation  of  Garden  Clubs.  In 
193 1,  the  Winston-Salem  Council  of  Garden  Clubs  was 
formed  and  today  has  nine  member  clubs.  Book  clubs,  led  by 
the  Sorosis  Club,  which  was  organized  in  1895,  now  total 

The  Development  of  an  Arts  Program 

Winston-Salem,  since  its  founding  by  the  Moravians,  has 
always  been  recognized  as  a  city  sympathetic  toward  and 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  223 

active  in  the  arts,  chiefly  within  church,  family,  and  school 
circles.  Early  settlers  were  skilled  craftsmen;  church  bands 
developed  in  each  Moravian  church. 

Several  music  clubs  were  organized  in  the  city  before  1938, 
but  no  organized  arts  program  with  a  continuing  pattern  of 
development  came  into  being  until  ten  years  ago  when  the 
Festival  Opera  Group  was  launched  at  Salem  College.  In 
1942,  two  evenings  of  opera  were  brought  to  Winston- 
Salem  by  a  Summer  School  of  Opera,  held  at  the  Woman's 
College  of  the  University  of  North  Carolina.  This  opera 
festival  program  was  expanded  in  Winston-Salem  to  include 
an  evening  of  orchestral  music  and  a  community  sing.  The 
whole  event,  enlisting  the  support  of  the  community's  civic 
and  art  agencies,  was  called  the  Greater  Winston-Salem 
Music  Festival. 

Out  of  this  beginning  was  born  the  Piedmont  Festival  of 
Music  and  Arts,  held  for  the  first  time  in  1943.  The  Festival 
was  launched  as  a  "people's  art"  production,  designed  to  co- 
ordinate in  a  common  project  the  various  community  arts 
groups,  such  as  the  dance  studios,  the  Little  Theater,  and 
the  various  choral  groups.  The  first  Festival  was  made  up  of 
an  opera  and  oratorio  performance,  an  orchestra  concert,  and 
interesting  exhibits  of  art,  photography,  and  handicrafts.  Five 
hundred  people  took  part  in  the  first  festival. 

Later  festivals  were  expanded  to  include  a  children's  con- 
cert, a  community  sing,  and  a  drama,  and  in  1948  the  Pied- 
mont Festival  was  held  for  the  sixth  time.  The  "people's  art" 
idea  spread  from  Winston-Salem  throughout  North  Carolina 
and  the  country  and  has  contributed  to  the  development  of 
several  similar  festivals  and  opera  groups. 

The  Piedmont  Festival  stimulated  the  development  of  sev- 
eral arts  and  music  groups  in  the  community.  In  1945  the 
Junior  League  sponsored  the  establishment  of  an  arts  and 
crafts  center  and  employed  a  full-time  director.  This  pro- 

224       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

gram  has  led  to  the  formation  of  the  Arts  and  Crafts  Associa- 
tion which  sponsors  the  Winston-Salem  \\'orkshop,  open  to 
all  interested  in  learning  any  art  or  craft. 

From  1942  to  1945,  several  civic  choral  groups  were 
organized,  including  the  Forsyth  Singers,  an  all-male  chorus; 
the  Maids  of  Melody;  a  boys'  choir;  and  the  Sunnyside  Choral 
Club.  In  1946  the  Winston-Salem  Civic  Orchestra  and  the 
Winston-Salem  Operetta  Association  were  begun. 

Old  Salem  Today 

The  Old  Salem  section  of  Winston-Salem,  which  still  re- 
tains much  of  the  original  appearance  of  its  early  days,  is  a 
constant  source  of  attraction  not  only  to  visitors  to  the  city 
but  to  Winston-Salem's  people  as  well,  who  whether  native- 
born  or  citizens  by  adoption  come  to  love  the  weathered 
brick  buildings  that  represent  the  beginnings  and  the  heritage 
of  their  city. 

In  Old  Salem  there  are  standing  today  fifteen  buildings 
built  betAveen  1767  and  1800.  Important  among  these  are  the 
Fourth  House,  erected  in  1767  and  restored  along  the  original 
lines;  the  Moravian  Brothers  House,  now  the  Moravian 
Church  Home,  erected  in  1769;  the  Salem  Tavern,  erected  in 
1784,  a  famous  old  inn  where  George  W^ashington  w^as  enter- 
tained in  1 791;  the  Wachovia  Historical  Museum,  formerly 
Salem  Boys  School,  erected  in  1796;  the  Moravian  Archive 
House,  erected  in  1797;  and  the  Home  Moravian  Church, 
begun  in  1798  and  finished  in  1800.  Beautiful  "God's  Acre," 
the  Moravian  graveyard,  is  one  of  Salem's  most  cherished 

The  Old  Salem  section  is  one  of  the  few  sections  so  pre- 
served in  the  United  States.  A  movement  is  underway  in  the 
city  now  to  preserve  this  section  more  carefully  and  to  pro- 
tect it  from  further  business  development. 

Winston-Salem  Up  to  Date  225 

Winston-Salem  Today 

Thus  through  tracing  the  various  threads  that  make  up 
community  hfe,  we  see  how  two  Httle  towns,  consoHdated 
thirty-five  years  ago,  have  become  one  big  city. 

Winston-Salem  today  has  its  problems— slum  and  semi-slum 
areas  need  to  be  cleared  up;  the  city's  municipal  plant  needs 
expanding;  much  can  be  done  to  improve  the  general  appear- 
ance of  the  city;  recreational  facilities  are  not  adequate.  But 
these  are  problems  that  come  with  the  rapid  transition  from  a 
little  town  to  a  big  city,  and  citizens  are  confident  that  the 
city's  co-operative  and  progressive  spirit  will  overcome  the 
problems  of  today  as  it  did  those  of  yesterday. 

A  city's  personality,  like  a  person's,  is  determined  by  the 
people,  events,  and  problems  which  it  has  known  and  which 
have  become  a  part  of  it.  So  it  is  with  Winston-Salem. 

Salem  was  founded  for  religious  purposes  and  religious 
freedom;  today  a  deep  religious  atmosphere  dominates  com- 
munity life.  Winston  was  founded  for  purposes  of  govern- 
ment, as  a  county  seat;  today  the  city  possesses  good  city  and 
county  government  and  its  citizens  show  a  strong  interest  in 
municipal  affairs.  The  early  Moravian  settlers  were  firm  be- 
lievers in  broad  educational  development  and  one  of  their  first 
acts  in  building  early  Salem  was  the  establishment  of  schools 
for  boys  and  girls;  today  the  Winston-Salem  public  school 
system  is  one  of  the  finest  in  the  state,  and  the  city  is  rapidly 
becoming  a  center  for  higher  education.  Salem's  settlers  were 
hard-working,  industrious,  far-sighted  men;  one  of  Winston- 
Salem's  characteristic  traits  is  its  progressive  spirit. 

Winston-Salem  is  a  city  built  by  its  own  citizens  through 
generations  of  work.  The  settlers  of  Salem  and  Winston  were 
family  men,  home-loving  people,  who  believed  in  making  of 
their  city  a  fit  home  for  their  children  and  their  children's 
children.  As  a  result,  the  children  have  stayed  in  the  commu- 
nity to  find  opportunity  and  fortune.   Old  family  names. 

226       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

dating  back  for  generations  in  many  cases,  are  predominant 
in  social  and  business  life.  The  city  is  fortunate  in  that  the 
large  majority  of  its  many  industries  were  founded  and  built 
by  local  citizens  and  are  still  home-owned.  The  businessmen 
and  industrialists  of  the  community  have  consistently  turned 
their  energy  and  their  money  towards  building  their  city.  Its 
good  roads,  good  government,  good  schools,  did  not  come  to 
it  from  outside  sources  or  through  lucky  circumstances,  but 
each  had  to  be  built  carefully  by  men  willing  to  work  and 
to  give.  It  has  been  said  that  if  the  amount  of  money  that 
has  been  given  in  the  city  by  private  citizens  for  buildings, 
schools,  churches,  and  social  agencies  and  charities  could  be 
totaled,  the  sum  would  be  staggering.  Winston-Salem's  citi- 
zens are  community-minded  and  have  been  from  the  time 
the  first  careful  plans  were  laid  for  the  settlement  of  Salem. 
The  city's  future  development  promises  to  be  tremendous. 
Its  diversified  industrial  economy  will  fluctuate  httle  with 
changing  conditions;  it  will  become  more  well-rounded  as  it 
develops  into  an  educational  center.  Its  foundation  is  a  rich 
heritage  of  tradition  which  teaches  hard  work,  co-operation, 
faith  in  God,  and  faith  in  the  ability  of  man.  The  Twin  City 
will  stand  even  more  firmly  and  grow  even  stronger  because 
of  the  two  roots  it  has  deeply  embedded  in  the  red  Piedmont 



The  Contributors 

Adelaide  L.  Fries.  Graduate  of  Salem  Academy  and  College. 
M.  A.,  Salem  College;  Litt.  D.,  Moravian  College,  Beth- 
lehem, Pennsylvania;  Doctor  of  Letters,  Wake  Forest 
College  and  the  University  of  North  Carolina.  Archivist 
of  the  Moravian  Church  in  America,  Southern  Province. 
Translator  and  editor  of  Records  of  the  Moravians  in  North 
Carolina^  and  author  of  The  Road  to  Salem  and  other  works. 

Mary  Caelum  Wiley.  Graduate  of  State  Normal  College. 
Doctor  of  Education  of  the  Woman's  College  of  the 
University  of  North  Carolina.  For  many  years  head  of  the 
English  Department  of  the  Richard  J.  Reynolds  High 
School,  Winston-Salem,  North  Carolina.  Since  she  has 
retired  she  has  done  much  historical  research  as  back- 
ground for  her  column  "Mostly  Local"  in  the  Tuoin  City 

Douglas  LeTell  Rights.  Graduate  of  the  University  of 
North  Carolina,  Moravian  Theological  Seminary,  and 
Harvard  University.  Doctor  of  Divinity,  Moravian  Col- 
lege, Bethlehem,  Pennsylvania.  Pastor  of  Trinity  Moravian 
Church,  Winston-Salem,  North  Carolina.  President  of  the 
Wachovia  Historical  Society.  Author  of  The  American 
IndiaJi  in  North  Carolina. 

Harvey  Dinkins.  Graduate  of  Guilford  College.  On  News 
Staff  of  the  Journal  and  Sentinel  since  1926.  Farm  Editor  of 
the  Winston-Salem  Journal  and  Sentinel.  Farm  Service  Di- 
rector of  WSJS  radio  station. 

Chas.  N.  Sie^vers.  Graduate  of  the  University  of  North 
Carolina.  Associate  General  Agent  in  Winston-Salem  of 
the  Security  Life  and  Trust  Company.  President  of  the 
Winston-Salem  Chamber  of  Commerce. 


230       Forsyth,  a  County  on  the  March 

Flora  Ann  Lee.  Graduate  of  Meredith  College.  Director  of 
Publicity  of  the  A^'inston-Salem  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

Joseph  Wallace  King.  Portrait  painter.  Educated  at  the 
Corcoran  School  of  Art,  Washington,  D.  C,  and  at  The 
Catholic  University  of  America,  Washington,  D.  C. 


Abattoir,  206 

Abbotts  Creek,  131,  134,  147 

Abbotts  Creek  Missionary  Baptist 

Church,  134 
Abbotts  Creek  Primitive  Baptist 

Church,  134 
Abbotts  Creek  Township,  12 
Accidents,  42,  47,  no,  127 
"A  City  Founded  upon  Co-operation," 

Act  of  Parliament,  1749,  4 
Acts  of  Assembly  of  North  Carolina, 

8,  9..  12.  13,  i8,  22,  24,  25,  30,  39,  60, 

61,  91,  116 
Adams-Millis  Corporation,  178 
Adams,  Judge  Spencer  B.,  156 
Affirmation  of  Allegiance,  39,  40 
Agricultural  and  Mechanical  School, 

102,  103 
Agricultural  Board,  Forsyth,  165 
Agriculture,  146,  158,  159,  162,  163, 

165,  187 
Alamance  River,  N.  C,  122 
Albea,  Reverend  W.  W.,  73 
Albertini,  Reverend  Johann  Baptist, 

Alexander  Apartments,  92 
Alfalfa,  164 

Allen,  Sidney  E.,  89,  98,  185 
Alspaugh,  Reverend  John,  72,  146 
Alspaugh,  John  W.,  80,  81,  88,  102 
Alspaugh,  Mrs.  John  W.,  95 
Alta  Vista,  201 
Altrusa,  222 

American  Business  Club,  222 
A.  M.  E.  Zion  Church,  78 
Anchor  Store,  70 
Anderleigh,  201 
Anderson,  Reverend  Neal,  113 
Andrews,  A.  B.,  157 
Anson  County,  3,  4,  6 
Ante-bellum  residences,  145,  146 
Apartment  houses,  202 
Archive  House,  Salem,  44,  244 
Archives  of  the  Moravian  Church,  59, 

Arden  Farm,  131 
Ardmore,  201 

Ardmore  Baptist  Church,  201 
Ardmore  Civic  Club,  222 
Ardmore  Congregational  Christian 

Church,  201 
Ardmore  Methodist  Church,  201 
Ardmore  Moravian  Church,  201 
Arista  Mills,  175 

Armfield  family,  132 

Armory,  loo 

Armstrong,  John,  132 

Armstrong,  Joseph,  132 

Armstrong,  Colonel  Martin,  38 

Army,  United  States,  22 

Arts  and  Crafts  Association,  224 

Asbury,  Bishop  Francis,  133 

Ashe  County,  22 

Asheville,  130,  154 

Assembly,  Colonial,  4 

Assembly  of  North  Carolina,  41 

Associated  Charities,  106,  ni,  112, 

217,  219 
Atkins  family,  132 
Atkins  High  School,  207 
Atkins,  Professor  S.  A.,  102,  103,  104 
Atkinson,  Senator,  23 
Atlantic  Greyhound  Lines,  212 
Auditor  for  Surry  County,  41 
Augsburg  Lutheran  Church,  209 
Austria,  5 

Automobile  Club,  221 
Avery,  Isaac  Erwin,  121 
Axson,  William  E.,  80 
Aycock,  Governor  Charles  Brantley, 

Ayres,  Thomas,  59 

Babcock,  Charles  H.,  136 
Babcock,  Mrs.  Charles  H. 

(Mary  Reynolds),  136 
Bachmann,  Johann  Philip,  44 
Back-to-farm  movement,  199 
Bagby,  C.  L.,  106 
Bagge,  Antoinette  Louisa,  49 
Bagge,  Charles  Frederic,  47 
Bagge,  Traugott,  7,  35,  36,  37,  39,  41, 

Bahnson,  Agnew  H.,  Jr.,  181 
Bahnson,  Agnew  H.,  Sr.,  181 
Bahnson  Co.,  180,  181 
Bahnson,  Frederic  F.,  181 
Bahnson,  F.  F.,  Jr.,  i8i 
Bahnson,  Right  Reverend  George 

Frederic,  53 
Bahnson,  Dr.  Henry  Theodore,  87, 

102,  159,  160 
Bahnson  Humidifier  Co.,  181 
Bailey  Brothers,  171 
Bailey,  P.  S.,  117 
Bank  agency  in  Salem,  47 
Bank  clearings,  192 
Bank  of  Cape  Fear,  47,  48,  182 
Bank  of  New  Bern,  48 




Banner,  Captain,  19 

Banner,  Constantine  L.,  12,  59 

Banner,  Henry,  136 

Banner,  John,  10 

Banner,  Lewis,  77 

Bannertown,  136 

Barbecue,  66 

Barber  shops,  85 

Barclay,  William,  127 

Barker  Creek,  148 

Barringer,  General,  86 

Barringer  house,  85 

Barrow,  Philip,  12 

Barrow,  William,  60,  63,  80 

Barter,  34,  54,  65 

Bason,  Giles,  80 

Bassick  Co.,  181 

Battle  of  the  Horse  Shoe,  151 

Beall,  George  H.,  and  Co.,  171 

Beard  family,  132 

Bears,  143,  145 

Beaver  Dam  Church,  129 

Beaver  Dam  Creek,  129 

Bedford  County,  Tennessee,  21,  23,  24 

Beekeepers  Association,  163 

Belews  Creek,  131 

Belews  Creek  (settlement),  127,  128 

Bell,  St.  Paul's,  76,  77 

Bell  Telephone  system,  182 

Belo,  Captain  Alfred  Horatio,  53,  66 

Belo,  Edward,  52,  183 

Beloe's  Creek,  Beloos  Creek,  Bielus 

Creek,  Blewers  Creek,  Belows 

Creek.  See  Belews  Creek 
Belo  Home,  52 

Belo  (Boehlo),  Johann  Friedrick,  52 
Belo,  Lewis,  52 
Belo's  Pond,  89,  no 
Benevolent  Society,  92,  93,  94,  95 
Beroth,  Jacob,  122 
Beroth,  John,  124 
Best,  Thomas  T.,  64,  80 
Bethabara,  7,  8,  30,  31,  34,  35,  121,  122, 

123,  125,  126 
Bethania,  7,  18,  31,  35,  51,  65,  123,  124, 

125,  128,  129 
Bethania  church,  125 
Bethel,  Joshua,  59 
Bethlehem,  Pa.,  5,  46 
Bevil,  W.  A.,  90 
Bible,  The,  29,  48 
Biblical  Recorder,  75 
Bickett,  Governor  Thomas  W.,  157 
Bicycles,  85 
Bieffel,  Henry,  124 

*'Big  Meetings,"  64 
Bitting,  J.  A.,  81,  95 
Bitting,  Mrs.  J.  A.  (Louisa  Wilson), 

Bitting  and  Hay,  171 
Blackberries,  dried,  158 
Blackburn,  Captain,  19 
Blackburn,  Dalton  and  Co.,  171 
Blackburn,  John,  67 
Blackburn  family,  131 
Black  family,  133 
Black  Walnut  Bottom,  123 
Blackwell,  Miss,  112 
Blair,  John  Jay,  93 
Blair,  William  Allen,  103,  104,  149 
Blakeley,  Captain  Johnston,  22,  25 
Bleeding,  43 

Blount  County,  Alabama,  24 
Blue  Ridge  Mountains,  5 
Blum,  David,  59 
Blum,  Johann  Christian,  47,  49 
Blum,  Levi  Vanniman,  62 
Blum's  Almanac,  215 
Boarding  School  for  Girls,  Salem,  45 
Board   of  Aldermen,  Minutes  of,  83, 

84,  85,   100,  105,  106,  107,   108,   115, 

116,  117 
"Board  of  Provincial  Elders  of  the 

Southern  Province  of  the  Moravian 

Church  or  Unitas  Fratrum,"  55 
Board  of  Trade,  98 
Bodenheimer  family,  134,  135 
Boeckel,  Frederick,  125 
Boeckel,  John,  125 
Bohannon,  Mrs.  Elisa,  80 
Bohemia,  29 
Bon  Air,  201 
Bonds,  city,  88,  no 
Boner,  F.  E.,  81 
Boner,  John  Henry,  148 
Boner,  John  Wesley,  148 
Boner,  Joshua,  53,  67 
Boner,  Matthew,  66 
Boner  family,  126 
Bonn,  Doctor  Jacob,  40 
Book  Clubs,  222 
Books,  34 
Boone,  Daniel,  122 
Bowling  alleys,  220 
Bowman,  Wyatt  F.,  183 
Bowman  Gray  Memorial  Stadium, 

Bowman  Gray  School  of  Medicine, 

Boyer,  Jack,  147 



Boyer  family,  126 

Boy  Scouts,  218 

Boys  Department,  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  105 

Boys  Schoolhouse,  44 

Bridges,  9,  13 

Brietz,  Charles,  55 

Briggs,  William  C,  180 

Briggs-Shaffner  Co.,  180 

British  troops,  40 

Broadbay  Plantation  in  New  England, 

8,  12,  126 
Broadbay  settlement,  N.  C,  12. 

See  also  Friedland 
Broadbay  Township,  127 
Brooks  family,  128 
Brooks  Ferry,  129 
Brookstown,  129 

Brothers  House,  34,  36,  42,  43,  224 
Brown,  George  T.,  173 
Brown,  Reverend  Henry  A.,  78 
Brown,  John  L.,  59 
Brown,  Major  Thomas  Jethro,  69, 

89,  105,  170,  203 
Brown,  William  L.,  89 
Brown  and  Williamson,  171,  173 
Brown  Brothers,  171 
Brown,  Rogers  and  Co.,  185 
Brown-Rogers-Dixon  Company,  79 
Brown's  Opera  House,  105 
Browntown,  134 
Buckskin,  144 
Buena  Vista,  201 
Buford,  Charles,  82 
Bulitschek,  Joseph,  35 
Bunker  Hill  Baptist  Church,  134 
Bunker  Hill  Methodist  Church,  134 
Burbank,  William  F.,  97 
Buses,  211,  213 
Business  and  Professional  Women's 

Club,  112,  222 
Butler,  Marion,  Sr.,  156 
Butner,  Albert  I.,  124 
Buxton,  John  Cameron,  76,  82,  loi, 

104,  106,  107,  108,  183 
Buxton,  Mrs.  J.  C.  (Agnes  Belo),  87, 

Byerly,  Harrison,  149 
Byerly,  S.  and  Son,  171 
Bynum,  Cotten  and  Co.,  171 
Bynum,  Reverend  W.  S.,  76 

Cabbage,  144 
Cahoon,  George  W.,  24 
Cain,  Charles  M.,  117 
Calaboose,  Winston,  63 

Calhoun,  John  Caldwell,  149 

Callaway,  Elijah,  22,  23 

Calvary  Moravian  Church,  209 

Camel  cigarettes,  172 

Camel  City  Coach  Co.,  211 

Campbell,  Archibald,  133 

Candler,  R.  L,  and  Co.,  171 

Capital  Airlines,  213 

Captains  Districts,  12,  19 

Carmichael  Printing  Co.,  215 

Carnegie,  Andrew,  106,  107 

Carnegie  Library,  106,  107,  108,  109 

"Carolina,"  3 

Carolina  Hotel,  203 

Carolina  Narrow  Fabrics  Co.,  177 

Carolina  Theatre,  203 

Carriages,  and  wagons,  169 

Carroll's  Manor,  Ind.,  126 

Carter,  Noah,  85 

Carter,  W.  B.,  Jr.,  100 

Carteret,  John,  Lord,  3. 
See  also  Granville,  Earl 

Castle,  Anna,  112 

Catawba  Indians,  122 

Cattle  Breeders  Associations,  163 

Centenary  Church,  Old,  73,  93,  104 

Centenary  Methodist  Church,  72,  73, 
203,  209 

Centennial    of    American    Independ- 
ence, 71 

Centerville,  139 

Centerville  Street,  155 

Central  Hotel,  81,  98 

Chadwick  family,  125 

Chamberlain,  J.  R.,  147 

Chamberlain,  Mr.,  89 

Chamber  of  Commerce,   98,   99,   100, 
loi,  102,  103,  204,  219,  221 

Chapel  Hill,  N.  C,  24 

Charles  I,  3 

Charles  II,  3 

Charles  family,  134 

Charles  store,  70 

Charleston,  S.  C,  34 

Charlestown,  N.  C,  139 

Chatham  Building,  204 

Chatham  Manufacturing  Co.,  182 

Cherokee  Indians,  7,  45,  46,  122 

Cherry  Street  High  School,  106 

Chestnut  trees,  143 

Children's  Home,  Baptist,  73,  106,  219 

Chipman,  Rachael,  134 

Chippewa  Club,  65,  66 

Chitty  family,  126 

Christmas  Eve  services,  210 



Church  of  England,  4 

Churton,  William,  5,  127 

City  assets,  205 

City-County  Health  Department,  216 

City-County  Planning  Commission, 
204,  205 

City  extension,  202 

City  government,  205 

City  Hall,  68,  102,  106,  203,  204 

City  Hospital,  88,  200,  216 

City  limits,  200 

City  Market,  206 

City  National  Bank,  184 

"City  of  Churches,"  209 

"City-  of  Industry,"  169,  175,  182 

City  planning,  200 

City  street  lights,  213 

City  View,  138 

City  View  Men's  Club,  222 

Civic  clubs,  222 

Civic  Orchestra,  224 

Civil  War,  17,  50,  51,  53,  54 

Civitan,  222 

Clark,  Judge  Walter,  156 

Clark  and  Ford,  83,  185 

Clarv,  W.  S.,  105 

Clary,  W.  S.  and  Co.,  171 

Clay,  Henry,  149 

Clemraons,  Edwin  T,,  130 

Clemmons,  Peter,  130,  148,  149 

Clemmons  (Town),  126,  130,  135,  148, 
149,  160 

Clemmons  Civic  Club,  222 

Clemmonsville  Township,  12 

Cleveland,  President  Grover,  109 

Clinard,  Dempsey  B.,  148 

Clothing,  early,  144 

Cloverdale  Apartments,  202 

Coan,  George  W.,  184 

Coan,  George  W.,  Jr.,  184 

Coleman,  Frank  A.,  104 

College  Village,  202 

Collins,  D.,  59 

Collins,  James,  81 

Colonial  Dames,  33 

Committee  of  Auditors  for  the  Upper 
Board  of  Salisbury  District,  41 

Committee  of  One  Hundred,  206 

Committee  on  Public  Solicitation,  219 

Committee  on  Trade  and  Transporta- 
tion, 102 

Community  Chest,  218 

Concert  Hall,  11 

Confectioneries,  81 

Confederate  currency,  146 

Confederate  Service,  3,  66,  67 
Confiscation  Acts,  30,  39 
Congregation  House,  34. 

See  also  Gemein  Haus 
"Congregation  of  United  Brethren  of 

Salem  and  Its  Vicinity,"  55 
Congress,  Continental,  38,  39 
Congress,  United  States,  61,  80 
Conrad,  Augustus  Eugene,  147 
Conrad,  Christian,  146 
Conrad,  Isaac,  146 
Conrad,  Johann,  146 
Conrad,  Leonard,  10 
Conrad,  Dr.  W.  J.,  104 
Conrad,  W.  J.,  Jr.,  147 
Conrad  family,  129,  146 
Consolidation  of  Winston  and  Salem, 

Constable,  84 
Continentals,  38,  39 
Cook,  Charles  A.,  157 
Cook,  David,  59 
Cook,  N.  S.,  63 
Cooley,  Edward,  133 
Cooperative  Club,  222 
Cooper  family,  131 
Corbin,  Sir  Francis,  5 
Corn,  144,  160,  161,  165,  188 
Cornwallis,  General  Charles,  40,  41, 

123,  124,  127,  134,  150 
Cotton,  145,  169 
Cotton  gin,  145 
Council  of  Garden  Clubs,  222 
Council  of  Social  Agencies,  218 
Country  Club  Estates,  201 
County.  See  Anson  County,  etc. 
County  Commissioners,  Forsyth,  10, 

11,  13,  52 
County  lines,  4,  8 
Court  days,  10,  64,  65 
Courthouse,  Winston,  11,  59,  62,  66, 

67,  71,  74,  75,  204 
Courthouse  Square,  59,  65,  71,  113,  204 
Courthouse  Tract,  59 
Court  of  Pleas  and  Quarter  Sessions, 

12,  60,  127 
Covered  wagons,  114 

Cowan  (Cowin),  Elizabeth  B.  H.,  23, 

Cowin  (Cowan),  William,  22 
Cowpox,  45 
Cows,  63 
Craft,  Sara,  165 
Craft  family,  134 
Crafton  Heights,  201,  202 
Crater,  Jacob,  125 



Graver  family,  126 

Crawford,  R.  B.,  102 

Creation,  The,  49 

Credit  Women's  Breakfast  Club,  222 

Creek  Indians,  46,  122 

Crews  family,  133 

Crist,  Anna  Elizabeth,  49 

Crops,  188 

Crosland  Louisa  Maria  (Shober),  76 

Cross  Creek,  34 

Crutchfield,  Paul  W.,  82 

Cummings,  Captain,  128 

Currency,  paper,  39 

Daily  Journal,  214,  215 

Daisy,  138 

Dalton,  J.  Walter,  106 

Dalton,  Rufus  I.,  106 

Dan  River,  61 

Davidson  County,  6,  12,  65 

Davie  County,  9,  12,  13 

Davis,  Reverend  E.  P.,  104 

Davis  family,  132 

Davis  Military  School,  92,  loi,  106 

Day  of  Thanksgiving,  41,  42,  47 

Dean  family,  128 

Declaration  of  Independence,  39 

Deems,  Dr.  Charles  F.,  73,  74 

Deep  River,  131 

Deer,  143 

Democratic  party,  82,  97 

Dennis,  135 

Department  of  Public  Welfare,  219 

Depot  Street  School,  86 

Depression,  199 

Dinkins,  Harvey,  229 

Dinkins  family,  133 

Disher  family,  133 

Dissenters,  4 

Dobb  family,  129 

Dobson,  Justice  William,  39,  131 

Dobson's  Creek  Roads,  131 

Dobson's  Tavern,  131 

Doctors,  36,  49 

Dogs,  63,  65 

Donnaha,  8,  135 

Doub,  P.  F.,  97 

Doub  family,  136 

Douglas  Place,  The,  132 

Douthit,  Benton,  149 

Douthit,  John,  126 

Douthit's  Ferry,  135 

Dowdy,  N.  D.,  106,  117 

Dozier,  139 

Dried  fruit,  69 

Drug  stores,  81 

Dudley,  Guy  R.,  184 
Dull  family,  134 
Dunkard  church,  138 
Duplan  Corporation,  177 
Durham  County,  194 
Dwire,  Mamie,  iii 

Early  Easter  Service,  210 
East  Winston,  106 
Eastern  Air  Lines,  212,  213 
Eaton,  O,  B.,  106,  108,  117,  205 
Ebert,  Eugene  A.,  104 
Ebert,  Payne  and  Co.,  171 
Ebert  family,  126 
Ebert  Street  Extension,  148 
Edenton,  4,  5 
Education,  159. 

See  also  names  of  schools 
Edwards,  George  W.,  117 
Elections,  128 

Elizabethtown,  Canada,  19 
Elks  Auditorium,  114 
Eller,  Adolphus  Hill,  103 
Ellis,  W.  B.,  and  Co.,  171 
Elrod,  Christopher,  126 
Engine  House  (fire),  85 
England,  5,  29 
Episcopalians,  76 
Erosion,  problem  of,  164 
Exchange  Club,  222 
Export  Leaf  Tobacco  Co.,  174 
Exposition,  North  Carolina,  159 

Family  and  Child  Service  Agency,  219 

Farm  demonstration  agents,  161 

Farmers  Institutes,  159 

Farmers'  Warehouse,  83,  84,  89 

Farming  tools,  144 

Farms,  187,  188,  189 

Fayetteville,  N.  C,  34 

Fayetteville  and  Western  Plank  Road, 

Federal  Home  Loan  Bank,  184 
Fehr  family,  127 
FeJdhausen,  Heinrich,  122 
Ferebee,  Reverend  L.  R.,  78 
Ferrabe,  J.,  59 
Festival  Opera  Group,  223 
Fever,  5 

Fiedler,  Peter,  127 
Field  Engineering  Co.,  96 
Financial  Institutions,  182-85 
Firebugs,  91 

Fire  companies,  85,  90,  103 
Fire  Department,  206 
Fires,  42,  47,  84,  85,  91,  92,  98,  103,  113, 

114,  125 



Fireworks,  72 

First  Baptist  Church,  75,  104,  209 

First  Baptist  Church  (Colored),  78, 

First  Federal  Savings  and  Loan  As- 
sociation, 185 

First  Methodist  Church,  72 

First  Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  62 

First  National  Bank,  81,  88,  84 

First  National  Bank,  Salem,  182 

First  National  Bank  Building,  114 

First  Presbyterian  Church,  203,  209 

Fishel  family,  126 

Fisher  family,  126 

Flags,  Confederate,  53 

Flax,  145,  169 

Florida,  3 

Flying  Jennies,  85 

Flynt  family,  130 

Flynt,  William,  11 

Foard,  H.  L.,  90 

Fogle,  Augustus,  178 

Fogle  Brothers  Co.,  178 

Fogle,  Charles  A.,  100,  178 

Fogle,  Christian  H.,  178,  183 

Fogle,  Fred  A.,  117,  179 

Fogle  Furniture  Co.,  179 

Foltz,  Mrs.  Henry  W. 
(Caroline  Johnson),  iii 

Foltz,  Peter,  125 

Foreign  missions,  48 

Forest  Hills,  201 

Forsith,  John,  17 

Forsyth,  Colonel  Benjamin,  9,  10, 

Forsyth,  Bethemia  Hardin,  18,  24 

Forsyth  Country  Club,  220 

Forsyth  County,  3,  6,  8,  9,  10,  12,  13,  17, 
29,  52,  66,  143,  144,  145.  158,  KJQ, 
160,  162,  164,  165,  166,  190,  191,  192, 

Forsyth  County  Centennial 
Committee,  v 

Forsyth  County  farm,  165 

Forsyth  County  Farm  Bureau,  163 

Forsyth  County  Tuberculosis  Hospi- 
tal, 149 

Forsyth,  Effie  Jones,  18 

Forsyth,  Elizabeth, 

(Mrs.  James  Forsyth),  17 

Forsyth,  Elizabeth  B.  H.,  20,  21,  22,  23 

Forsyth,  Elizabeth  Bostic,  18 

"Forsyth  Grays,"  66 

Forsyth,  James,  17 

Forsyth,  James  N.,  18,  22,  23,  24,  25 

Forsyth,  Mary  L.,  18,  23 

Forsyth  Pomona  Grange,  163 

"Forsyth  Rifles,"  53,  66,  99 

Forsyth,  Sally  Almond,  18,  21,  24 

Forsyth  Savings  and  Trust  Co.,  184 

Forsyth  Singers,  224 

Forsythe,  80 

Fort  George,  Canada,  20 

"Fourteen  Mineral  Springs,"  137 

Fourteenth  Street  School,  202 

Fourth  House,  The,  33,  224 

Fourth  of  July,  39,  71 

Foxes,  145 

Foy,  J.  O.,  97 

Franklin,  W.  E.,  108 

Fraternity  community,  138 

Free  postal  delivery,  102 

French  and  Indian  War,  7,  122,  136 

Frey,  Christian,  125 

Frey,  George,  125 

Frey,  Peter,  125 

Frey,  Valentine,  125 

Friedberg,  6,  125,  126 

Friedland,  8,  38,  126,  127 

Friendship  Airport,  212 

Fries,  Adelaide  L.,  229 

Fries,  F,  and  H.,  50,  175 

Fries,  Francis,  10,  11,  12,  150,  51,  59,  175 

Fries,  Francis  H.,  183 

Fries,  Giersh  and  Senseman,  186 

Fries,  Harry,  79 

Fries,  Henry  E.,  99,  100,  135,  154,  159 

Fries,  Henry  W.,  51 

Fries,  John,  77 

Fries,  John  W.,  98,  100,  181 

Fries,  Lee  Henry,  77,  79 

Fries  Manufacturing  and  Power  Co., 

Fries,  Paulina,  77 
Fruit  Fair,  103 
Fruit  trees,  144 
Fulk,  Margaret,  128 
Fulk  family,  134 
Fulp  (Volp),  George,  128 
Fulp  family,  132,  135 
Fulton,  Robert,  133 
Fulton  family,  131,  132 
Fungi  of  Lusatia,  46 
Furches,  D.  M.,  157 
Fusion  campaign,  156 

Gales,  A.  J.,  90 
Gamble,  Andrew  M.,  12 
Gannett,  Frank  A.,  214 
Garden  Clubs,  222 
Gardens,  144 



Gas  works,  175 

Gates  County,  23 

Gemein  Haus,  Salem,  34,  35,  44,  45,  52 

Gentry  family,  132 

Georgia,  30,  32,  41 

Germanton,  9,  18,  61 

Gibson,  Isaac,  59 

Gilmer,  J.  E.,  95,  98,  183,  185 

Gilmer,  John  L.,  211 

Gilmer  Brothers,  113 

Girl  Scouts,  218 

Glenn,    Robert    Broadnax,    102,    103, 

104,  109 
"God's  Acre,"  224 
Golding,  I.,  59 
Golf,  220 

Gorrell,  A.  B.,  80,  82,  83,  99 
Gorrell,  Franklin  L.,  63,  67,  74,  75 
Gorrell,  Ralph,  Esq.,  66 
Goslen,  Junius  Waitman,  70,  82,  89 
Goslen  family,  126 
Goslen  Publishing  Co.,  215 
Gourley,  Robert,  75 
Grabs,  Anna  Maria  (Wolsen),  124 
Grabs,  Gottfried,  124 
Grabs,  William,  124 
Grader,  motor,  166 
Graff,  Gertrude,  37 
Graff,  Reverend  John  Michael,  36,  37, 

Graham,  William  A.,  65,  66 
Granville,  Earl,  3,  4,  5,  30 
Granville  County,  150 
Granville  development,  201 
Gray,  Emory,  203 
Gray,  Eugene  E.,  82,  104 
Gray,  Gordon,  98,  215 
Gray,  James  A.,  86,  89,  108,  183 
Gray,  James  A.,  181 
Gray,  James  A.,  Jr.,  v 
Gray,  Mrs.  James  A. 

(Aurelia  Bowman),  87 
Gray,  Robert,  50,  59,  60,  63,  71,  73,  80 
Gray,  Robert,  Jr.,  60,  71 
Graycourt  Apartments,  202 
Gray  family,  136 
Graylyn,  136,  209 
Green,  John  Peter,  127 
Greene,   General   Nathanael,  40,  41, 

124,  134 
Greenfield  family,  132 
Greensboro,  N.  C.,  96 
Greter.  See  Crater 
Griffith,  John  F.,  82,  m 
Griffith  and  Bohannon,  171 
Griffith  family,  131,  132 

Grimsley,  George  A.,  185 

Grist  mill,  50 

Groceries  and  general  merchandise, 

Grogan,  Annie,  m,  112,  217 
Grogan,  Martin,  80,  88 
Grubbs  family,  133 
Grube,  Reverend  Bernhard  Adam, 

Guernsey  cattle,  159,  160,  162,  166 
Guide  Book  of  Western  North 

Carolina,  81 
Guilford  Battle  Ground,  61 
Guilford  County,  65,  131,  194 
Guilford  Courthouse,  Battle  of,  40 
Guns,  169 
Guthrie,  138 
Guyer  family,  132 

Hahn,  George  Frederick,  127 

Halifax  Convention,  39 

Hall,  Mrs.  Mary,  80 

Hall,  Willis  E.,  Esq.,  99 

Hall  family,  131 

Hall  of  History,  130 

Hamilton  family,  126 

Hamlen,  Chesley,  98,  99 

Hamlen,  Liipfert  and  Co.,  171 

Hammack  family,  133 

Handicrafts,  30,  32,  33,  40,  42,  52,  169 

Hanes.  See  also  Hoehns 

Hanes,   (town),  126,  137,  138,  176 

Hanes,  B.  F.,  171 

Hanes,  James  G.,  165 

Hanes,  John  W.,  98,  102,  105,  i75,  203 

Hanes,  P.  H.  and  Co.,  171 

Hanes,  Philip,  130 

Hanes,  Pleasant  H.,  86,  89,  100,  175, 

Hanes,  Ralph  P.,  177 
Hanes  Dye  and  Finishing  Co.,  177 
Hanes  Hosiery  Mills  Co.,  176 
Hanes  Park,  206 
Hanover  County,  Virginia,  17 
Happy  Hill,  77 
Hardware,  81 
Hardware,  furniture,  181 
Harmon,  Apollos,  131 
Harmon,  Salome  (Kerner),  131 
Harpeth,  West  Tennessee,  22 
Harrell,  80 

Harrell,  Mrs.  Anna,  80 
Harris,  E.  L.,  105 
Harris,  Mrs.  J.  J.,  149 
Hartman,  Adams,  125 
Hartman,  George,  125 


Harvey  and  Rintels,  171 

Hastings,  Judge  A.  H.,  112 

Hastings.  John,  146 

Hauser,  George,  Sr.,  124 

Hauser,  John  Henry,  Esq.,  22,  23 

Hauser,  Martin,  Sr..  124 

Hauser,  Michael,  12,  124 

Hauser  family,  129,  133 

Hawkins,  Caroline,  113 

Hawkins,  E.  L.,  96 

Haw  River,  4,  131 

Hay,  164,  188 

Haywood,  Louise  (Bahnson),  160 

Haywood,  T.  Holt,  131,  160 

Hayworth  family,  134 

Hazard,  W.  P.,  159 

Health,  Public,  35 

Health  Department,  216 

Heath,  Sir  Robert,  3 

Hege,  Balthaser,  124 

Hege,  Christian,  59 

Hege,  Constantine  A.,  98,  100 

Hege,  Edward,  68 

Hege  family,  131 

Hein.  See  Hine 

Helsabeck  family,  130 

Hendren,  Mrs.  S.  S.,  95 

Hendrix  family,  132 

Henley  family,  132 

Herbst,  Heinrich,  35 

Hereford  cattle,  162 

Hester  family,  128,  133 

High  Point,  N.  C,  51,  130 

High  Point,  Randleman,  Ashboro, 

and  Southern  Railroad,  loi 
Highways,  Public,  63,  loi,  127,  211 
Hill,  Charles  H.,  92 
Hill,  George  Watts,  160 
Hill,  W.  P.,  72 
Hillsboro,  N.  C,  39,  41 
Hillsboro  Academy,  24 
"Hilltops  House,"  147 
Hine,  Jacob,  127 
Hinshaw,  George  W.,  51,  88,  89,  99, 

100,  loi,  103,  203 
Hinshaw  and  Bynum,  185 
Hinshaw  and  Medearis,  83 
Hinshaw's  Hall,  78 
Hodgin  Brothers  and  Lunn,  171,  176 
Hodgin  and  Sullivan,  185 
Hoehns  (Hanes),  Marcus,  125,  130 
Hogs,  63,  64,  115,  116,  162 
Holder,  Charles,  33 
Holder,  Henry,  59,  63,  64 
Holder  familv,  125 
Holland,  Alfred,  75 


Holland,  Reverend  George  W.,  78 

Holland,  Nannie  E.,  75 

Holmes,  Governor  Gabriel,  24 

Holstein-Friesian  milk  cows,  162,  166 

Home  Demonstration,  159 

Home  Moravian  Church,  44,  209,  210, 

Home  Moravian  Sunday  School,  48 
Hood,  Gurney  P.,  184 
Hood  System  Industrial  Bank,  184 
Hook  and  ladder  company,  89 
Hooper  family,  132 
Hope,  Indiana,  126 
Hope,  N.  C,  8,  126 
Hopewell  Sunday  School,  48 
Hopkins,  P.,  59 
Horses,  85,  90 

Hosiery,  circular  knit,  169,  177 
Hospital,  public,  87 
Hotel  Robert  E,  Lee,  89,  203 
House  of  Representatives,  N.  C,  22, 


Houses,  Salem,  31,  32,  33,  34,  35,  36,  37, 
43,  44,  48,  52;  Winston,  59,  63,  65, 
82,  88,  106. 
See  also  Churches,  Factories,  etc. 

Howland,  John,  134 

Huie  family,  132 

Hulon  Post  Office,  148 

Humidifiers,  181 

Hunt  family,  129 

Hunter  family,  131 

Huntley,  B.  P.,  179 

Huntley,  B.  F.,  Furniture  Co.,  179 

Hus,  John,  29 

Hussite  Wars,  29 

Idol,  Barnett,  134 

Idol,  Barnett,  II,  134 

Idol,  Jacob,  134 

Idol  family,  133,  135 

Idols  (flag-stop),  135 

Imperial  Tobacco  Co.,  174 

Incinerator,  206 

Income  taxes,  195 

Indera  Mills  Co.,  177 

Indians,  missions  to,  32,  45,  46; 

mentioned,  134,  143. 

See  also  Catawba,  etc. 
Indian  Wars,  61 
Industrious  men,  190,  191 
Influenza, 199 
Ingebretsen,  Erich,  122 
Interest,  legal  rate  of,  loi 
Inventions,  189 
Iredell  County,  6,  23 



Jackson,  General  Andrew,  151 

Jocobs,  Joe,  105 

Jacobs  Building,  104 

James  A.  Gray  High  School,  207 

Jarvis,  J.  M,,  160 

Jean,  Edmond,  133 

Jean,  William,  133 

Jewelry  stores,  81 

Johnson  family,  131 

Johnston,  Rev.  Frontis  H.,  74 

John  W.  Hanes  High  School,  207 

Jones,  B.  Franklin,  134 

Jones,  Caleb,  10 

Jones,  Cox  and  Co.,  171 

Jones,  Mrs.  E.  B.,  112 

Jones,  Mrs.  Permelia,  75 

Jones  Building,  114 

Jones  family,    131,  133,  134 

Jordan,  F.  M.,  75 

Journal-Sentinel  Building,  215 

Junior  Chamber  of  Commerce,  221 

Junior  League,  222 

Junior  Woman's  Club,  222 

Justice,  J.  R.,  98 

Justices  of  the  Peace,  11,  12,  18,  35 

Kalberlahn,  Dr.  Hans  Martin,  121 

Kapp,  Jacob,  122 

Kapp  family,  125 

Kate  Bitting  Reynolds  Hospital,  217 

Keiger  family,  130 

Keith,  Wiley  F.,  90,  92 

Keller,  John,  59 

Kennedy,  Jesse,  60,  75,  76 

Kerner,  John  F.,  131 

Kerner,  Joseph,  131 

Kerner,  Julius,  132 

Kerner,  Newton  and  Co.,  171 

Kerner,  Philip,  131 

Kerner,  Robah  B.,  82,  91 

Kerner's  Cross  Roads,  131 

"Kerner's  Folly,"  132 

Kernersville,  loi,  102,  131,  132,  146, 

Kerr,  Governor  Elias,  155 
Kerr,  Sarah  F.,  75 
Kester,  John  A.,  177 
Kiel,  University  of,  46 
Kiger,  A.,  129 
Kiraberly  Park,  202 
Kirael,  Theophilus,  148 
King,  Joseph  Wallace,  230 
King,  S.,  23 
King's  Daughters,  Whatsoever  Circle 

of.   III 

King's  Mountain,  Battle  of,  61 

Kiwanis,  222 

Kizer  family,  130 

Kluge,  Charles  F.,  11 

Knight,  C.  L.,  98 

Koerner.  See  Kerner 

Konnoak  Hills,  138,  201,  202 

Konnoak  Hills  Club,  222 

Kramsch,  Reverend  Samuel  Gottlieb, 

Kreeger  family,  130 
Kremer,  Adam,  124 
Kremser,  Andreas,  43 
Krieger,  Jacob,  128 
Kroehm.  See  Green 
Kuenzel,  Frederick,  127 

Ladd,  Constantine,  18 

Ladd,  Elizabeth  Bethemia  Hardin, 

18,  20,  21 
Ladino  clover,  164 
Lagenauer,  Lewis,  133 
Lagenauer  family,  133 
Lamp-lighter,  85 
Lanier,  Rebecca,  150 
Lanius,  John,  127 
Lasater,  Robert  E.,  131,  212 
Lash.  See  Loesch 
Lash,  Christian,  18 
Lash,  Israel  G.,  12,  182 
Lash  family,  130 
Laivs  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina 

passed  by  the  General  Assembly  at 

the  Session  of  1848-49,  9 
Leak,  Flora,  113 
Leak,  Mrs.  Mattie,  113 
Leak,  T.  F.  Tobacco  Co.,  171 
Leak  family,  132 
Lease  systems,  31,  52 
Leazer,  Augustus,  loi 
Lee,  Flora  Ann,  228 
Lehman,  Emma  A.,  125 
Leight,  Edwin,  66 
Leipzig,  University  of,  37 
Lemay,  Thomas  J.,  9 
Lemly,  Henry  A.,  10 
Lemly,  Laura,  76 
Lemly,  William  A.,  183 
Lespedeza,  164 
Lewis  (Ludwig),  Peter,  128 
Lewis  family,  132 
Lewisville,  133,  134 
Lewisville  Civic  Club,  222 
Lewisville  Township,  8,  12 
Lexington,  Battle  of,  37,  38 
Liberty,  72,  139 
Liberty  Street,  139 

240  Index 

Lightning  rods,  43 
Lindbergh,  Colonel  Charles  A.,  212 
Lindsay  family,  132 
Lineback,  Joseph,  68 
Linville,  George,  11 
Linville,  R.  F.,  160,  161 
Linville,  Thomas,  Jr.,  127 
Linville  (Linval),  Thomas,  Sr.,  127 
Linville,  William,  127 
Linville  family,  132 
Lions  (luncheon  club),  222 
Liquor  problems,  63 
Lisher,  Johannes,  122 
Litany,  Moravian  Church,  39 
"Little  Red  Man,"  43 
Little  Theatre,  223 
Little  Yadkin,  13 
Livery  stable,  81 
Livestock,  159,  160,  162,  188,  189 
Lockett,  Vaughn  and  Co.,  171 
Lockland  Avenue,  148 
Loesch.  See  Lash 
Loesch,  Herman,  122 
Loesch,  Reverend  Jacob,  121,  129 
Long,  Vernon  W.,  97 
Long,  Widow,  67 
Long  family,  136 
Lords  Proprietors,  3,  30 
Lott,  Arthur  Patterson,  74 
Lott,  Flora  Virginia,  74 
Lott,  Henry  Stokes,  75 
Lott,  Hezekiah  D.,  74,  75 
Lott,  Sarah  Lena,  74 
Louse  Level,  139 
Love,  James,  Jr.,  133 
Love,  James,  Sr.,  133 
Lovefeasts,  121,  210 
Love's  Church,  133 
Lowery  family,  132 
Loyalists.  See  Tories 
Lumber,  169 
Luncheon  clubs,  221,  222 
Lung,  Jacob,  122 
Lutherans,  48 
Lybrook,  Philip,  55 
Lyman,  Right  Reverend 
Theodore  Benedict,  76 

McBride  family,  133 
McClellan,  G.  W.,  165 
McClemment,  J.  H.,  96 
McCuiston  family,  132 
McGalliard,  Ethel,  75 
McKnight,  J.  C,  79 
McNally  family,  128 
McQueen,  Alice,  161 

Maids  of  Melody,  224 

Mail,  33,  34 

Main  Hall,  Salem  College,  52,  53 

Maline  Mills,  177 

Manly,  Mrs.  Clement,  112 

Market  prices,  62 

Markland  family,  126 

Marshall,  Reverend  Frederic 

William,  30,  37,  40,  41,  45 
Marshall,  Hedwig  Elizabeth 

(von  Schweinitz),  40 
Marshall,  Colonel  Henry,  60,  6i 
Marshall,  Matt,  149 
Marshall,  Nannie,  75 
Marshall  family,  135 
Martin,  Governor  Alexander,  41,  43 
Martin,  Mrs.  Frank,  95 
Martin,  James,  86 
Martin,  Peter,  86 
Martin,  Dr.  Samuel,  66 
Martin,  Mrs.  W.  T.,  95 
Martin  family,  133 
Marvin  Chapel,  138 
Maryland,  5 
Maslin,  Thomas,  106 
Masonic  Temple,  114,  204 
Massachusetts,  37 
Mast,  D.  P.,  80,  82,  95 
Masten,  J.  H.,  90 
Masten,  John,  59 
Masten,  Colonel  Joseph,  66 
Masten,  Colonel  Matthias,  66 
Masten  Building,  114 
Mathes,  George  M.,  88,  97 
Mathes,  J.  N.,  64 
Mayflower,  The,  134 
Maynard  Field  Airport,  212 
Mayo,  Dr.  A.  D.,  87 
Mayors,  Winston,  60,  63,  64,  80,  82,  91, 

Mecklenburg  County,  194 
Mecum  family,  133 
Meeting  Halls,  32,  35,  44 
Meinung,  Frank  C,  186 
Meinung,  Frederic  Christian,  10, 

II,  12,  49,  59 
Meinung,  Ludwig,  36 
Melrose,  201 

Memorabilia  service,  210 
Memorial  Coliseum,  221 
Memorial  Industrial  School,  219 
Memorial  of  Robah  B.  Kerner,  91 
Mendenhall,  William,  80 
Mendenhall  family,  126 
Mengle  Co.,  179 
Merchants  and  Traders'  Union,  221 



Merchants  Hotel,  81 
Merkley,  Christopher,  122 
Methodist  Church,  Walkertown,  133 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 

62,  64,  72,  73 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church 

(Colored),  77 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 

North,  77 
Methodist  prayer  meeting,  first,  72 
Methodist  Protestant  Church,  62,  72 
Methodists,  72,  146 
Mexican  War,  3,  9,  50,  66 
Meyer,  Jacob,  35 
Mickey,  S.,  59 
Mickey  Mill  Road,  149 
Mickle,  Mrs.  Andrew,  112 
Mickle  family,  129 
Midwives,  36 
Miksch,  Matthew,  35 
Militia,  19,  38,  39 
Milk  poal,  199 
Mill  Creek,  146 
Miller,  Mrs.  Edith,  80 
Miller,  Captain  Frank  P.,  66 
Miller,  Frederick,  127 
Miller,  Harmon,  60 
Miller,  Hermanus,  129,  130 
Miller,  John  J.,  148 
Miller,  John  Thomas,  148 
Miller,  P.  C,  64 
Miller  Airport,  212 
Miller  family,  148 
Millinery  establishments,  81 
Millis,  J.  H.,  183 
Mineral  Springs,  138 
Mineral  Springs  Civic  Club,  222 
Mitchell,  Nick,  184 
Mitchener,  S.  R.,  161 
Mock,  Philip  W.,  138 
Moir  family,  133 
Montview,  201 
Moon,  Owen,  214 
Moravia,  29 
Moravian  Church,  4,  7,  8,  29,  30,  32, 

33,  44,  45,  55 
Moravian  Church  Home,  224 
Morehead,  Reverend  George,  79 
Morehead,  John,  50 
Morehead,  Governor  John  Motley, 

Morris,  Mr.,  99 
Morris  Chapel,  133 
Morris  family,  133 
Morris  Plan  Bank,  184 
Morristown,  New  York,  19 

Moseley,  Mrs.  R.  D.,  iii 

Moser  family,  130 

Mt.  Airy,  130 

Mt.  Zion,  Tennessee,  21 

Moving  Picture  houses,  114,  220 

Muddy  Creek,  5,  6,  131,  146,  148 

Mueller,  John,  125 

Mulberry  Tree  Society,  73 

Museum,  Salem,  44,  53 

Music,  41,  43,  47,  223,  224 

Music  Festival,  223 

Muskets,  flint-lock,  144 

Muster,  general,  64 

Mutual  Broadcasting  Co.,  216 

Nading,  N.  W.,  80 

Nading  family,  133 

Nashville,  Tennessee,  24 

Nashville  Clarion,  22,  23 

National  Advocate,  81 

National  Broadcasting  Co.,  215 

National  Federation  of  Garden  Clubs, 

Navy,  United  States,  22 
Nazareth  Evangelical  Lutheran 

Church,  129 
Neal  family,  128 
Negroes,  48,  49,  54,  69,  77,  78,  79,  80, 

81,  no,  129,  184,  191,  192,  201,  207, 

217,  218,  219 

New  Bern,  19 

New  Eden,  138 

New  England  Journal  of  Education, 

New  Orleans,  19 
New  River,  Virginia,  122 
New  Shallowford  Street,  51 
New  York  state,  19 
Newsome  family,  134 
Nicholson,  A.,  59 
Niesky,  Germany,  46 
Nissen,  Harry  Eugene,  90 
Nissen,  J.  S.,  172 
Nissen,  William  M.,  203 
Nissen  Building,  105,  203 
Nissen  Wagon  Works,  65 
Noah  Webster's  Spelling  Book,  43 
Norfleet,  Charles  M.,  184 
Norfleet,  James  K.,  108 
Norfleet,  Mrs.  James  K.,  in,  112 
Norfleet,  Captain  M.  W.,  83 
Norfleet,  Robert  C,  105 
Norfolk  and  Western  Railroad, 

133,  135,  210,  211 
Normal  Air  Co.,  181 
Normal  school,  87 



Norman,  Reverend  Alfred,  72 

Norman,  B.  F.,  104 

Norman,  Reverend  W.  C,  72 

North  Carolina,  3,  4,  30 

North  Carolina  Baptist  Convention, 

North  Carolina  Baptist  Hospital, 

208,  216 
North  Carolina  Dairy  Council,  165 
North  Western  North  Carolina 

Railroad,  84,  155,  170 
North  Wilkesboro,  130 
North  Winston  Men's  Brotherhood, 

North  Winston  Men's  Community 

Club,  222 

Oakland  Furniture  Co.,  179 

Occupation  percentages,  192 

Odeltov^n,  Canada,  20,  23 

Oehman  family,  125 

Oesterlein,  Elisabeth,  36 

Ogburn,  Anna,  134 

Ogburn,  C.  J.,  72 

Ogburn,  Hill  and  Co.,  171 

Ogburn,  M.  L.,  171 

Ogburn,  S.  A.,  171 

Ogburn  Station,  138 

Ogdensburg,  N.  Y.,  20 

Ohio  Volunteer  Cavalry,  68,  69 

O'Hanlon  Building,  65,  114,  203 

Old  Fort,  130 

Oldham,  Edward  A.,  97 

"Old  Hurrygraph,"  82 

Old  Jerusalem  Church,  73 

Old  Lexington  Road,  138 

Old  Salisbury  Road,  148 

Old  Town,  121.  See  also  Bethabara 

Old  Town  Civic  Club,  222 

Old  Town  Club,  137,  220 

Old  Town  High  School,  125 

Old  Town  Road,  72,  82 

Operetta  Association,  224 

Opiz,  Charles,  124 

Optimist  Club,  222 

Organs,  35,  44,  125 

Orrasby,  W.  P.,  186 

Pace,  E.  M.,  90 

Pace's  Warehouse,  84 

Padget  family,  126 

Pageant,  George  Washington,  199 

Palmer,  General,  53,  54,  67,  68 

Panky,  John  B.,  62 

Panther  Creek,  133,  150 

Panthers,  145 

Paper,  169 

Paper  mill,  Salem,  43 

Parliament  of  Great  Britain,  4,  38 

Pastures,  164 

Patterson,  J.  Lindsay,  98 

Patterson,  Mary  Louisa 

(Morehead),  74 
Patterson,  Rufus  Lenoir,  50,  66,  71 
Paylor,  J.  D.,  98 
Payne  family,  130 
Peddycord,  Andrew  J.,  92 
Peddycord  family,  126 
Pegram  family,  128 
Pendleton,  Henry,  86 
Pennsylvania,  4,  30,  32,  33 
Peoples  Press,  62 
Pepper,  John,  59 
Perkins,  C.  E.,  205 
Perry,  Lemuel,  24 
Person  County,  23 
Pest  House,  84 
Petersburg,  Virginia,  34 
Petersen,  Hans,  121 
Petree  family,  130 
Pfaff,  Isaac,  128 
Pfaff,  Joseph,  128 
Pfaff,  Peter,  128 
Pfafftown,  128,  129,  149 
Pfeil,  Friedrich  Jacob,  122 
Pfohl,  Edward  Alexander,  89,  icxd 
Pfohl  and  Stockton,  69,  185 
Pfohl  and  Stockton's  Hotel,  81 
P.  H.  Hanes  Knitting  Co.,  137,  176 
Piedmont  Aviation,  Inc.,  213 
Piedmont  Federal  Savings  and 

Loan  Association,  185 
Piedmont  Festival  of  Music  and 

Arts,  223 
Piedmont  Leaf  Tobacco  Co.,  174 
Piedmont  Publishing  Co.,  98,  215, 

Piedmont  Warehouse,  83 
Pilot  Club,  222 
Pines,  143 
Pinnix  family,  132 
Pioneer  settlers,  143,  144,  145,  190 
Plank  Road,  Fayetteville  and 

Western,  51,  52,  65 
Plunkett  family,  132 
Poindexter,  H.  D.,  82,  185 
Police  Department,  206 
Policemen,  Winston,  60,  63 
Poor  House  of  Forsyth  County,  12 
Poor  Peter's  Call  To  His  Children, 

148,  149 
Poplars,  143 


1 60 

Population,  Winston 
Populist  party,  156 
Port  of  Entry,  195 
Post  Office,  Salem,  43 
Post  Office,  Winston,  55,  62 
Post  Office  Building,  114,  204 
Potatoes,  144 
Pottery,  169 
Pou,  R.  W.,  161 
Poultry,  162,  163 
Praezel,  Gottfried,  32 
Prather,  Mary  Catharina 

(Sussdorf),  95,  108 
Presbyterians,  74 
Preston  family,  128 
Primrose,  William  S., 

Primrose  Farm,  159, 

Prince  Albert  smoking  tobacco 
Printing  office,  Salem,  47,  81 
Pritchard,  Jeter  C,  156 
Pritchard,  Reverend  T.  H.,  75 
Prohibition,  109 
Proprietors  of  Wachovia,  41,  5 
Public  Recreation  Commission 
Pulaski's  Legion,  39 

Quail  Roost  Farm,  160 
Quakers,  75 
Quitrents,  5,  30 

Race  relations,  199 
Radio  shops,  i8i 
Radio  stations,  2x5,  216 
Raleigh,  Sir  Walter,  144 
Raleigh,  N.  C,  24,  96 
Randolph  County,  6,  65 
Ranke,  Michael,  124 
Raper,  Jasper,  147 
Raper,  Wesley,  147 
Raper  family,  134 
Ravines,  70 
Ray  family,  132 
Rayle  family,  129 
Ready-to-wear  shops,  81 
Real  Estate  Exchange,  221 
Reconstruction,  54,  55 
Recreational  facilities,  219 
Red  Cross,  218 
Reddick,  Joseph, 
Reed,  Christian, 
Regulators,  132 
Reich,  Edward,  59 
Reich,  John,  12,  148 
Reich  family,  126 
Reid,  Jacob,  127 
Renegar,  Henry,  63 


I,  87,  i86,  201 




Republican  party,  81 
Reservoir,  bursting  of,  no 
Retail  Merchants  Association, 

213,  219,  221 
Retail  trade,  185,  i86 
"Reuben  Pinck,"  132 
Reuter,  Christian  Gottlieb,  31,  35,  123 
Revolutionary  War,  3,  8,  30,  37,  38-42, 

61,  150 
Reynolda,  136,  137 
"Reynolda  House,"  136 
Reynolda  Park,  201,  220 
Reynolda  Presbyterian  Church,  137 
Reynolda  Village,  137,  201 
Reynolds,  Carrie  Watkins  (Fretwell), 

154.  157 
Reynolds,  Charles  A.,  loi,  154,  155, 

156,  157,  159 
Reynolds,  H.  H.,  171,  173 
Reynolds,  Richard  J.,  100,  136,  172, 

Reynolds,  Mrs.  R.  J.  (Katherine 

Smith),  113,  136,  206 
Reynolds,  William  N.,  131,  217 
Reynolds,  Mrs.  W.  N.  (Kate  Bitting), 

Reynolds  Bros.,  171 
Reynolds  family,  134 
Reynolds  Office  Building,  203 
Reynolds  Memorial  Auditorium,  206 
Reynolds,  R.  J.,  Tobacco  Co.,  154,  171, 

Rich,  Mrs.  D.  (Carrie  Watkins), 

95,  III 
Richard  J.  Reynolds  High  School, 
Richmond,  Old,  8,  9,  135 
Richmond,  Virginia,  53,  154 
Richmond  and  Danville  Railroad, 
Riddle  family,  126 
Riding  academies,  220 
Riggins,  Henry  L.  (Mary  Gorrell), 

Rights,  Reverend  Christian  Lewis,  72 
Rights,  Douglas  L.,  229 
Rights  family,  132 
Ring  family,  132 
Riots,  199 

Rippel's  Church,  48 
Roads,  improved,  155,  159 
Roberts  family,  132 
Robinson,  Colonel  James  A.,  81 
Rockford,  9,  151 
Rock  House,  The,  126 
Rockingham  County,  9 
Roddick,  Mrs.  (Rominger),  n2 
Rogers,  James  M.,  98,  99,  100,  113 





Rogers,  Mrs.  James  M. 

(Mary  Erwin),  88,  iii 
Rogers,  John,  24 
Rominger,  Jacob,  127 
Rominger,  Michael,  127 
Rondthaler,  Rt.  Rev.  Edward,  49,  69, 

Rosemont  community,  139 
Rosenbacher  Bros.,  186 
Rotary  Club,  222 
Rothroclc  family,  126 
Rougemont,  160 
Rough  and  Ready  Fire  Company,  91, 

Rowan  County,  3,  6,  8 
Rural  Hall,  6,  129,  130,  148 
Rural  Hall  Civic  Club,  222 
Russell,  Governor  Daniel  L.,  155, 

156.  157 
Rye,  144 
Ryttenberg,  A.,  95 

Saddle  and  Harness  shops,  81 

St.  James  A.  M.  E.  Church,  79,  80 

St.  James  M.  E.  Church,  78 

St.  Paul  M.  E.  Church,  78 

St.  Paul's  Episcopal  Church,  76, 

209,  215 
St.  Philips  Church,  49 
Salaries  and  wages,  84,  85 
Salem,  7,  8,  10,  11,  19,  29-55,  123,  130 
Salem,  Old,  224 
Salem  Academy,  52,  53,  54,  207 
Salem  Brass  Band,  66,  71,  96 
Salem  Boys  School,  224 
Salem  Chapel  Township,  7,  60,  135 
Salem  College,  36,  45,  125,  207,  223 
Salem  Congregation,  lo,  11,  31,  35,  44, 

Salem  Cotton  Manufacturing  Co., 

49,  50,  175 
Salem  Creek,  31,  67,  70,  131 
Salem  diary,  68 
Salem  Female  Missionary  Society, 

Salem  land,  10,  ii,  31,  52 
Salem  Steel  Co.,  181 
Salem  Tavern,  224 
Salisbury,  6,  7 
Salt  Street,  139 
Sanders,  John,  59,  73 
Sapp  family,  132 
Saunderson,  Colonel,  68 
Saxony,  29 

Sayler  (Seeler)  family,  127 
Scales,  Major  James,  83 
Scales  and  weights,  83 

Scarborough,  Edmund,  Jr.,  17 

Schmidt,  Christopher,  124 

Schneider,  Melchoir,  127 

Schneider,  Peter,  127 

Schober,  Anna  Paulina,  48 

Schober,  Emanuel,  47 

Schober,  Gottlieb,  43,  48,  131 

School  board, 106 

School  buildings,  200 

School  commissioners,  Winston,  86,  87 

School  committee,  11 

School  for  boys,  Salem,  36,  43,  44 

School  for  girls,  Salem,  36,  45,  52. 

See  also  Salem  Academy  and 

Salem  College 
Schools,  City,  206,  207,  208,  209 
Schools,  Winston,  ii,  36,  62,  76,  86, 

Schouler,  D.  D.,  186 
Schulz,  Henry,  49 
Schuman,  Dr.  Frederic,  49 
Schweinitz,  Amalia  (Ledoux)  de 

(von),  46,  47 
Schweinitz,  Rt.  Rev.  Emil  Adolphus, 

55        . 
Schweinitz,  Rev.  Hans  Christian 

Alexander  von,  46 
Schweinitz,  Lewis  David  von    (de), 

46,  47 
Schweinitz,  Rev.  Robert  de,  53,  54,  67, 

Scott,  General  Winfield,  65,  66 
Securit}'  Life  and  Trust  Co.,  185 
Seiz.  See  Sides 
Sell  family,  133 
Sell  farm,  134 
Seminole  War,  151 
Senate,  N.  C,  23 
Senseman,  W.  O.  and  Co.,  186 
Sentinel  Printing  and  Publishing  Co., 

Settlers,  early,  6,  7,  121,  143,  144 
Sewage  disposal  plant,  205 
Seward,  139 
ShaflFner,  Emil  N.,  180 
Shaffner,  Henry  F.,  117,  183 
ShaflFner,  Dr.  John  Francis,  186 
Shaflrner,  Mrs.  J.  F. 

(Caroline  Louisa  Fries),  88 
Shaffner,  William  F.,  180 
Shallow  Ford  of  Yadkin  River,  124, 

Shamberger,  Reverend,  79 
Shamel  family,  136 
Shamrock  Mill,  176 
Shaus,  Philip,  124 
Shaw,  Anna,  113 



Sheep,  145 

Shelton,  Dr.  John  H.,  89 

Shepperd,  Augustine  Henry,  153,  154, 

SheriflFs,  11 
Shober.  See  Schober 
Shoe  and  hat  shops,  81 
Shore,  Frederick,  124 
Shore,  Henry,  124 
Shore,  Henry  Washington,  186 
Shore  family,  132 
Shouse,  Colonel  Henry,  149 
Sickles,  Major  D.  E.,  80 
Siddall,  Thomas,  59 
Sides,  Michael,  127 
Sidewalks,  85 
Siewers,  Charles  N.,  229 
Siewers  family,  133 
Single  Sisters,  35 
Sisters  House,  36,  42 
Skin  House,  The,  46,  52 
Skyscrapers,  203 
Slater  family,  126 
Slater  Industrial  Academy,  103 
Slater  Industrial  and  State  Normal 

School,  103 
Slater  State  Normal  School,  207 
Slaves,  145,  150,  158 
Smalling,  Samuel,  24 
Smallpox,  40,  45,  83 
Smith,  Dave,  147 
Smith,  Captain  Henry,  38 
Smith,  Samuel  H.,  82,  104,  186 
Smith  family,  127,  134,  135 
Smith  Reynolds  Airport,  213 
Smith,  W.  F.  and  Son,  171 
Snider.  See  Schneider 
Snow,  Ada,  113 
Sorosis  Book  Club,  222 
Southbound  Railway  Co.,  51 
South  Carolina,  4,  40,  41,  148 
Southern  Bell  Telephone  Co.,  214 
Southern  Railway,  132,  135,  155,  210, 


Southern  Silk  Mills,  178 
Southern  Steel  Stamping  Co.,  i8i 
Southern  Tobacco  Journal,  215 
South  Fork  Civic  Club,  222 
South  Fork  Township,  12 
South  Hall  of  Salem  College,  45,  52 
South  Salem,  202 
Southside,  201 
Spach,  Adam,  7,  125,  126 
Spach,  J.  C,  Wagon  Works,  178 
Spach  Wagon  Works,  65 
Spangenberg,  Bishop  August  Gottlieb, 
5,  123,  124 

Spanish  Grove,  139 
Spaugh,  Benjamin,  80 
Spaugh,  Edward,  64 
Spaugh,  Rufus  A.,  104 
Speas,  Dr.  D.  C,  165 
Speas  family,  136 
Spencer,  Dr.,  89 
Spoenhauer,  Henry,  124 
Sprague,  F.  J.,  96 
Springplace,  Georgia,  45 
Sprinkle  family,  131 
Spurgeon,  Colonel,  134 
Square,  Salem,  32,  71 
StaflFord,  Andrew  J.,  ii,  59,  63 
Stafford,  John,  10 
Stafford,  Zadock,  10 
Stafford  family,  132 
Stage  coach,  65,  130,  148 
Standard  Building  and  Loan 

Association,  185 
Standpipe,  no 
Stanleyville,  138 
Starbuck,  Darius  Henry,  59,  68,  80, 

95,  203 
Starbuck,  Henry  R.,  103 
State  Bank,  The,  48 
State  theatre,  70,  114 
Staub,  A.,  66 
Stauber,  Christian,  125 
Stauber  family,  130 
Steiner,  Abraham,  11 
Steiner,  Reverend  Abraham,  49 
Stepping  stones,  85 
Stevens,  R.,  98 
Stewart  family,  132 
Stewart-Warner  Co.,  i8i 
Stockton,  Joseph  H.,  100 
Stockton  family,  132 
Stokes  County,  3,  9,  10,  12,  17,  18,  20, 

22,  52,  61,  65,  133 
Stoneman's  Brigade,  53,  67 
Store,  Salem,  34,  35,  36,  40,  47 
Stores,  Winston,  60 
Storms,  128 
Story,  Caleb,  131 
Strader  family,  128 
Streetcars,  92,  96,  97,  106,  154,  213 
Street  lights,  70,  85,  95,  96 
Street  paving,  213 
Streets,  Salem,  11,  31,  47,  50,  51,  59, 

Streets,  Winston,  11,  51,  59,  60,  62,  64, 

69,  70,  72,  82,  89,  113,  114,  "5 
Strup,  John,  124 
Strupe,  Luther,  160 
Strupe  family,  131 
Stultz  family,  129 



Stumptovvn,  139 

Suburban  developments,  200,  201 

SulH\'an  and  Bell,  60 

Sullivan  famil}',  133 

Summer  School  of  Opera,  223 

Summit  School,  136,  207 

Sunday  Journal  and  Sentinel,  98 

Sunday  Schools,  48,  49,  130 

"Sunny  Acres,"  134 

Sunnyside,  139 

Sunnyside  Choral  Club,  224 

Sun-Waugh  Civic  Club,  222 

Supreme  Court  of  N.  C,  156 

Surry  County,  3,  8,  9,  10,  12,  13,  41,  61. 

129,  150 
Susdorff,  Frank  Leopold,  89 
Sutton,  Reverend  A.  B.,  76 
Swaim,  Reverend  W.  E.,  104 
Swaim  family,  127,  134 
Swimming  pools,  220 
Swords,  22,  23,  25,  61 

Tailor  shops,  81 

Tamworth  boars,  162 

Tanneberger,  David,  44 

Tanyard,  35 

Tar  Branch,  31 

Tavern,  Salem,  35,  39,  42,  43,  66 

Tavis,  John  D.,  80 

Taxable  property,  193,  194 

Taxes,  8,  18,  40,  207 

Taxi-cabs,  213 

Taylor,  Collins,  185 

Taylor,  Jacquelin  P.,  174 

Taylor,  William  B.,  174 

Taylor  Bros.,  94,  171,  174 

Teague,  Elijah  B.,  147 

Teague,  Dr.  M.  E.,  147 

Teague  family,  134 

Teaguetown,  134 

Telephone  Company,  105 

Tennessee,  21,  23 

Tesch  family,  126 

Test  Oath,  38 

Textile  industry,  32,  50,  137,  169,  175, 

176,  177,. 178' 
Thanksgiving  days,  93 
Thomas,  Hezekiah,  60 
Thomas,  H.  K.,  80 
Thompson,  Dr.  V.  O.,  186 
Three-fold  tax  in  lieu  of  military 

service,  38 
Tiersch,  Reverend  Paul,  35,  37 
Timber,  143 

Timberlake,  Judge  E.  W.,  157 
Tinware  and  stoves,  81,  169 
Tiretown,  138 

Tise,  Jacob,  59,  63,  80,  185 
Tobacco,  35,  80,  83,  165,  169,  170,  171, 

172,  173,  188,  189,  190,  192,  193 
Tobacco  Association,  99 
Tobacco  Board  of  Trade,  221 
Tobacco  Brand  Directory,  171,  172 
Tobacco  factories,  72 
Tobacco  market,  114 
Tobaccoville,  136,  148,  160 
Tomlinson,  Julius  L.,  87,  109 
Tories,  38,  40,  128,  150,  151 
Town  Commissioners,  Winston,  63, 

80,  90 
Town  Committee,  Salem,  35 
Town  Fork  of  Dan  River,  7 
Town  Fork  Road,  132 
Townships,  7,  12 
Trading  area,  186,  187 
Trading  Path,  5 
Train,  the  first,  70,  71 
Transou,  Julius  A.,  149 
Transou  family,  125 
Transportation,  34,  210 
Triebel,  Christian,  36 
Tryon,  Governor  William,  123,  132 
Tuberculosis  Sanatorium,  217 
Tucker,  Ann,  133 
Tucker,  Thomas,  133 
Tucker  family,  135 
Turnips,  144 
Tuscarora  Indians,  5 
Tuttle,  Elizabeth,  161 
Tuttle  family,  130 
Twin  Castles  Apartments,  202 
Twin  City  Club,  220 
Tivin  City  Daily,  97 
Tivin  City  Daily  Sentinel,  97,  214 
Twin  City  Golf  Club,  220 
Twin  City  Hospital,  87,  88 
Twin  City  Hospital  Association,  87, 

88,  216 
Twin  City  Sentinel,  98,  104,  214,  215 
"Twin  City,"  The,  55,  97,  226 
Two-Story-House,  The,  32,  35,  36 

Underwear,  knit,  169,  176 
Union  Bus  Terminal,  52,  203,  212 
Union  Cross,  134,  135,  146,  147 
Union  Cross  Moravian  Church,  134 
Union  Railroad  Station,  113,  115 
Union  Republican,  70,  82,  89,  90,  96, 

98,  99,  100,  101 
Union  Ridge,  138 
Unique  Furniture  Makers,  178 
Unitas  Fratrum. 

See  Unity  of  Brethren; 

also  see  Moravian  Church 



United  States  Government,  45 
Unity  of  Brethren,  29,  30,  37 
University  of  North  Carolina,  24,  154 

Valley  View,  139 

Vance,  Horace  H.,  180 

Vance,  J.  Addison,  180 

Vance,  Governor  Zebulon  Baird,  53 

Vance  family,  132 

Vance,  J.  A.,  Co.,  180 

Vance  and  Ring  Co.,  178 

Van  Hoy  family,  133 

Vaughn,  E.  D.,  117 

Vaughn,  T.  L.,  83,  95,  183 

Vaughn,  T.  L.,  and  Co.,  171 

Vaughn  and  Pepper,  89 

Vaughn  and  Prather,  82 

Vest,  John  P.,  59,  62 

Vienna,  139 

Vierling,  Dr.  Samuel  Benjamin,  44,  45 

Virginia,  3,  4,  17,  40,  61,  66 

Vital  statistics,  102 

Vogler,  Alexander  Christopher,  59 

Vogler,  Elias  A.,  139 

Vogler,  Philip  Christoph,  127 

Vogler,  John,  59 

Vogler,  William  T.,  186 

Volk.  See  Fulk 

Volp.  See  Fulp 

Vorsteher  Haus,  44. 

See  also  Archive  House,  Salem 
Voyages,  46 

Wach.  See  Salem  Creek 
Wachau,  Der,  5 
Wachovia  Bank  Building,  203 
Wachovia  Bank  and  Trust  Co.,  59, 

114,  183,  184 
Wachovia  Historical  Museum,  224 
Wachovia  Historical  Society,  44,  53, 

Wachovia  Loan  and  Trust  Co.,  183 
Wachovia  National  Bank,  89,  183 
Wachovia  Tract,  5,  6,  7,  8,  10,  29,  30, 

Waddill,  John  D.,  135 
Wagner,  Hans,  121 
Wagner,  Sam,  132 
Wagner,  Wagoner,  Waggoner 

family,  133,  134 
Wagon  and  buggy  shops,  8i 
Wagoner,  Joseph,  59 
Wake  County,  194 
Wake  Forest  College,  137,  207,  208, 

Waldoboro,  Maine,  8 
Walgreen's  Drug  Store,  204 

Walk,  Martin,  125 
Walker,  R.,  59 
Walker,  Robert,  132 
Walker  Bros.,  171 
Walker  Creek,  132 
Walker  tobacco  factory,  92 
Walkertown,  6,  132 
Walkertown  Men's  Club,  222 
Wallburg,  148 
Walls,  Luther,  80 
Walnut  Cove  Road,  149 
Walser,  F.  T,  82 
Warehouse,  tobacco,  69,  83,  89 
War  of  1812,  3,  9,  17,  19,  46,  47 
Warren  County,  157 
Washington,  President  George,  43, 

44,  131,  224 
Waterworks,  31,  43,  88,  89,  no,  200, 

Watson,  Cyrus  B.,  64,  102 
Waugh,  Jesse  A.,  12,  59 
Waugh  family,  139 
Waughtown,  77,  79.  i39,  202 
Waughtown-Clemmons  Road,  138 
Weather  statistics,  102 
Weave  house,  42 
Weavil  family,  135 
Webb,  Miss  Emily,  67 
Webb,  Garland  E.,  82,  106,  117 
Weekly  Gleaner,  215 
Weekly  Press,  66 
Weisner  family,  126 
Wells,  Reverend  Isaac,  79 
West  Bend,  133,  134 
West  End  School,  86,  87,  93,  109,  115 
Western  Electric  Co.,  50,  181 
Western  Sentinel,  81,  88,  97,  214 
West  Highlands,  201,  202 
Westmoreland  family,  130 
Weston,  138 
Weston  Homes,  202 
Westover,  201 
West  Salem  Civic  Club,  222 
Westview,  201 

Wharton,  Dr.  Alexander,  148 
Wharton,  Catherine  E.,  74 
Wharton,  Captain  Rufus  W.,  53,  66 
Wheat,  144 
Wheeler,  Adelaide  Matilda  (Shober), 

Whicker  family,  133 

Whig  party,  65,  66 

Whipping  post,  10,  11,  63 

Whitaker,  W.  A.,  86,  95,  99,  100,  102, 

109,  171,  203 
White,  John  H.,  ii,  59 
White,  J.  L.,  64,  80 



Whitehead,  Zollicoffer,  97 
Whiteview,  201 
Whitman,  "Rabbit,"  139 
Whittington  family,  132 
Whitworth,  Edward,  17,  21 
Whitworth,  Elizabeth,  21 
Whitworth,  John,  2i 
Widows  House,  Salem,  52 
Wilburn,  Reverend  Andrew,  77 
Wiley,  Calvin  H.,  86,  87 
Wiley,  Mrs.  C.  H.  (Mittie  Towles), 

94,  95 
Wiley,  Mary  Galium,  229 
Wilkes  County  militia,  40 
William  and  Mary  Apartments,  202 
Williams,  Dr.  Alexander,  152 
Williams,  Fannie,  151 
Williams,  John,  151 
Williams,  Joseph,  150 
Williams,  Joseph,  II,  151 
Williams,  Lewis,  152 
Williams,  Nathaniel,  150 
Williams,  Nathaniel,  II,  150,  151 
Williams,  Nicholas  Lanier,  152 
Williams,  Rebecca,  151 
Williams,  Rebecca   (Lanier),  150,  151 
Williams,  Robert,  151 
Williams,  S.  Clay,  131 
Williams,  Thomas  Lanier,  152 
Williamson,  R.  L.,  173 
Williamson,  T.  P.,  and  Co.,  171 
Williamson  Tobacco  Co.,  171 
Williard  family,  127,  135 
Willis,  Meade  H.,  180 
Wilmington,  N.  C,  22,  47 
Wilson,  Edgar  Henry,  75 
Wilson,  Elizabeth,  74 
Wilson,  Josephine  Elizabeth,  75 
Wilson,  N.  C,  87 
Wilson,  N.  S.,  and  T.  J.,  172 
Wilson,  Peter,  50 
Wilson,  Peter  A.,  80,  82 
Wilson,  R.  J.,  89 
Wilson,  Thomas  J.,  11,  59,  67,  74,  75, 

80,  82,  102 
Winston,  10,  11,  31,  59-117 
Winston,  Joseph,  22,  23 
Winston,  Major  Joseph,  22,  61 
Winston  Electric  Light  and  Motive 

Power  Co.,  95,  96 
Winston  Leader,  The,  82,  97 
Winston  Leaf  Tobacco  and  Storage 

Co.,  174 
Winston-Salem,  55,  97,  103,  106,   116, 

123,  199-226 

Winston-Salem  Building  and  Loan 

Association,  185 
Winston-Salem  Foundation,  212,  219 
Winston-Salem  High  School,  204,  206 
Wtnston-Salcm  Journal,  98 
Winston-Salem  Journal  Co.,  214 
Winston-Salem  Railway  and 

Electric  Co.,  96 
Winston-Salem  Sentinel,  Inc.,  214 
Winston-Salem  Southbound  Railway, 

138,  211 
Winston-Salem  Street  Railway  Co.,  96 
Winston-Salem  Teachers  College, 

103,  104,  207 
Winston-Salem  Workshop,  224 
Winston  Water  Co.,  88 

Wolf  familv,  136 

Wolfe,  Gilmer,  184 

Wolves,  121,  145 

Woman's  Auxiliary,  Y.  M.  C.  A.,  105 

Woman's  Club,  222 

Woman's  College,  U.  N.  C,  223 

Woman's  Improvement  League,  115 

Woman's  Missionary  Society,  49 

Wood,  W.  W.,  and  Co.,  172 

Woodworking  industry,  178 

Wood  yard,  municipal,  199 

Wool,  145 

Wool  mill,  50,  51,  77 

World  War  I,  157,  199 

World  War  II,  199,  200 

Wright,  Alfred,  85 

Wright-Hughes  Tobacco  Co.,  174 

WSJS,  radio  station,  215,  216 

WTOB,  radio  station,  216 

Yadkin  County,  13,  134 
Yadkin  River,  4,   5,  7,  9,  12,  13,  124, 
131,  i33i  135,  145,  147,  148,  150,  154 
Yarborough,  Amos,  80 
Yauncey,  80 
Yontztown,  138 
Yorktown,  surrender  at,  41 
Young,  Captain  E.  F.,  98,  100,  loi 
Young  family,  133  _ 
Young   Men's    Christian    Association, 

104,  105,  217,  218 

Young  Women's  Christian  Associa- 
tion, 106,  112,  113,  203,  218 

Zevely,  Van  Nieman,  175 
Zimmerman  family,  126 
Zinzendorf,  Nicholas  Lewis,  Count, 

5,  29 
Zinzendorf  Hotel,  92,  212 














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